« הקודםהמשך »
“ Near this monastery stands the most famous royal palace « of England; in which is that celebrated chamber, on « whose walls all the warlike histories of the whole Bible
are painted with inexpressible skill, and explained by a “ regular and complete series of texts, beautifully written “ in French over each battle, to the no small admiration of " the beholder, and the increase of royal magnificence *: This ornament of a royal palace, while it conveys a curious history of the arts, admirably exemplifies the chivalry and the devotion of the times, united. That part of the Old Testament, indeed, which records the Jewish wars, was almost regarded as a book of chivalry: and their chief heroes, Joshua and David, the latter of whom killed a giant, are often recited among the champions of romance. In France, the battles of the kings of Israel with the Philistines and Assyrians, were wrought into a grand volume, under the title of “ Plusieurs Batailles des roys d'Israel en contre les
Philistines et Assyriens
* This palace was consumed by fire in of the Crusades, was communicated to all 1299, but immediately rebuilt, I suppose, parts of Europe from the Byzantine Greeks; by Edward the first. Stowe's LONDON, and with which all the churches, and other p. 379, 387. edit. 1599. So that these public edifices at Conftantinople, were adornpaintings must have been done between the ed. Epist. de COMPARAT. Vet. et Nov. years 1299, and 1322. It was again de Romæ. p. 122. Man. Chrysolor. See fupr. ftroyed by fire in 1512, and never af vol. i. p. 354. Leo Ostiensis says, that terwards re-edified. Stowe, ibid. p. 389. one of the abbots of Caslino in Italy, in About the year 1500, the walls of the Vir the eleventh century, sent messengers to gin Mary's chapel, built by prior Silkestede, Constantinople, to bring over artificers in in the cathedral of Winchester, were ele Mosaic, to ornament the church of the gantly painted with the miracles, and other monastery, after Rome or Italy had loft that itories, of the New Testament, in small art for five hundred years. He calls Rome figures ; many delicate traces of which now
magistra Larinitas. Chron. Caffin. lib. iii. remain.
c. 27. Compare Muratori, Antich. ITA: Falcandus, the old historian of Sicily, LIAN. Tom. i. Diff. xxiv. p. 279. Nap. who wrote about the year 1200, says, that
1752. 4to. the chapel in the royal palace at Palermo, MSS. Reg. (Brit. Mus.). 19 D. 7, fol. had its walls decorated * de la pillulis qua Among the Harleian manuscripts, there is “ dris, partim aureis, partim diverficolori. an Arabic book, containing the Psalms of “ bus veteris ac novi Testamenti depictam David, with an additional pfalm, on the « historiam continentibus.” Sicil. Histor. Slaughter of the giant Goliah. MSS. Harl. p. 10. edit. Paris., 1550. 4to. But this 5476. See above. was mosaic work, which, chiefly by means Vol. II. Ff
With regard to the form of Hawes's poem, I am of opinion, that VISIONS, which are so common in the poetry of the middle ages, partly took their rise from Tully's SomNIUM SCIPIONIS. Had this composition descended to posterity among Tully's six books de REPUBLICA, to the last of which it originally belonged, perhaps it would have been overlooked and neglected. But being preserved, and illustrated with a prolix commentary, by Macrobius, it quickly attracted the attention of readers, who were fond of the marvellous, and with whom Macrobius was a more admired claslic than Tully. It was printed, subjoined to Tully's Offices, in the infancy of the typographic art". It was translated into Greek by Maximus Planudes'; and is frequently quoted by Chaucer'. Particularly in the AssemBLY OF Foules, he supposes himself to fall asleep after reading the SOMNIUM SCIPIONIS, and that Scipio Thewed him the beautiful vision which is the subject of that poem ". Nor is it improbable, that, not only the form, but the first
But undoth us the AVISION
. But they were extant about the year 1000, for they are cited by Gerbert. Epift. 83. And by Peter of Poitou, who died in 1197. See Barth. Adverf. xxxii. 5. 58. Leland says, that Tully de REPUBLICA was consumed by fire, among other books, in the library of William Selling, a learned abbot of saint Aukin's at Canterbury, who died in 1494. SCRIPT. CELLINGUS.
" Venet. 1472. fol. Apud. Vindel. Spiram.
e Lambeccios mentions a Greek manuscript of Julian, a cardinal of S. Angelo, o ovengos rê Expwros. 5. p. 153. The DISPUTATIO of Favonius Elogius, a Carthaginian rhetorician, and a disciple of faint Austin, on the SOMNIUM SCIPION 15, was printed by G. Schottus, Antw. 1613. 4to.
I Rom. Rose. lib. i. v. 7. [&c.]
NONNES PR. TALE, v. 1238. Urr.
MACROBIUS that writith th'AVISION
In Affricke, of the worthy Scipion. Dreme CH. v. 284. He mentions this as the most wonderful of dreams. HOUSE F. v. 407. lib. i. He describes a prospect more extenfive and various than that which Scipio saw in his dream.
That sawe in dreme, at point devise,
Heven, and erth, hell, and paradise.
-Thou haft the fo wel borne
idea of Dante's INFERNO, was suggested by this favourite apologue; which, in Chaucer's words, treats
Of heaven, and hell,
Not to insist on Dante's subject, he uses the shade of Virgil for a mystagogue; as Tully supposes Scipio to have shewn the other world to his ancestor Africanus.
But Hawes's capital performance is a poem entitled, « The PASSETYME OF PLEASURE, or the HISTORIE OF “ GRAUNDE AMOURE and LA BAL Pucel: contayning the “ knowledge of the seven sciences, and the course of man's
lyfe in this worlde. Invented by Stephen Hawes, groome " of kyng Henry the seventh hys chambre'.” It is dedicated to the king, and was finished at the beginning of the year 1506.
If the poems of Rowlie are not genuine, the PASTIME OF PLEASURE is almost the only effort of imagination and invention which had yet appeared in our poetry since Chaucer. This poem contains no common touches of romantic and allegoric fiction. The personifications are often happily sustained, and indicate the writer's familiarity with the Provencial school. The model of his versification and phraseology is that improved harmony of numbers, and facility of diction, with which his predecessor Lydgate adorned our octave stanza. But Hawes has added new graces to Lydgate's manner. Antony Wood, with the zeal of a true antiquary, laments, that “ such is the fate of poetry, that this book, " which in the time of Henry the seventh and eighth was
h Ibid. v. 32.
Lover and a Jay, by one Thomas Feylde, i By Wynkyn de Worde, in 1517. 4to. printed by Wynkyn de Worde, in 4to. with wooden cuts. A second edition fol
Princ. Prol. Thoughe laureate poetes in lowed in 1554. By John Wayland, in 4to. “ old antiquite.” This obfcure rhymer is A third, in 4to. by John Waley, in 1555. here only mentioned, as he has an allusion See a poem called a Dialogue between a to his cotemporary Hawes. Ff 2
" taken into the hands of all ingenious men, is now " thought but worthy of a ballad-monger's stall!” The truth is, such is the good fortune of poetry, and such the improvement of taste, that much better books are become fashionable. It must indeed be acknowledged, that this poem has been unjustly neglected: and on that account, an apology will be less necessary for giving the reader a circumstantial analysis of its substance and design.
GRAUNDE AMOURE, the hero of the poem, and who fpeaks in his own person“, is represented walking in a delicious meadow. Here he discovers a path which conducts him to a glorious image, both whose hands are stretched out and pointing to two highways; one of which is the path of CONTEMPLATION, the other of Active Life, leading to the Tower of Beauty. He chuses the last-mentioned path, yet is often tempted to turn afide into a variety of bye-paths, which seemed more pleasant : but proceeding directly forward, he sees afar off another image, on whose breast is written, « This is the road to the Tower of DOCTRINE, he. “ that would arrive there must avoid sloth, &c.” The even
* There is something dramatic in this pain of disgrace, ordered that no person eircumstance. Raimond Vidal de Befau Thould interrupt the minstrel in what he din, a troubadour of Provence, who flou should say. The minftrel had travelled rished about the year 1200, has given the from his own country to recite an adventure following dramatic form to one of his contes which had happened to a baron of Arragon, or tales. One day, fays the troubadour, not unknown to king Alphonsus : and he Alphonsus, king of Castille, whofe court now proceeds to tell no unaffecting story was famous for good cheer, magnificence, concerning a jealous husband. At the close, loyalty, valour, the practice of arms and the minstrel humbly requests the king and the management of horses, held a solemn
queen, to banish all jealous husbands from assembly of minstrels and knights. When their dominions. The king replied, “ Minthe hall was quite full, came his queen STREL, your tale is pleasant and gentle, Eleanor, covered with a veil, and disguised “ and you shall be rewarded. But to shew in a close robe bordered with silver, a you still further how much you have dorned with the blason of a golden lion ; “ entertained me, I command that hencewho making obeysance, feated herself at “ forth your tale shall be called Le JALOUX some distance from the king. At this in 66 CHAtie.” Our troubadour's tale is ftant, a minstrel advancing to the king, greatly enlivened by these accompaniments, addrefled him thus.“ O king, emperour and by being thrown into the mouth of a " of valour, I come to supplicate you to minstrel. " give me audience.". The king, under
ing being far advanced, he sits down at the feet of the image, and falls into a profound sleep; when, towards the morning, he is suddenly awakened by the loud blast of a horn. He looks forward through a valley, and perceives a beautiful lady on a palfrey, swift as the wind, riding towards him, encircled with tongues of fire'. Her name was Fame, and with her ran two milk-white greyhounds, on whose golden collars were inscribed in diamond letters Grace and Governaunce". Her palfrey is Pegasus; and the burning tongues denote her office of consigning the names of
! In Shakespeare, Rumour is painted than one thousand and four hundred hawks, full of tongues. This was from the Pa with almost as many inen to take care of GEANTS.
them. lib. i. c. 10. m See supr. vol. i. p. 363. Greyhounds About the year 750, Winifrid, or Boniwere antiently almost as great favourites as face, a native of England, and archbishop hawks. Our forefathers reduced hunting of Mons, acquaints Ethelbald, a king of to a science ; and have left large treatises Kent, that he has sent him, one hawk, two on this species of diversion, which was so falcons, and two shields. And Hedilbert, connected with their state of life and manners. a king of the Mercians, requests the same The most curious one I know, is, or was archbishop Winifrid, to send him two fallately, among the manuscripts of Mr. Far cons which have been trained to kill cranes. mor, of Tusmore in Oxfordshire. It is en See EPISTOL. Winifrid. (Bonifac.] Motitled, “LE ART DE VENERIE,
gunt. 1605. 1629. And in Bibl. Patr. " maistre Guillame Twici venour le roy tom, vi. and tom. xiii. p. 70. Falconry, “ d'Angleterre fist en son temps per apran or a right to sport with falcons, is men“ dre autres." This master William Twici tioned so early as the year 986. Chart. was grand huntsman to Edward the second. Ottonis iü. Imperator. ann. 986. apud In the Cotton library, this book occurs in Ughell. de Episcop. Januenf.' A charter English under the names of William Twety of Kenulf, king of the Mercians, granted and John Giffard, most probably a tran to the abbey of Abingdon, and dated 821, flation from the French copy, with the title prohibits all persons carrying hawks or of a book of l'enerie dialogue wise. Princ. falcons, to trespass on the lands of the “ Twety now will we beginnen." MSS. monks. Dugd. Monaft. i. p. 100. Julius Cotton. VESPAS. B. xii. The less antient Firmicus, who wrote about the year 355, tract on this subject, called the Maistre of is the first Latin author who mentions the Game, written for the instruction of hawking, or has even used the word. prince Henry, afterwards Henry the fifth, Falco. Mathef. lib. v. c.7. vii. C. 4. is much more common. MSS. Digb. 182. Hawking is often mentioned in the capiBibl. Bodl. I believe the maistre veneur tularies of the eighth and ninth centuries. has been long abolished in England: but The grand fauconnier of France was an ofthe royal falconer still remains. The latter ficer of great eminence. His salary was. was an officer of high dignity in the Gre. four thousand forins ; he was attended by cian court of Conftantinople, at an early a retinue of fifty gentlemen and fifty affis. period, under the style of #galonigaragio tant falconers, and allowed to keep three Pachym. lib. i. c. 8. X. 15. Codin. cap. ii. hundred hawks. He licensed every vender Phrenzes says, that the emperor Andro of falcons in France ; and received a trinicus Palæologus the younger kept more bute for every bird that was sold in that