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corded concerning the image of Edessa, “ that the palladium was exposed on the rampart; and that the water which had been sprinkled on the holy face, instead of quenching added new fuel to the flames of the besieged. Its first and most glorious exploit was the deliverance of the city from the arms of Chosroes Nushirvan,"*

The full and literal import of Mahuzzim is preserved in the common designation of “TUTELARY saints," whose ordinary appellatives are protectors, guardians, or defenders. They are invoked as such, whether in the lightness of unguarded conversation or in all the solemnity of a fervent prayer, whether in the gayest or the gloomiest mood, and alike by the rustic catholic at a fair, or a royal devotee at the altar. And while the origin of the custom can be traced far back in the history of Christendom, as ranking with the earliest of the corruptions which tarnished a pure and holy faith, the invocations of saints, as protectors, defenders, and intercessors, is still the prevalent practice in every catholic church, and daily in every catholic family, where the injunctions contained in their authorized prayer-book are not broken.

“In the Litany of the saints,”+ which is the first of “the prayers recommended to be said in catholic families every evening," fifty-four saints are invoked by their names, at the head of which, and before the archangels, stands “ Holy Mary, pray for

* Gibbon's Hist. pp. 118, 119.

| Roman Catholic prayer-book, entitled the Key of Heaven, or a Manuel of Prayer, 23d edition, printed by Richard Coyne, printer, bookseller, and publisher to the Royal College of St. Patrick, Maynooth; to which is prefixed the following approval—“ Í hereby approve this Prayer-Book, entiled · Key of Heaven, or Manual of Prayers,' printed and published by Richard Coyne, of Chapel Street, Dublin ; and I recommend it to the use of the Faithful.”—pp. 47, 48.

Dublin, July 21, 1924. "D. MURRAY, R.C. Ap."

us," &c. “A prayer to our guardian angel” includes these petitions, “I conjure thee, O amiable guide, to defend me against my enemies—to protect me, in particular, at the hour of death :—enlighten, defend, and protect me," &c.* Under the titles “ A prayer to the Blessed Virgin—The Litany of our Blessed Lady of Loretto - The thirty-days prayer to the B. V. Mary—The Rosary of the Blessed Virgin, &c. the following supplications and expressions occur“0) Blessed Virgin, Mother of God,-I come to offer thee my most humble homage, and to implore the aid of thy prayers and protection. Thy intercession is most powerful, and thy goodness for mankind on earth is equal to thy influence in heaven.t Most powerful Virgin-tower: (mahoz)-of David ; tower of ivory-refuge of sinners-help of Christians; queen of angels, &c. ; queen of all saints, pray for us, we fly to thy patronage, deliver us from all dangers.I Assist and comfort me in all my infirmities and miseries of what kind soever. Thou art the mother of mercies and only refuge of the needy and orphan, of the desolate and the afflicted. Hear my prayer; for whither can I fly for more secure shelter, than under the wings of thy maternal PROTECTION ? And as I am persuaded my divine Saviour doth honour thee as his beloved mother, to whom he can refuse nothing, so let me speedily experience the efficacy of thy powerful intercession, &c. O most blessed Virgin, vouchsafe to negociate for and with us the work of our salvation, by thy powerful intercession."||

But the Mahuzzims, or gods-protectors, guardian and tutelary saints, form a “ multitude of acceptable intercessors; therefore,” says the suppliant, according to the prescribed form of one of the prayers at night, “I beseech the blessed Mary,

* Roman Catholic Prayer Book, p. 10. Ibid. p. 22. Ibid. pp. 31, 32. § Ibid. pp. 86, 87, 90. || Ibid. p. 333.

prayerling to the therefore," multitude sua

ever Virgin, the blessed Michael the archangel, the blessed John Baptist, the holy apostles Peter and Paul, and all the saints, to pray to the Lord our God for me."* Repeated prayers “ to your guardian angel,” “ TO the Virgin” “a prayer to St. Joseph," as well as their ceaseless invocations, are confutations, drawn from their prayer book, of the assertion that Catholics do not pray to the saints.t In a prayer to St. Joseph, he is thus implored, “ Be touched with the confidence we have in thee; and graciously accept these testimonies of our devotion.” The saints are all, without any qualification or exception, appealed to as guardians, and by their merits and prayers Catholics profess' to be defended. "Under the title of the Canon of Mass, as if an avowed confirmation of the prophecy were given in the most solemn of the rites, we read, * Communicating with, and NONOURING in the first place, the memory of the ever glorious Virgin Mary, mother of our Lord and God Jesus Christ; as also of the blessed apostles and martyrs, Peter and Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon, and Thadeus, Linus, Cletus, Clement, Xystus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Lawrence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian, and of all thy saints; by whose merits and prayers, grant that we may be always DEFENDED by the help of thy PROTECTION.”I

Catholic manuals of devotion, Catholic testimony in ancient times, and the public and private prayers of Catholics in accordance with a prescribed form, in the present day, can best tell, to whom they look as towers or bulwarks, in whom they confide, under whose shelter they seek protection, whom they invoke and name as tutelary or protecting saints, on whom, and not on Christ alone, they call and rely

* Roman Catholic Prayer Book, p. 25. † Pp. 18, 19, 22, 33.

Ibid. p. 35.

as intercessors, whose honour is associated with that of Jehovah, or whom they worship in their holds, their monasteries, their temples, and their closets, together with, or instead of, the only living and true God, and whose images are there, to which, often virtually if not always literally blotting the second commandment from their canon, they do actually “ bow down."

While all the saints were invoked as intercessors and protectors, it is obvious that divine honours were paid supereminently to one of them. Adopting the language of history, we learn that “ the worship of the Virgin Mary, which before the tenth century had been carried to a very high degree of idolatry, then received new accessions of solemnity and superstition. Towards the conclusion of that century, a castom was introduced among the Latins of celebrating masses, and abstaining from flesh, in honour of the blessed Virgin, every Sabbath day.

*After this was instituted what the Latins call the lesser office, in honour of St. Mary, which was, in the following century, confirmed by Urban II. in the council of Clermont. There are also to be found in this age manifest indications of the institution of the Rosary and Crown of the Virgin, by which her worshippers were to reckon the number of prayers that they were to offer to this New DIVINITY. The rosary consists in fifteen repetitions of the Lord's prayer, and a hundred and fifty salutations of the blessed Virgin ; while the crown, according to the different opinions of the learned concerning the age of the blessed Virgin, consists in six or seven repetitions of the Lurd's prayer, and six or seven times ten salutations, or Ave Marias."*

The Rosary of the blessed Virgin, according to the catholic prayer-book, consists of the joyful

* Mosheim, Cent. x. c. iv. sect. 3.

mysteries, assigned for Mondays and Thursdays throughout the year, the Sundays of Advent, and after Epiphany till Lent; the dolorous and sorrowful mysteries, for Tuesdays and Fridays through the year, and the Sunday in Lent; and the glorious mysteries for Wednesdays and Saturdays through the year, and Sundays after Easter until Advent. Each of these mysteries includes five mysteries ; each of which again contains “the meditation” and " the prayer" to the Virgin. The worship of the Virgin is thus secured, by repeated acts of devotion, for every day throughout the year. The concluding mystery of rnysteries runs thus,—“ The meditation. Let us contemplate in this mystery, how the glorious Virgin Mary was, with great jubilee and exultation of the whole court of heaven, and particular glory of all the saints, crowned by her Son with the brightest diadem of glory. The prayer. O glorious queen of all the heavenly citizens, we beseech thee, accept this Rosary which (as a crown of roses) we offer at thy feet.; and grant, most gracious lady, that by thy intercession, our souls may be inflamed with so ardent a desire of seeing thee so gloriously crowned, that it may never die in us, until it be changed into the happy fruition of thy blessed sight. Hail Holy Queen, Mother of mercies," &c.* . .

There are, indeed, mysteries of mysteries in the Roman Catholic church, and such is ber NAME; but even from hence it is apparent that there is no mystery in the fact, that, together with the honour of Mahuzzims, or gods-protectors,. was associated that of a god whom their fathers knew not "a New DIVINITY.”

Another object of adoration is the Host_the “ deified bread," as it is termed. When the relic

* Roman Catholic Prayer-Book, pp. 136, 137.

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