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French, to polish and reform their old rude translations made two hundred years before; and to reduce many of their metrical versions into prose. At the same time, the rage of translating ecclesiastical tracts began to decrease. The latter circumstance was partly owing to the introduction of better books, and partly to the invention of printing. Instead of procuring laborious and expensive translations of the antient fathers, the printers, who multiplied greatly towards the close of this century, found their advantage in publishing new translations of more agreeable books, or in giving antient versions in a modern dress ". Yet in this century some of the more recent doctors of the church were translated. Not to mention the epistles of _saint jet'om, which Antoine Dufour, a Dominican frier, presented in French to Anne de Bretagne, consort to king Charles' the eighth, we find saint Anselm's CUR DEUS HOMO ', The LAMENTATIONS or SAINT BERNARD, The SUM OF THEOLOGY of Albertus Magnus, The PRICK or DIVINE Love " of saint
'Bonaventure a seraphic doctor V, with other pieces of the
kind, exhibited in the French language before the year 1480, at the petition and under the patronage of many devout duchesses. Yet in the mean time, the lives of saints and sacred history gave way to a species of narrative more entertaining and not less fabulous. Little more than josephus, and a few MARTYRDOMS, were now translated from the Latin into French.
The truth is, the French translators of this century were chiefly employed on profane authors. At its commencement, a French abridgement of the three first decads of Livy was produced by Henri Romain a canon of Tournay. In the year 1416, jean de Courci, a knight of Normandy, gave a translation of some Latin chronicle, a HISTORY or THE GREEKS AND ROMANS, entitled BOUQUASSLERE. In 1403, Jean de Courteauisse, a doctor in theology at Paris, translated Seneca on the FOUR CARDINAL VIRTUES '. Under the reign of king Charles the seventh, jean Cossa translated the CHRONOLOGY of Mattheus Palmerius a learned Florentine, and a writer of Italian poetry in imitation of Dante. In the dedication to Jane the third, queen of Jerusalem, and among other titles countess of Provence, the translator apologises for supposing her highness to be ignorant of Latin z when at the same time he is fully convinced, that a lady endowed with so much natural grace, must be perfectly acquainted with that language. " Mais pour ce que le vulgar Francoys est plus " commun, ai pris peine y translater ladite oeuvre Two other translations were offered to Charles the seventh in the year 1445. One, of the FIRST PUNIC war of Leonard of 'Arezzo, an anonymous writer, who does not chuse to publish his name a caust de sa petitss; and the STRATAGEMS of
FrontinUs, often cited by John of Salisbury, and mentioned in the Epistles of Peter of Blois', by Jean de Rouroy, .a Parisian theologist. Under Louis the eleventh, Sebastian Mamerot of Soissons, in the year 1466, attempted a new translation of the ROMULEON : and he professes, that he undertook it solely with a view of improving or decorating the French language ".
Many French verfions of classics appeared in this century.
-A translation of Wintus Curtius is dedicated to Charles
duke of Burgundy, in 1468 e. Six years afterwards, the same liberal patron commanded Cesar's COMMENTARIES to be translated by Jean du Chesned. Terence was made French by Guillaume Rippe, the king's secretary, in the year 1466. The following year a new translation of Ovid's METAMORPiHOSES was executed by an ecclesiastic of Normandy'. But much earlier in the century, Laurence Premierfait, mentioned above, translated, I suppose from the Latin, the OECONOMICS of Aristotle, and Tully's DE AMICITIA and DE SENECTUTE, before the year 1426'. He is said also to have translated some pieces, perhaps the EPISTLES, of Seneca'.
Encouraged by this example, Jean de Luxembourgh, Lau2 rence's cotemporary, translated Tully's Oration against Verres. I must not forget, that Hippocrates and Galen were translated from Latin into French in the year 1429. The translator was Jean Tourtier, surgeon to the duke of Bed
ford, then regent of France; and he humbly supplicates _
Rauoul Palvin, confessor and physician to the duchess, and John Major, first physician to the duke, and graduate en l'estude d'Auxorzfordh, and master Roullan, physician and astronomer of the university of Paris, amicably to amend the faults of this translation, which is intended to place the science and practice of medicine on a new foundation. I presume it was from a Latin version that the ILIAD, about this period, was translated into French metre.
Among other pieces that might be enumerated in' this century, in the year 1412, Guillaume de Tignonville, provost of Paris, translated the DlCTA PHILOSOPHORUM ' : as did Jean Gallopes dean of the collegiate church of saint Louis, of Salsoye, in Normandy, the ITER VlTE HUMANIE of Guillaume prior of Chalis '*. This version, entitled LE PeLERINAGE DE LA VIE HUMAINE, is dedicated to jean queen of Sicily, above mentioned ; a duchess of Anjou and a countess of Provence: who, without any sort of difficulty, could make a transition from the Life of sir Lancelot to that of saint Austin, and who sometimes quitted the tribunal of the COURT OF Love to confer with learned ecclesiastics, in an age when gallantry and religion were of equal importance. He also translated, from the same author, a composition of the same ideal and contemplative cast, called L1-: PELERIN DE L'AME, highly esteemed by those visionaries who preferred
religious allegory to romance, which was dedicated to the duke of Bedford 1. In Bennet college library at Cambridge, there is an elegant illuminated manuscript of Bonaventure's LIFE OF CHRIST, translated by Gallopes 3 containing a curious picture of the translator presenting his version to our Henry the fifth '. About the same time, but before 1427, Jean de Guerre translated aLatin compilation of all that was marvellous in Pliny, Solinus, and the OTIA IMPERIALIA, a book abounding in wonders, of our countryman Gervais of Tilbury ". The French romance, entitled L' ASSAILLANT, was now translated from the Latin chronicles of the kings of Cologne: and the Latin tract DE BONIS MORIBUS of Jacobus Magnus, confessor to Charles the seventh, about the year 1422, was made French o. Rather earlier, Jean de Premierfait translated BOCCACIO DE CASIBUS VIRORUM ILLUSTRIUM ". Nor shall I be thought to deviatetoo far from my detail, which is confined to Latin originals, when I mention here a book, the translation of which into French conduced in an eminent degree to circulate materials for poetry: this is Boccacio's DECAMERON, which Premierfait also translated, at the command of queen Jane of Navarre, who seems to have made no kind of conditions about suppresiing the licentious stories, in the year 1414".
I am not exactly informed, when the ENEID of Virgil was translated into a sort of metrical romance or history of Eneas,