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Pour'l' amour de vous, trEs chers freres,
And in the preface he says, " Or sgai-je que plusieurs de vous " n' entendent pas bien LATrN auquel il fut chose necessaire " de la rieule [regle] entendre." Benoit's successour in the priorate of saint Genevieve was not equally attentive to the discipline and piety of his monks. Instead of tranflating monkish Latin, and enforcing the salutary regulations of saint Austin, he wrote a system of rules for BALLAD-WRITING, L'ART DE DICTIER BALLADE ET RONDELS, Ihefirst Art of poetry that ever appeared in France,
Among the moral books now translated, -I must not omit the SPrRrTUEssLLE AMITIE of John of Meun, from the Latin of Aldred an English monk 7. In the same style of mystic piety was the treatise of CONSOLATION, written in Latin, by Vincent de Beauvais, and sent to saint Louis, translated in the year r 374. In the year 1340, Henri de Suson, a German-dominican and a mystic doctor, wrote a most comprehensive treatise called HOROLOGIUM SAPIENTIE. This was translated into French by a monk of saint Frangois Z. Even the officers of the court of Charles the fifth were seized with the ardour of translating religious pieces, no less than the ecclesiastics, The most elegant tract of moral Latinity translated into French, was the celebrated book of our countryman John of Salisbury, DE NUGIS CURJALIUM. This version was made by Denis Soulechart, a learned Cordelier, about the year 1360. Notwithstanding the EPISTLES of Abelard and Eloisa, not only from the celebrity of Abelard as a Parisian theologist, but on account of the interesting history of that unfortunate pair, must have been as commonly known, and as likely to be read in the original, as any Latin book in France, they were translated Iinto French in this century, by john of Meun ; who prostituted his abilities when he relinquished his own noble inventions, to interpret. the pedantries of monks, schoolmen, and proscribed clasiics. I think he also translated Vegetius, who will occur again '. In the library of saint Genevieve, there is, in a sort of system of religion, a piece called JERARCHIE, translated from Latin into French at the command of our queen Elinor in the year 1297, by a French friar ". I must not however' forget, that amidst this profusion of treatises of religion and instruction, civil history found a place. That immense chaos of events real and fictitious, the HISTORIOAL meovn of Vincent de Beauvais, was translated by Jehan de Vignay above mentioned*. One is not surprised that the translator of the GOLDEN LEGEND should make no better choice. of Charles the fifth, by Philip de-Vitri, bishop. of Meaux, Petrarch's friend, who was living in 1361 '. A-bishop would not hare undertaken this work, had he not perceived much moral doctrine couched under the pagan stories. jean le Fevre, by command of Charles the fifth, translated the poem DE VETULA, falsly ascribed to Ovid k. Cicero's RHETORICA appeared in French by master John de Antioche, at the request of a one friar .Willi_am, in the year 1383. About the same time, sOme of Aristotler pieces, were translated from Latinz' hisPROBLEMS by_Eyrard de Conti, physician to Bharles the_fifth.:- and "his, Ermcszand RoLtTrcs by Nicholas d'Oresme, while canon 'of ,Rouen.,- This was, the most learned man in France,'_.and tutor to Charles the'fifth 3 who, in consequence of his instructions, obtained a competent skill in Latin, and in vthe rules of, the grammarl. Other Greek classics, which now began to be known by'being translated A into Latin, became still more familiarised, especially to general readers, by being turned into French. Thus Poggius Florentinus's recent Latin version of Xenophon's CYROPEDIA was translated into French' by Vasque de Lucerie, 1370 m. The TACTICS of Vegetius, an. author who frequently confounds the military practices of his 'own age with those of antiquity, appeared under the title of LIVRES DES FAIS D'ARMEs ET DE CHEVALLERIE, by Christina of Pisa", Pe
7 lt is mentioned in the catalogue of his with the English monk. _ "tradaflmu, at the beginning of his Cnn/L- - 1 Englished, and printed by Caxton, lation pas/ascfflbigm. am not acquainted very early. ' book
The desolation produced in France d by the victorious armies of the English, was instantly succeeded by a flourishing state of letters. King John, having indulged his devotion, and satisfied his conscience, by procuring numerous versions of books written on sacred subjects, at length turned his attention to the claffics. His ignorance of Latin was a fortunate circumstance, as it produced a curiosity to know. the treasures of Latin literature. He employed Peter Bercheur, prior of saint Eloi at Paris, an eminent theologist, to translate Livy into French', notwithstanding that author
had been anathematised by pope Gregory. But so judicious a choice was undoubtedly dictated by Petrarch, .who regarded Livy with a degree of enthusiasm, who was now resident at the court of France, and who perhaps condescended to direct and superintend the tranflation. The translator in his Latin work called REPERTORIUM, a sort of general dictionary, in which all things are proved to be allegorical, and reduced to a moral meaning, under the word ROMA, records this great attempt in the following manner. " TITUM LivrvM, ad " requisitionem domini Johannis inclyti Francorum regis, " non sine labore et fizdoribus, in linguam Gallicamtranstuli '." To this translation we must join those of Sallust,vLucan, and Cesar: all which seem to have been finished before the year 1365. This revival of a taste for Roman history, most probably introduced and propagated by Petrarch during his short stay in the French court, immediately produced a Latin historical compilation called ROMULEON, by an anonymous gentleman of France; Who soon found it necessary to- tranflate his work into the vernacular language. Valerius Maximus could not remain long untranslated. A version of that favourite author, begun by Simon de Hesdin, a monk, in I 364., was finished by Nicolas de Gonesse, a master in the010ng 1401 3. siUnder thelast-mentioned reign, Ovid's Metamorphoses MORALlSEDhWeI'C translated by Guillaume de Nangis: and the same poem was translated into French verse, at the request of Jane de Bourbonne, afterwards the consort
4 There was a French Ovid in duke Humphrey's library at Oxford. See supr. And Brit. Mus. MSS. Reg. 17 E. iv. 1. This version, asI apprehend, is the fame that Caxton translated into English prose, and printed, 1480. A manuscript is in Bibl. Pepys. Magd. Coll. Cant. .Cat. MSS. Angl. &e. torn. ii. N. 6791.
k Polycarpus Leyserus supposes this piece to be the forgery of one Leo Protonotarius, an officer in the court at Constantinople, who writes the preface. Hist. Poes. Med. Ev. p. 2089. He proves the work supposititious, from its several Arabicisms and scriptural expressions, &e. Brawardine
cites many lines from it, Advers. Pelag. p. 33. As does Bacon, in his astrological tracts. It is condemned by Bede as heretical. In Boeth. de Trinit. Selden intended a DISSERTATXON on this forgery, De Synedr. iii. 16. It is in hexameters, in three books.
1Christin.Vnz CHARLES V.
1" Brit. Mus. MSS. Reg. 17 E. v. r. And 16 G. ix. With pictures.
n MSS. Rag. 19 B. xviii. &e. Vegetius was early translated into all the modern languages. There is an English one, pro
bably by john T revisa, as it is addressed
to his patron lord Berkeley, A. D. 1408. MSS.
tratch m; Rauenns UTRIUSQJE Fonrunaz, a set of Latin dialogues, was translated, not only by Nicholas d'Oresme, but by two of the officers of the royal houshold", in compliment to Petrarch at his leaving FranceP. Many philosophical pieces, particularly in astrology, of which Charles the fifth was remarkably fond, were translated before the end of the fourteenth century. Among these, I must not pass over the WADRIPARTITUM of Ptolemy, by 'Nicholas d'Oresme; the AGRICULTURE', or LIBRI RURALIUM COMMoDORUM, of Peter de Crescentiis, a physician of Bononia, about the year 128 5, by a nameless friar preacher '5 and the book DE PROPRIETATIBUS-RERUM of Bartholomew Anglicus, the Pliny of the monks, by John Corbichon, an Augustine monk '. I have seen a French manuscript of Guido de Co-_lonna's Trojan romance, the hand-writing of which belonge
to this century '.
In the fifteenth century it became fashionable among the
MSS. Digb. 23 3. Prive. " In olde tyme " it was the manere." There is a translation of Vegetius, written at Rhodes, " die 25 Octobris, '459, per þhannem " Newton." ad calc. Bibl. Bodl. K. 53. Laud. MSS. Christina's version was translated, and printed, by Caxton, 1489. See supr. p. 67.
o See Niceron, tom. 28. p. 384.
P Mons. l'Ab. Lebeus says Seneca instead os Petrarch. Mem. Litt. xvii. p. 752.
I must not forget to observe, that several whole books in Brunetto's Tuso'. consist of translations from Arifiotle, Tully, and Pliny, into French. Brunetto was a Florentina and the master of Dante. He died in 1295. The Taeson was a sort of Encyclopede, exhibiting a course of practical and theoretic philosophy, of di.vinity, cosmography, geography, history sacred and profane, physics, ethics, rhetoric, and politics. It was written in French by Brunetto during his residence in France : but he afterwards translated it into Italian, and it has been translated by others into Latin. It was the mode] and soun
dation os Bartholomew of the Pao'r an a'
'or Turn-os, of Bercheur's REPIZRTO
RIUM, and of many other works of the same species, which soon followed. See Brit. Mus. MSS. Reg. I7E.i. Itwill occur again.
'I DESPROUFFITZ CHAMPESTRBS 21' n'unAvx. Brit. Mns. MSS. Reg. 14E.
s In twelve books. See Jacob. Weds. tom. i. p. 666.
5 Leland says, that this translation is elegant ; and that he saw it in duke Humfi'ey's library at Oxford. Script. Brit. cap. ccclxviii. See Brit. Mus. MSS. Reg. 17 E. &Vith pictures. Ibid. 15 E. Where the translation is assigned to the year 1362. The writing of the manuscript, to '48 2. With pictures.
t Brit. Mus. MSS. Reg. 16 F. ix. A new translation seems to have been made by Rauol le Feure, in '464. Englished by Caxton, and printed, 1471. Caxton's GODEFROY or BOLoomz, translated from the French, and printed 148', hada Latin original. The French, a fine copy, is in Brit. Mus. 17 F. v. MSS. Reg. Sazpius
ibid. [See supr. p. 99.] French,