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recommend us to read “thirty" instead of three hundred. A priest used to clamber up one of these enormous Phalli twice a year, and prayed there for the people during seven days. The wooden image of a man was placed in or on * the Phalli erected to Bacchus (Lucian. de Syr. D. ch. 28). This reminds me of Roman Catholic Crosses, though the posture of the man was probably different. Be it however observed, that I do not wish to give an obscene origin to the objects of Christian worship. It is true the Heathens accused the Christians of shocking impurities, which some of the Catholics (at least Eusebius) granted might be true of the Hereticks, (vid. Lard. vol. 1. p. 452. Gibb. vol. 2, p. 397) and of which Tertullian may perhaps seem to accuse the Catholics, when himself a Heretick (de Jejun. adv. Psych. ch. 17. p.423). This same Tertullian also observes, that the “simulachrum membri virilis" was found in the sanctuaries of the Valentinians, (adv. Valentin. ch. 1. where the commentator Junius reads “ Viralis," and would explain it of the pudendum of a woman). But still I think that the immediate origin of the Christian Cross, is the astronomical one which I have given above, and which alone seems capable of explaining the strange expressions of the fathers, such as that of Firmicus (de E. P. R. p. 54) “the wood of the cross sustains the machine of heaven, strengthens the foundations of earth, (and) draws up to life the men who are fastened to it.” The last part of this phrase immediately reminds one of the Zodiac (or “the wheel of the signs" as the Hebrews called it) by which the soul is restored to heaven. (Vid. Clem. Alex. Strom. 5. p. 711. edit. Potter., et Beausobr. Manich. Tom. 2. p. 500, &c. where that most learned and candid author fully enters upon the subject of the generation produced by the Zodiac, &c.) My letter has gradually assumed almost the form of an essay; however, luckily for your patience, I have nothing more to say, and indeed you may perhaps observe, I have now only been amplifying one or two short phrases of my Theological Dialogues. (See particularly Republ. Vol. 10. No. 5. p. 138.) I am not surprised that the Triple Tau should enter into the ceremonies of the Free Masons, because I think Thomas Paine was right in maintaining, that Freemasonry was a relick of. Druidism. I am indeed ignorant whether the Druids in any way venerated the Phallus, though probably many of their ideas were oriental, as their respect for the Branch of Misietoe, which seems to be founded on the same idea as the Branch mentioned by Zechariah, &c. Cæsar (de B. Gallic. B. 6. ch. 4.) says, that Druidism passed from Britain into Gaul. I should conjecture that the Phænicians took it into Britain, having themselves received it from the Egyptians or Indians. But, after all, Freema
* The original is obscure EN TOICI QAAAOICI , . . KATI. ZOYCI.
sonry may as well have proceeded from the Eleusinian mysteries, in which it is probable that the Phallus, and perhaps also the Ktëis, was venerated (vid. Dup. (Traité des Mystères.) Vol. 4. p. 403. et note. 8vo. Edt.) At all events the great object of Masonic veneration is the Sun, whom Plato considered as the visible Demiourgos (workman or perhaps Architect) of the universe (vid. Procl. in Plat. Tim. qu. by Dup. Tom. 3. P. 1. p. 115.) Now it is evident that the warmth of the Sun is the priociple of animal life, at any rate as regards insects, and such inferior animals. Hence the idea of invigoration might have been gradually extended, and the emblem of the active principle in larger animals might justly be attributed to the Sun. The Egyptians had special reason to attend to this property of the Sun, because the heat produces a multitude of small animals, in the mud left by their river, in which Pomponius Mela says (de situorbis B,1.ch.9.p.12) that halfformed animals are to be seen. Hence the Egyptians represent- , ed their Pan, Osiris, and Horus, with extended penes (vid. Jabl. Panth. Æg. Vol. !.p.287). Hence also the obscene representations of the Solar God IAN made by Egyptian Demi Christians (vid. Beausobr, Manich. Tom. 2. p. 59.) because, to use the expression of Eusebius and Macrobius, the Sun is said to inseminate Nature. And perhaps, indeed, the Mercurius ENTETAMENOC so often observed on medals, &c. (vid. Cuper, Harpocrat. p. 89,) may, I think, be only the Winged Horus, mentioned by Suidas (Jabl. p. 209); for I can by no means agree with Macrobius (Saturn. B. 1. ch. 19.) that Mercury is the same as the Sun, although Mercury (vid. Justin, M. Apol. 2. p. 67.) was the internunciary Logos of God, as the Sun (vid. Macrob. S. Scip. B. 1. ch. 17) was the Mind of Universe. You see I have quite strayed from the subject, and, as I am at the end of the second sheet, I must now wish you farewell,
Sat. 3d. Sept. 1825.
R. C. to W. W. R.
The contents of the returned eight pages are, in my judgment, much too good to be lost; therefore, with your permission I will print them.
The manner in which you hit the christian cross is admirable; and the idea of the Christian Ladies wearing an emblem of their favourite animal member, pendant to their necks, or cerrebella (nearly) is superlatively sublime !
Mackey has sent me a paper upon the Taus, which I sent off to London to be printed, the day before I received yours. He is
far wide of your definition, making it an emblem of the, or a real Nilometre. An instrument for, or the mode of, measuring the height of the water at the annual overflowing of the Nile. I see nothing but invention in his paper; still upon the principle of free and fair inquiry and discussion, I print. You have evidently invented nothing, scarcely left any thing to conjecture; therefore lucious as is the paper, relative to the common ideas of sexual intercourse, it is to me novel, will be so to most of my readers, and the authorities leave no ground for either prudery or affectation to make complaint.
I think we may lay it down as demonstrated, that the sun is the first cause of all religion, the one god and the parent of all the gods. But there is a point in mythology, important to be explained the origin and history of the worship of the serpent. It appears to me to have been the second step in mythology, the immediate and first offspring of sun-worship, the first principle of the Promethean (or theusian) Logoean (another new word, very likely corrupt) and Christian systems of worship. The Mosaic worship of the serpent is truly construed by the Christians as a type of Christ. They are often right in their typifications without knowing the ground of their correctness. And the end of Christianity will be not Unitarianism, that is sheer nonsense; not Freethinking Christianism, as an obscure sect entitles itself, for they are as ignorant, and as corrupt, and as superstitions, as any class of christians, from the primitives to the various sects of the present day; but a genuine sect of Christians, who will trace Christianity correctly through all its mythological ramifications to its fountain the sun. I should not hesitate a moment to take any official oath to defend the Christian Religion, or to assert myself a Christian, where established forms and customs called for that assertion: and all this without the least mental reservation. We are, certainly, enlightened Christians, we have the very esoteric knowledge of the Christian Religion. The mass of the persons called Christians are ignorant exoterics, who are deluded and corrupted with perverted types. We are good and faithful Christians, we do not, like the Egyptian Priests, conceal our esoteric and correct doctrines, we do not hide our light under a bushel, we do not bury our talents : but we are honestly solicitous to initiate all man and woman-kind into our esoteric and genuine Christian doctrines. we would joyfully recover the lost sheep, who, instead of the hundredth of the flock, are the ninety-nine..
The Greek and Latin Churches, through ignorance, by the force of tradition, imitation and practice, have been, and are closely connected, in ceremonies, with the true mythological Christianity. They exhibit the outward though misunderstood signs of the genuine esoteric christian doctrines, and the Established Church of England will be wise to improve upon its predecessors, by following our instructions our demonstrations.
REFLECTIONS ON HORSEBACK,
I feel an unwillingness to enter upon the field of speculation ; yet there are points sometimes so abstruse and at the same time so important, as to induce enterprize. Having uftentimes thought, that the different organs of the brain perform different intellectual functions, I am led to consider, that, on this principle, we may account for, why a particular passion of the mind, acting long and constantly, will prove more dangerous, and more liable to produce insanity, tban a variety of strong passions acting with equal force. If I keep my right arm constantly in action, it will be sooner exhausted than if the same sum of action is divided between both arms and both legs. Great loss or great pecuniary gain will act powerfully upon those organs accustomed to be acted upon by money impressions; and the action being so extensive, as to affect the organization of the parts, they no longer act according to their accustomed modes, as is the case with the foot during an attack of the gout in the great toe or ancle. Besides the gout will sometimes be trapslated from the great toe, to the brain, and produce insensibility; and the loss of money acting on the brain will cause an attack of the gout in the great toe. Great joy produces an agreeable sensation ; yet, excessive joy destroys the organization of the brain as certainly as excessive grief. When the organ of the brain, accustomed to judge of money matters, is excited to a degree incompatible with its structure, its structure is necessarily changed ; and when its structure is changed, its action must be changed; and when its action is changed, then will be a recurrence of new ideas ; and, if so much altered as to be incompatible with the present order of things and former habits, insanity is the consequence. Progressive disease, as well as accidents, to the head, produces a change ofideas. Ideas depend upon the organization of the brain ; and whether they are correct or incorrect, depends upon its structure. The combination of ideas necessary in an argument must depend upon a chain of action in the difficult organs. There must be a mutual sympathy or reciprocity of operation among parts; but if some have become diseased or have a disordered function, there
is necessarily no longer that consent of parts required to maintain an argument. The head is confused, ort he ideas heterogenious. Hence, the disjointed conversation of the lunatic. You may talk on many subjects to a lunatic, and he will discourse rationally ; but if you touch a certain point, or mention a particular subject, you discover the mental alienation. This amounts to nothing more than our not treading upon the painful toe, while we are trampling upon the others without corns. It is this that makes superficial observers often times suppose, that some persons are unnecessarily confined. There is a lameness of mind as well as of body, and insanity is nothing more than the lameness of some organ of the brain. I do not think that there is any thing like Craniology in my conjectures. Gall and Spurzeim profess to tell the faculties by the hills and valleys of the skull.
COPY OF A LETTER SENT TO THE KING,
Dorchester Gaol, Sept. 5, 1825. The whole history of mankind is a history of physical conquests; and this is one proof, that there is no superhuman intelligence to regulate their actions.' To talk of a God of Battles, is to talk of a monster; and yet this is a very common phrase with priests and with religious figbting men. The last report of the Naval and Military Bible Society abounds with such phrases, issuing from the mouths of professed fighting men. Your gallant brother, the “Hero of Helder,” whom I really believe to be no hypocrite, has been all but persecuted into an order, as Commander in Chief of the Army, that every soldier shall be furnished with a Bible, to increase the weight of his koapsack, as a constant part of his warlike accoutrements ! so that, I presume, that when you next make war upon the French, Dutcb, or Spaniards, your soldiers are to go witb the Bible in one band and the bayonet and musket in the other. Oris this Bible to be pusbed down the throats of we who are its opponents, by and bye, at the point of a bayonet, or sent into us, by the Holy Ghost, as a cloven fiery tongue, in the shape of covers for ball cartridges ? A religious soldiery