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Sect. III. Cimon begins to make a figure at Athens. His first atchievement and double victory over the Persians,

near the river Eurymedon. Death of Themistocles. Artax. THE Athenians having lost one of their most disLongim.

tinguished citizens, as well as ablest generals, by A. M. the banishment of Themistocles, endeavoured to

3594. retrieve that loss, by bestowing the command of Ant. J.C.

the armies on Cimon, who was not inferior to him 470.

in merit.

He spent his youth in such excesses as did him no honour, and presaged no good with regard to his future conduct. * The example of this illustrious Athenian, who passed his juvenile years in so dissolute a manner, and afterwards rose to so exalted a pitch of glory, shows, that parents must not always despair of the happiness of a son, when wild and irregular in his youth; especially when nature has endued him with genius, goodness of heart, ge. nerous inclinations, and an esteem for persons of merit. Such was the character of Cimon. The ill reputation he had drawn upon himself, having prejudiced the people against him, he at first was very ill received by them ; when, being discouraged by this repulse, he resolved to lay aside all thoughts of concerning himself with the affairs of the publick. But Aristides perceiving that his dissolute turn of mind was united with many fine qualities, he consoled him, inspired him with hope, pointed out the paths he should take, instilled good principles into him, and did not a little contribute, by the excellent instructions he gave him, and the affection he expressed for him on all occasions, to make him the man he afterwards appeared. What more important service could he have done his country?

Plutarch observes, that after Çimon had laid

i Diod. I. xi. p. 45. Plut. in Cim, p. 482, 183,

· Ibid. p. 481.

Pluto in


aside his juvenile extravagances, his conduct was in Artar. things great and noble; and that he was not inferior Longim. to Miltiades either in courage or intrepidity, nor to Themistocles in prudence and sense, but that he was more just and virtuous than either of them; and that without being at all inferior to them in military virtues, he surpassed them far in the practice of the moral ones.

It would be of great advantage to a state, if those, who excel in professions of every kind, would take pleasure, and make it their duty to fashion and instruct such youths as are remarkable for the pregnancy of their parts and goodness of disposition. They would thereby have an opportunity of serving the country even after their death, and of perpetuating in it, in the person of their pupils, a taste and inclination for true merit, and the practice of the wisest maxims.

The Athenians, a little after Themistocles had left his country, having put to sea a fleet under the command of Cimon, the son of Miltiades, took Eion, on the banks of the Strymon, Amphipolis, and other places of Thrace; and as this was a very fruitful country, Cimon planted a colony in it, and sent ten thousand Athenians thither for that purpose.

"The fate of Eion is of too singular a kind to be omitted here. Boges

was governor of it under the king of Persia, and acted with such a zeal and fidelity for his sovereign, as have few examples. When besieged by Cimon and the Athenians, it was in his power to have capitulated upon honourable terms, and he might have retired to Asia with his family and all his effects. However, being persuaded he could not do this with honour, he resolved to die rather than surrender. The city was assaulted with the utmost fury, and he defended it with incredible

| Herod. 1. vii. c. 107. Plut. P.

482. * Plutarch calls him Butis. Herodotus seems to place this history under Xerxes; but it is more probable, that it happened under Artaxerxes his successos.

Artax. bravery. Being at last in the utmost want of proLongim, visions, he threw from the walls into the river Stry

mon, all the gold and silver in the place; and causing fire to be set to a pile, and having killed his wife, his children, and his whole family, he threw then into the midst of the flames, and afterwards rushed into them himself. Xerxes could not but admire, and at the same time bewail, so surprizing an example of generosity. The heathens, indeed, might give this name to what is rather savage ferocity and barbarity.

Cimon made himself master also of the island of Scyros,where he found the bones of Theseus, the son of Ægeus, who liad fled from Athens to that city, and there ended his days. An oracle had commandcd that search should be made after his bores. Cimon put them on board his galley, adorned them magnificently, and carried them to his native country, pear eight hundred years after Theseus had left it. The people received thein with the highest expres. sions of joy; and, to perpetuate the remembrance of this event, they founded a disputation or prize for tragickwriters, which became very famous, and contributed exceedingly to the improvement of the drama, by the wonderful emulation it excited among the tragick poets, whose pieces were represented in it. For Sophocles having, in his youth, brought his first play on the stage, the archon, or chief magistrate who presided at these games, observing there was a strong faction among the spectators, prevailed with Cimon and the rest of the generals his colleagues, (who were ten in number, and chosen out of each tribe) to sit as judges. The prize was ad, judged to Sophocles, which so deeply asílicted AS chylus, who till then had been considered as the greatest dramatick poet, that Athens became insupportable to him, and he withdrew to Sicily, where he died.

The confederates had taken a great number of

# Plut. in Cim. p. 484,

Barbarian prisoners in Sestus and Byzantium; and, Artax as a proof of the high regard they had for Cimon, Longim. intreated him to distribute the booty. Accordingly Cimon placed all the captives (stark naked) on one side, and on the other all their riches and spoils, The allies complained of this partition as too unequal; but Cimon giving them the choice, they immediately took the riches which had belonged to the Persians, and left the prisoners for the Athenians. Cimon therefore set out with his portion, and was thought a person no ways qualified to settle the distribution of prizes : For the allies carried off a great number of chains, necklaces and bracelets of gold; a large quantity of rich habits, and fine purple cloaks ; whilst the Athenians had only for their share a multitude of human creatures quite naked, and untit for labour. However, the relations, and friends of these captives came soon after from Phrygia and Lydia, and purchased them all at a very high price; so that, with the monies arising from the ransom of them, Cimon had enough to maintain his fleet four months ; besides a great sum of money which was put into the exchequer, not to incntion what he himself had for his own share. He afterwards used to take exceeding pleasure, in relating this adventure to his friends.

n He made the best use of his riches, as Gorgias the rhetor has happily expressed it in few, but strong and elegant words. * Cimon, says he, amassed riches, only to use them; and he employed them to no other use, but to acquire esteem and bonour. here perceive (by the way) what was the scope and aim of the most exalted actions of the heathens; and with what justice Tertullian defined a pagan, how perfect soever he might appear, a vain-glorious ani

We may

" Plut. in Cim. p. 481, Cornel. Nep. in Cim. c. iv. Athen. 1. xii. p. 533.

* Φεσί τον Κίμωνα τα χρήματα κάσθαι μεν ως χορτο, χρήσαι δε ως τιμώτο,

Artax. mal, animal gloriæ. The gardens and orchards of
Longim. Cimon were always open, by his order, to the citi-

zens in general; who were allowed to gather what.
ever fruits they pleased. His table was daily covered
in a frugal, but polite manner. It was entirely dif.
ferent from those delicate and sumptuous tables, to
which only a few persons of great distinction are ad.
mitted; and which are covered merely to display
a vain magnificence or elegance of taste. Now that
of Cimon was plain, but abundant; and all the poor
citizens were received at it without distinction. In
thus banishing from his entertainments, whatever
had the least air of ostentation and luxury, he re-
served to himself an inexhaustible fund, not only
for the expences of his house, but for the wants of
his friends, his domesticks, and a very great number
of citizens ; demonstrating, by this conduct, that
he knew much better than most rich men, the true
use and value of riches.

He was always followed by some servants, who
were ordered to slip privately some piece of money
into the hands of such poor as they met, and to
give clothes to those who were in want of them,
He often buried such persons a3 had not left money
enough behind them to defray the expences of their
funeral; and what is admirable, and which Plutarch
does not fail to observe, he did not act in this man.
ner to gain credit among the people, nor to purchase
their voices; since we find him, on all occasions, de-
claring for the contrary faction, that is, in favour of
such citizens as were most considerable for their
wealth or authority.

Although he saw all the rest of the governors of his time enrich themselves by the plunder and oppression of the publick, he was always incorruptible, and his hands were never stained with extortion, or the smallest present; and he continued, during his whole life, not only to speak, but to acę

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o Plut. in Cim. p. 485.

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