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French, to polish and reform their old rude translations made two hundred years before ; and to reduce many of their metrical versions into prose. At the same time, the rage of translating ecclefiaftical tracts began to decrease. The latter circumstance was partly owing to the introduction of better books, and partly to the invention of printing. Instead of procuring laborious and expensive tranflations of the antient fathers, the printers, who multiplied greatly towards the close of this century, found their advantage in publifhing new tranflations of more agreeable books, or in giving antient versions in a modern dress ". Yet in this century some of the more recent doctors of the church were translated. Not to mention the epistles of saint Jerom, which Antoine Dufour, a Dominican frier, presented in French to Anne de Bretagne, confort to king Charles the eighth, we find saint Anfelm's Cur Deus HOMO", The LAMENTATIONS OF SAINT BERNARD, The Sum of THEOLOGY of Albertus Magnus, The Prick of Divine Love of faint Bonaventure a seraphic doctor', with other pieces of the

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I take this opportunity of obferving, that one of these was the romance of fir LANCELOT DU LAC, translated from the Latin by Robert de Borron, at the command of our Henry the second or third. See supr. vol. i. p. 114. This new LANCELOT, I believe, is the fame which was printed at Paris by Antony Verard, 1494. In three vaft folio volumes. Another, is the romance of GYRON LE COURTOIS, translated also from Latin, at the command of the same monarch, by Lucas, or Luce, chevalier du Chateau du Gaft, or Gat, or Gal, and printed by Verard as above. See Lenglet, Bibl. Rom. ii. P: 117: The old GUIRON LE Courtois is faid to be tranflated by “ Luce chevalier feigneur da “ chasteau du Gal, [perhaps Sal. an abre“viation for Salisbury,] voisin prochain " du fire du Sablieres, par le commende

ment de tres noble et tres puissant prince “ M. le roy Henry jadis roy d'Angle“ terre.” Bibl. Reg. Parif. Cod. 7586. See fupr. vol. i. p. 115. Notes.

w Written in 1098.

Supr. vol. i. p. 77. y He Aourished in Italy, about the year 1270. The enormous magnificence of his funeral deferves notice, more than any anecdote of his life ; as it paints the · high devotion of the times, and the attention formerly paid to theological literature.. There were present pope Gregory the tenth, the emperour of Greece by several Greek noblemen his proxies, Baldwin the second the Latin eastern emperour, James king of Arragon, the patriarchs of Conftantinople and Antioch, all the cardinals, five hundred bifhops and archbishops, fixty abbots, more than a thousand prelates and priests of lower rank, the ambassadors of many kings and potentates, the deputies of the Tartars and other nations, and an innumerable concourse of people of all orders and degrees. The fepulchral ceremonies were celebrated with the most consummate pomp, and the funeral oration was pro

nounced

kind, exhibited in the French language before the year 1480, at the petition and under the patronage

of

many devout ducheffes. ,

Yet in the mean time, the lives of saints and sacred history gave way to a species of narrative more entertaining and not less fabulous. Little more than Josephus, and a few MARTYRDOMS, were now translated from the Latin into French.

The truth is, the French translators of this century were chiefly employed on profane authors. At its commencement, a French abridgement of the three first decads of Livy was produced by Henri Romain a canon of Tournay. In the year 1416, Jean de Courci, a knight of Normandy, gave a translation of fome Latin chronicle, a HISTORY OF THE GREEKS AND ROMANS, entitled BOUQUASSIERE. In 1403, Jean de Courteauisse, a doctor in theology at Paris, translated Seneca on the Four CARDINAL VIRTues?. Under the reign of king Charles the seventh, Jean Cossa translated the CHRONOLOGY of Mattheus Palmerius a learned Florentine, and a writer of Italian poetry in imitation of Dante. In the dedication to Jane the third, queen of Jerusalem, and among other titles countess of Provence, the translator apologises for fupposing her highness to be ignorant of Latin ; when at the same time he is fully convinced, that a lady endowed with so much natural grace, must be perfectly acquainted with that language. « Mais

pour ce que le vulgar Françoys est plus commun, j'ai pris peine y translater ladite oeuvre.” Two other translations were offered to Charles the seventh in the year 1445. One, of the FIRST PUNIC war of Leonard of Arezzo, an anonymous writer, who does not chuse to publish his name a cause de sa petitesse ; and the STRATAGEMS of

nounced by a future pope. Miræi Auctar. Script. Ecclef. pag. 22. edit. Fabric. [See supr. vol. i. p. 77-)

It is supposititious. It was forged, about the year 560, by Martianus an archbishop

of Portugal, whom Gregory of Tours calls the most eminent writer of his time. Hift. Franc. v, 38. It was a great favourite of the theological ages.

Frontinus,

Frontinus, often cited by John of Salisbury, and mentioned in the Epistles of Peter of Blois , by Jean de Rouroy, .a Parisian theologist. Under Louis the eleventh, Sebastian Mamerot of Soissons, in the year 1466, attempted a new translation of the ROMULEON : and he professes, that he undertook it solely with a view of improving or decorating the French language".

Many French versions of classics appeared in this century. A translation of Quintus Curtius is dedicated to Charles duke of Burgundy, in 1468. Six years afterwards, the same liberal patron commanded Cesar's COMMENTARIES to be translated by Jean du Chesne“. Terence was made French by Guillaume Rippe, the king's secretary, in the year 1466. . The following year a new translation of Ovid's METAMORPHOSES was executed by an ecclesiastic of Normandy. But much earlier in the century, Laurence Premierfait, mentioned above, translated, I suppose from the Latin, the OECONOMICS of Aristotle, and Tully's de AMICITIA and de SENECTUTE, before the year 1426'. He is said also to have translated some pieces, perhaps the EPISTLES, of Seneca'.

• Epift. 9+.

I am not sure whether this is not much the same as Le Grande HISTOIRE CESAR, &c. Taken from Lucan, Suetonius, Orofius, &c. Written at Bruges at the command of our Edward the fourth, in 1479. That is, ordered to be written by him. A manuscript with piąures. MSS. Reg. 17 F. ii. 1. Brit. Muf. But see ibid. ROMELEON, ou des Faits des Romains, in ten books. With pictures. MSS. Reg. 19 E. v. See also 20 C. i.

c Brit. Muf. MSS. Reg. 17 F. i. With beautiful pictures.

"Brit. Muf. MSS. Reg. 16 G. viii. With pictures. Another appeared by Robert Gaguen in 1485.

Perhaps this might be Caxton's copy. See above, p. 115.

f The two latter versions were translated into English by William Botoner, and John

Tiptoft earl of Worcester, and printed by Caxton, 1481. Botoner presented his manufcript copy to William of Waynflete bishop of Winchester in 1473. See supr. p. 62. Caxton's English Cato, printed 1483, was from the French. As were his Fables OF Æsop, printed 1483.

& Crucimanius mentions a version of Se. neca by Premierfait, as printed at Paris, in 1500. Bibl. Gall. p. 287. A translation. of Seneca's De QUATUOR VIRTUTIBUS CARDINALIBUS, but supposititious,is given to Premierfait, Brit. Mus. MSS. Reg. 20 A. xii. Sanders recites the Epistles of Seneca, translated into French by some anonymous writer, at the command of Meffire Barthelemi Siginulfe a nobleman of Naples. Bibl. Cathedr. Tornacenf. p. 209. Pieces of Seneca have been frequently tranflated into French, and very early.

Encouraged

Encouraged by this example, Jean de Luxembourgh, Laurence's cotemporary, translated Tully's Oration against Verres. I must not forget, that Hippocrates and Galen were translated from Latin into French in the year 1429. The translator was Jean Tourtier, surgeon to the duke of Bedford, then regent of France; and he humbly supplicates Rauoul Palvin, confessor and physician to the duchess, and John Major, first physician to the duke, and graduate en l'estude d'Auxonford", and master Roullan, physician and aftronomer of the university of Paris, amicably to amend the faults of this translation, which is intended to place the science and practice of medicine on a new foundation. I presume it was from a Latin version that the ILIAD, about this period, was translated into French metre.

Among other pieces that might be enumerated in this century, in the year 1412, Guillaume de Tignonville, provost of Paris, translated the Dicta PHILOSOPHORUM': as did Jean Gallopes dean of the collegiate church of faint Louis, of Salsoye, in Normandy, the ITER VITÆ HUMANÆ of Guillaume prior of Chalisk. This version, entitled Le PeLERINAGE DE LA VIE HUMAINE, is dedicated to Jean queen of Sicily, above mentioned ; a duchess of Anjou and a countess of Provence: who, without any sort of difficulty, could make a transition from the Life of fir Lancelot to that of faint Austin, and who sometimes quitted the tribunal of the Court of Love to confer with learned ecclesiastics, in an age when gallantry and religion were of equal importance. He also translated, from the same author, a composition of the same ideal and contemplative cast, called LE PELERIN DE L’AME, highly esteemed by those visionaries who preferred

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religious allegory to romance, which was dedicated to the duke of Bedford'. In Bennet college library at Cambridge, there is an elegant illuminated manuscript of Bonaventure's LIFE OF CHRIST, translated by Gallopes; containing a curious picture of the translator presenting his version to our Henry the fifth". About the same time, but before 1427, Jean de Guerre translated a Latin compilation of all that was marvellous in Pliny, Solinus, and the Oria IMPERIALIA, a book abounding in wonders, of our countryman Gervais of Tilbury". The French romance, entitled L'ASSAILLANT, was now translated from the Latin chronicles of the kings of Cologne : and the Latin tract de Bonis Moribus of Jacobus Magnus, confessor to Charles the seventh, about the year 1422, was made French°Rather earlier, Jean de Premierfait translated BoccACIO DE CASIBUS VIRORUM ILLUSTRIUM'. Nor shall I be thought to deviate too far from my detail, which is confined to Latin originals, when I mention here a book, the translation of which into French conduced in an eminent degree to circulate materials for poetry: this is Boccacio’s DECAMERON, which Premierfait also tranNated, at the command of queen Jane of Navarre, who seems to have made no kind of conditions about suppressing the lie centious stories, in the year 1414?.

I am not exactly informed, when the Eneid of Virgil was translated into a sort of metrical romance or history of Eneas,

"I am not certain, whether this is Cax • See fupr. p. 61. There is a version ton's PILGRIMAGE OF The SowLE, an of Boccacio's DE CLARIS MULIER Í BUS, English translation from the French, print perhaps by Premierfait, Brit. Muf. MSS. ed in 1483. fol. Ames says, that Antonine Reg. 20 C. v. Gerard is the author of the French, which This version was Englished, and printwas printed at Paris, 1480. Hift. Print. ed, by Caxton, 1487. p. 34.

9 See Brit. Muf. MSS. Reg. 19 E. i. n See ARCHÆOL. vol. ii. p. 194. And

Where it is said that the Decameron was Brit. Mus. MSS. Reg. 16 G. iii. 20 B. iv. first translated into Latin. It is not very Englished about 1410, and printed by Cax literal. It was printed at Paris 1485. fol. ton very early. The English translator, I Again, ibid. 1534. 8vo. It was agaia. believe, is John Morton, an Augustine translated by Antoine le Macon, fol. Paris frier.

1543. And often afierwards.
He flourished about the year 1218.
Vol. II.
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under

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