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83

NOTICES OF BOOKS :-
Hon. G. W. Gordon, Personal Recol-

lections of the,
Immaculate Conception, the,
Jesuits, the,
Marsh, the Rev. William, D.D, Life of,
Papal Drama, the,
Papal System, Illustrations of the,
Pilgrim's Progress, The,
Protestantism and Romanism,
Ritualism,

Ritualism, Extreme,
| Ritualism' Historically considered,

Rome, No Peace with,
Sabbath on the Rock, the,
Shorter Catechism, the,
Signs of the Times, the,
“Sisterhood” Nurses,
Sparrow, the, Alone on the Housetop,
Whip, the,
Who are Ye? :

83
308
81
26
194
332

28
252
193

27
224
168

28
168
194

28
140

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PAGE
Reading Protestant Association, the,

163
Reasons for the Faith that is in us,

281, 323
Reform Bill, Romanism and the New,

57
Reformation Society, Scottish,

296
Reformation, State Papers Connected
with the,

54
Religious Liberty, Romish Tactics and, 157
Rev. Wm. Morley Punshon's Dream ;
or, No Peace with Rome,

212
Rock Newspaper, the,

280
Roll and Seals of St John,

318
Roman Catholic Churches, Schools, and
Glebes (Ireland) Bill,

49
Roman Question, the ;'or, Louis Napo-

leon, Victor Emmanuel, and Pio Nono, 141
Romanism and Fenianism, Connexion
between,

149
Romanism, Present Duty towards,

89
Rome, the Bloodthirsty Spirit of,

211
Rome, threatened New Concessions to, 257
Romish Devices and Efforts,

67
Romish Liberty,

106
Romish Prospects in Ireland,

297
Romish Tactics in Parliament,

313
Romish Toleration,

195
Ritualism at Barton-upon-Humber,

94
Ritualism in the Church of England,
Development of,

99
Ritualism the St Alban's Case,

293
Ritualism--the World's Religion,

41
Ritualistic Charity; or, Ritualists on

Protestants and Protestant Missions, 37
Ritualists, the, and the Bishop of Oxford, 185
Rutherford, Samuel, on the Glory of
Serving Christ,

247
Sabbath Question, Railways and the,

22
Sabbath, the Excellence of the,

245
School Competition on “Foxe's Book

of Martyrs,”
Scotch Roman Catholic Hierarchy,

237
Scotland, Protestant Institute of, 157, 303
Scottish Reformation Society, Protestant
Library in London in connexion with the,

13, 108, 279
Scottish Reformation Society-Dundee
Branch,

68
Scottish Reformation Society, Lectures
on Behalf of,

110
Scottish Reformation Society, London
Classes of the,

69, 109, 132, 152,

223, 239 309,
Scottish Reformation Society, Work of
the,

249
Scriptural Education,

246
Scripture Texts and Crosses, Dispute
about,

305
Sisters of Mercy ; or, Popery and Poverty, 128
South America, Romish Intolerance in, 152
Spain, State of,

305
Succession, False Apostolic,

47
Superstition, Lord Bacon on,

106
Temporal Power, the Crisis of the,

169
The Morals of the Church of Rome,
Archdeacon Sinclair's Charge on,

41
Tract for the Times, a,

272
Vatican, Amenities of the,

111
Venice, Popery in,

183
Visitation, Bishop of Salisbury's,

21
Was St Peter ever at Rome?

76
What is Ritualism?

242
What Rome Teaches,

277
Wiltshire Protestant Beacon, the,

40
Woes of Ireland, the Cure for the,

291
Woodcut, Our,

267
Worship, Superstitious, :

251

1234

Papists, Pagans more Liberal than,

162
Parable, a,

195
Parliament, Romish Tactics in,' .

15, 44, 59,

269, 299
Parliament, the New Session of,

232
Persecution of Old in Italy,

134
Plymouth, Protestant Classes at,

222, 302
POETRY:
Canon Law,

293
Hint to True Penitents, a

135
Lines,

136
Midnight Scene in a Convent.

330
Oh, Sing a New Song to the Lord!

111
Pope, the, and the Apostle Peter,

237
Reformation Lays,

265
Ritualist, a, Described,

125
Ritualist Revival, a,

69
Scottish Reformation Society,

280
Tyndale's Last Prayer,

153
What shall the End of these Things be, 329
Poor Law Board, &c., Bill,

47
Pope, Temporal Power of the,

202
Popery Abolished in the Days of Elizabeth, 100
Popery and Protestantism,

S30
Popery, the British Constitution and, 277
Popery, the Spirit of,

223
Popery, the Welsh Presbyterian Church
and,

165
Popish Aggressions, more threatened, : 165
Popish Cruelty,

186
Popish Delusion,

307
Popish Lotteries,

61, 110, 155
Popish University, the Proposed New, 264
Prisons, Popery in our,

97
Procession of the Host'in London,

43
Protestant Alliance, Bath,

21
Protestant Association, Greenock Young
Men's,

156, 306
Protestant Classes in England, Estab-
lishment of,

304
Protestant Efforts in Plymouth,

20
Protestant Electoral Union of England, the, 130
Protestant Institute of Scotland, Library
of the,

23, 222, 279, 301
Protestant Institute, North-west London, 251
Protestant Instruction for the Young, 132
Protestant Principles,

188
Protestant Short-hand Classes in London, 244
Protestant Women of Britain, to the,

160
Protestantism at Plymouth,
Protestantism, Parochial Instruction in, 127
Protestants, a Warning to

216
protestants, Present Duty of, :

273

.

322

THE BULWARK

OR

REFORMATION JOURNAL.

OUR SEVENTEENTH VOLUME.

TIME

NIME passes rapidly away, and we can scarcely believe that sixteen

years have elapsed since the commencement of our publication. Nevertheless it is so, and most eventful years they have been. The future historian of England will probably look back upon them as laying the foundation of an entire change in the British Constitution, or, at all events, as nursing into growing maturity a change which probably may be dated more correctly from 1829.

Nevertheless we begin our seventeenth volume with a clear conviction that we are performing one of the highest duties of patriotism as well as of Christian principle. There have been some cheering symptoms during the past year moreover, that if Rome is still holding on her disastrous way, and receiving fatal encouragement from our infatuated politicians, the people of the country at least are not so absolutely supine and insensible as hitherto. There has been an awakening of Protestant spirit and intelligence in certain quarters of a very cheering kind. In particular, the eager readiness with which the young men of London have hailed the opening of Protestant classes is a most cheering symptom of improvement. It

proves that the torpor which abounds is very much to be traced to Protestant neglect, and that if we are only true to ourselves, and to the great cause in which we are engaged, a new generation may yet be trained up to fight over again, by the Divine blessing, the battle of the Reformation, and to maintain the cause of truth and liberty.

The grand issue of the prolonged struggle with Rome is, at all events, not doubtful. Sooner or later Babylon must fall, and fall for ever. Its end cannot be very

and we may say of Protestant truth what was said of one of the tribes of old, that however often overcome, either in reality or in appearance," it shall overcome at the last." Let us, therefore, “ thank God and take courage."

VOL. XVII. NO, CXCIII.- JULY 1867.

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MONASTIC AND CONVENTUAL INSTITUTIONS.*

SECTION FIRST. A Sketch of the Rise and Progress of the System ; with a Brief Account

of the Origin of the most famous "Orders.T the commencement of the Christian era, there prevailed throughout

India and other Eastern countries, what was termed the Gnostic

System of Philosophy, one part of the belief of which was, “ that all that was good and pleasing to the Supreme Being had its origin in Him, and was of a spiritual nature, and that matter' was the centre and source of all the evil in the world.”

One of the effects of a belief in this principle was manifested in the second century, when certain Christian teachers maintained that Jesus Christ established two orders of disciples, and left a double rule for their guidance,—the one for persons in the ordinary walks of life, and engaged in its active scenes and duties,—the other for those who, aspiring to great holiness and close communion with God, withdrew themselves from worldly influences. All the doctrines and instructions in the holy Scriptures they divided into two classes. To the one, consisting of laws obligatory and binding on all men, they gave the name of “precepts;" the other class they called “counsels.” These latter were to be obeyed and followed by those who aspired to a place in the higher order of Christians. This division would seem to have been made in imitation of the teachings of the old heathen philosophers, many of whom made a distinction between “living according to nature,” and “living above nature.”

Immediately on this division of the Christian doctrines being promulgated, a sect arose which came to be known by the name of “Ascetics.” These, considering that they were obeying the “counsels” of Christ, fancied that they were prohibited from the use of many things which were quite lawful for other Christians. They regarded as binding upon them to abstain from marriage, and from the use of flesh and wine. Both men and women sought, by fastings and watchings, to subdue bodily passions; and by separation from their fellow-men, and engaging in a sort of indolent contemplation, and professed meditation on sublime and eternal themes, they declared their object to be to raise their souls above the influence of earthly evils. In the third century this same idea became still farther developed, and many taught that the body and the things of che world were the only hindrances and obstacles which existed in the way of a close and perfect communion between the soul and God; and that if men only withdrew themselves from their fellows, and, dwelling alone, sufficiently macerated and subdued the body, the soul would of itself naturally and at once return to God as the source of light and life and all things desirable, and would enjoy sweet and happy communion with Him and the holy angels. This mode of reasoning in the face of Scripture led many who professed to be Christians to betake themselves to desert places, and spend their days and nights in solitary meditation, neglecting and abusing their bodies in the hope of purifying their souls and becoming acceptable to God.

Especially in Egypt was this the case, where, the climate being well

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* Dundee: First Prize Essay.

suited for life in the open air, many betook themselves to desert caves, and practised great austerities. The persecutions of the Christians by the Roman emperors also drove many to seek hiding-places in the deserts, and to adopt this solitary life rather than endure either the sufferings inflicted by the persecutors, or the stings of conscience inflicted on those who from fear adjured their faith. A man named Paul, who, according to the Roman breviary, was the first hermit, lived, it is said, in the desert of Egypt, in a cave beside a palm-tree, which yielded him both food and raiment till he attained his 113th year, when he died, after having been visited by the next famous hermit Antony, the Egyptian. This person, it is alleged-whose parents were both Christians-was, while yet young, left in possession of considerable property by their death. This property he sold, and, distributing the proceeds among the poor, betook himself to the desert, and there led a solitary life! Such at least is the Roman breviary's version of the story. This Antony is said to have been the first to collect these solitaries of the desert, of whom there were, in his day, great numbers, into companies, inducing them to live together under certain rules and laws of order. His example was soon copied in Syria, Palestine, and other neighbouring countries. From the East this institution soon travelled westwards, and made rapid progress in Europe, especially in Italy, though it is quite uncertain who first introduced it there; but from about the year 350 it became quite the fashion throughout the Western Church.

Martin, Bishop of Tours, was the first to introduce the system into France, and with such energy and success that two thousand monks followed his remains to the grave.

About the middle of the fourth century, there were three different kinds of monks to be found in considerable numbers. The first class continued the same solitary style of life as the original hermits. The second class were formed into communities under the direction and authority of a “Father” or “Abbot." The third consisted of men who wandered from country to country, and from city to city, selling relics, working fictitious miracles, and in other fraudulent ways making a living to themselves at the expense of those whom they managed to deceive. Previous to the end of the fourth century, the different “orders" of monks had been composed of the “ laity,” and were under the supervision of the bishops; but at this time many of them were adopted among the “ clergy," and the monks came to be looked upon as the most pious and holy men-so much so, that some of their number were even (at this early period) chosen to fill the office of bishop. During the fifth century, the buildling of monasteries and convents was carried to a most extravagant extent throughout all Europe. These communities did not all follow the same rules of discipline; but in the sixth century a new “order” was founded by Benedict, which, in course of time, absorbed all the previously-established ones. Benedict, in the rule of discipline

. which he drew up for the conduct of his followers, aimed at establishing an order whose discipline should be of a milder type than that of the other orders, and their manners more regular, in the hope that it would thus rest on a more solid and durable basis. The members were enjoined to work for so many hours a-day, and to employ the rest of their time in praying, reading, instructing the young, and such like pious or useful works. Before this time the monks of the various orders altered and amended the rules, originally drawn up by their founders, whenever it

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suited their tastes or wishes; but Benedict made it one of the conditions

; of admission into his order, that all joining it should solemnly promise implicit obedience to the rules of the society, without at any time ever making any attempt at altering or changing them. In after years, however, as will be seen, this rule was but little attended to, and the great Benedictine Order itself became corrupt, and subdivided into numbers of minor orders.

During the seventh century a change in the relation existing between the monks and the bishops was made, which gave to the monks a much greater influence than they had hitherto possessed. At this time dissensions and quarrels the most fierce and bitter broke out between the monks and bishops regarding the contributions and fees which the bishops, claiming superiority over the monks, had insisted they should collect and hand over to them. This the monks for a time submitted to, but afterwards refused to continue the practice, and claimed protection, first, from the sovereigns of the countries in which they resided, and then from the Roman Pontiffs. These latter, always ready to seize upon anything likely to be of service in advancing themselves, and maintaining their usurpation of supreme power, readily granted protection to the monks, and by degrees exempted them altogether from the jurisdiction of the bishops. At a later period, when the bishops of Rome came to have their power recognised to a greater degree, they even went farther, and gave to many of the monasteries singular immunities, freeing them not only from the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishops, but also from the temporal authority of the sovereigns. In return for these privileges, the monks engaged to pay tribute to the Roman Pontiff, and

to increase his power and dignity to the utmost of their ability. Hence, from the time of Gregory VII. of noted memory, the monks may be looked upon as Rome's great militia, bound to her service, and owning allegiance to no other monarch or government than the Pope and the Roman see. Between the seventh and thirteenth centuries, great numbers of different “ orders” of monks and nuns were, from time to time, established. Indeed, as often as the old became degenerate and corrupted, new ones were originated. In this way,

the orders of canons and canonesses came to be introduced. These adopted the monastic mode of life, but were not bound by vows in the same way as were the ordinary monks. They also acted as pastors over certain churches appointed to their care. They were first founded in the eighth century; and in the eleventh century, having become very corrupt, attempts at reforming them led to their division into “secular" and "regular" canons. The former of these followed a rule drawn up by Pope Nicholas II. in 1059, which was not nearly so stringent in several points as the ancient rule of the order. The latter division, influenced by the exhortations of Ivo, Bishop of Chartres, did not consider themselves at liberty to adopt the modified rule, but adhering with greater stringency than ever to the ancient rules, came to be called the “ Regular canons of St Augustine," the name of St Augustine being added on account of Bishop Ivo imitating his method of ruling his clergy. In the year 927 the famous order of the monks of Cluny was originated. This was not an entirely new order, but only a sub-division of the great Benedictine order. At this time a great number of the Benedictine monasteries had become so far corrupted as that many of the monks knew nothing whatever of the rule of their order further than the name.

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