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tor to be found? The piety, the truth, the benevolence of the thought ought to protect it from this imputation. For, though we should allow that one of the

great masters of the ancient tragedy could have given to his scene a sentiment as virtuous and as elevated as this is, and, at the same time as appropriate, and as well suited to the particular situation of the person who delivers it ; yet whoever is conversant in these enquiries will acknowledge, that to do this in a fictitious production is beyond the reach of the understandings which have been employed upon any fabrications that have come down to us under Christian

names.

CHAP.

CHAP. XII.

THE SECOND EPISTLE TO TIMOTHY.

No. 1.

IT

was the uniform tradition of the primitive church, that St. Paul visited Rome twice, and twice there suffered imprisonment; and that he was put to death at Rome at the conclusion of his second imprisonment. This opinion concerning St. Paul's two journeys to Rome, is confirmed by a great variety of hints and allufions in the epistle before us, compared with what fell from the apostle's pen in other letters purporting to have been written from Rome. That our present epistle was written whilst St. Paul was a prisoner, is distindly intimated by the eighth verse of the first chapter : “ Be not thou therefore ashamed of the

testimony of our Lord, nor of me his pri“ foner.” And whilst he was a prisoner at Rome, by the fixteenth and seventeenth Z2

verses

rus;

verses of the same chapter : “ The Lord

, “ give mercy unto the house of Onesipho

for he oft refreshed me, and was not " ashamed of my chain : but when he was “ in Rome he fought me out very dili

gently, and found me.” Since it appears from the former quotation that St. Paul wrote this epistle in confinement, it will hardly admit of doubt that the word chain, in the latter quotation, refers to that confinement; the chain by which he was then bound, the custody in which he was then kept. And if the word chain designate the author's confinement at the time of writing the epistle, the next words determine it to have been written from Rome : “ He was “ not alhamed of my chain; but when he - was in Rome he fought me out very dili

gently.” Now that it was not written during the apostle's first imprisonment at Rome, or during the same imprisonment iq which the epiitles to the Ephesians, the Colossians, the Philippians, and Philemon, were written, may be gathered, with considerable evidence, froin a coinparison of these several epistles with the present,

· I. In the former epistles the author confidently looked forward to his liberation from confinement, and his speedy departure from Rome. He tells the Philippians (ch. ii, ver. 24,) “ I trust in the Lord that I also

myself shall come shortly." Philemon he bids to prepare for him a lodging; “for “ I trust,” says he, “ that through your

prayers, I shall be given unto you" (ver. 22.) In the epistle before us he holds a language extremely different : “I “ am now ready to be offered, and the time " of my departure is at hand. I have

fought a good fight; I have finished my " course; I have kept the faith : hence“ forth there is laid up for me a crown

of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day” (ch. iv. ver 6-8).

II. When the former epistles were written from Rome, Timothy was with St. Paul; and is joined with him in writing to the, Colossians, the Philippians, and to Philemon. The present epistle implies that he was absent. III. In the former epistles Demas was

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with St. Paul at Rome: “Luke, the be“ loved physician, and Demas, greet you." In the epistle now before us; “ Demas hath “ forsaken him, having loved this present 66 world, and is

gone to Thessalonica.” IV, In the former epistle, Mark was with St. Paul, and joins in faluting the Colossians. In the present epistle, Timothy is ordered to bring him with him, for he " is profitable to me for the ministry” (ch. iv. ver. 11.)

The case of Timothy and of Mark might be very well accounted for, by supposing the present epistle to have been written before the others; so that Timothy, who is here exhorted “ to come shortly unto him," (ch. iv. ver. 9.) might have arrived, and that Mark, “ whom he was to bring with him,” (ch. iv. ver. 11.) might have also reached Rome in fufficient time to have been with St. Paul when the four epistles were written : but then such a supposition is inconsistent with what is said of Demas, by which the posteriority of this to the other epistles is strongly indicated : for in the other epistles Demas was with St. Paul, in

the

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