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though still several miles distant, seemed as if within a mile or less. They raised their huge giant forms, and stood forth in solitary monumental grandeur-mountains, the effect of human toil, the magnitude of which thought may faintly conceive, but words cannot express. Our track lay obliquely across the country, towards the pyramids of Aboosier, which now became distinctly visible, leaving those of Geza on our right, to be visited on our return.

A raised narrow road traversed the noble plain of Memphis, which is intersected by numerous canals for admitting the inundations of the Nile, not unlike the dykes of Holland, and having several small lakes and ponds of stagnant water, left by the last overflow, and filled with fish of different kinds. Numbers of men were engaged in raising the water from these, either by the pole and bucket, or in what are termed sachs. The water, once brought to the proper level, is distributed to the different parts of the crop, as each may require it, in little furrows made by the foot of the labourer, as described in Deuteronomy, xi. 10, 11where Moses, in depicting the beauties and fertility of Canaan, says, “It is not as the land of Egypt, where thou sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with thy foot, as a garden of herbs." Two crops are the ordinary return from the natural irrigation; three, however, can be procured by artificial means; but the quantity of land so worked, must, in places distant from the river, be necessarily very limited. What wonders would not a few steamengines effect in this department; with their aid, and a proper rotation of crops, no doubt four could be obtained yearly.

The sugar-cane is now grown in considerable quantity, and the manufacture is in a most flourishing condition. The colocynth, or bitter apple, has also become an article of considerable trade, and the opium I examined was fully as good in appearance, and as clean as any Turkish or East Indian ; but as it, too, has become a royal monopoly, it cannot be expected to be so productive as it would otherwise be.

Thousands of teal that sported in every pond and pool afforded us ample sport, and curlews were in such abundance as to shadow the earth over which they flew; they were, however, just as wary as their fraternity at home. The white egrets having become objects of interest from their exceeding familiarity, we gave up shooting at them. Larks were in great abundance, and buzzards of enormous size sailed over our heads.

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About midway between the pyramids of Geza and Aboosier we arrived at the desert, and here it was that the full force of the Egyptian fable regarding the perpetual contest of Typhon and Osiris became apparent, for the desert is yearly encroaching on the cultivated land wherever the inundation has not extended. The line of demarcation is most accurately defined ; and as the crop which ought naturally to extend to the very verge of the sand, and which acts like a wall to keep out the desert, is now in many parts of Egypt neglected from want of labourers, it is slowly but undoubtedly conducing to the narrowing of the land, an event which all writers agree has taken place since the days of the ancient Egyptians.

We are now upon the vast Lybian desert, the fertile plains of Egypt to our left, the pyramids of Geza behind us, and those of Dashoor and Sackara in front, raised a considerable height from the valley of the Nile by a ledge of rock that runs parallel with the fertile land. This wall of rock is partly covered with the sand, which, rising in a crest above it, and in some places presenting an undulating surface, as it bounds over the barrier, gives it the remarkable appearance of one vast rolling swell suddenly arrested in its onward course to swallow up the land, which smiles beneath it in all the luxuriance of nature's richest clothing. Were I to offer an opinion of my own, I should say, that this rock once formed the enclosure of a vast city, that extended all along the plain, between the pyramids and the river ; and should any wealthy or enterprising traveller attempt to clear away some of the sand that now covers its face, at one or two points, I am strongly inclined to think, judging from what I saw at Sackara, that many tombs and excavations would be discovered, as it is more than conjecture that the catacombs extend the whole length of all the pyramids. It may be in some secret or traditionary knowledge of this kind that the story told by the Arabs has originated, of there being a subterranean passage all along from the chambers of Sackara to the pyramid of Cheops.

Numbers of birds fluttered over the desert, and several noble eagles soared high above our heads in the liquid ether of an atmosphere peculiarly Egyptian. It was a most lovely day, though one of the warmest since our arrival, and as we passed forward I had ample opportunity of observing the various animals around me. The swallow tribe were in great plenty; the red-breasted



quarry. Their

swallow, and the small grey martin, particularly attracted our notice. I find that these little birds do not migrate like the swifts, (which, however, do not approach this part of the country,) but remain all the year round in the vicinity of the pyramids. I was not a little surprised at the good feeling and familiarity that seemed to exist between them and numbers of kestrils that flew round with the most graceful motion, now skimming in rapid flight along the sands, and anon balanced on extended wing for minutes together ere they pounced upon their

prey was not birds, but a large species of grass or sand-hopper, with remarkably brilliant crimson legs. The wings and back of this insect were the exact colour of the sand, so that when the animal lay quiet on the ground, not even the eye of a hawk could distinguish it. The bird, however, marked with unerring accuracy the spot whereon it alighted, and remained hovering over it, as described, till the insect again took flight, when its red legs and the underpart of the body rendering it very conspicuous, he pounced upon it while on the wing. But neither did this hawk appear to mind the smaller birds, nor did they, as if aware of their security, seem to pay the least attention to him. Although at constant war in other countries, here the swallow and hawk were on the best terms. I examined several of these kestrils, and found that instead of the usual membranous stomach, peculiar to rapacious birds, theirs had been altered to meet the exigency of the case, and had become a perfect gizzard, having a detached cuticle, stained of a bright red by the colouring matter of the grasshopper, pieces of the hard shells of which, and small pebbles, I invariably found in the digestive apparatus of this insectivorous hawk.

The pratingole is also found in the vicinity of Cairo, and I have one in my possession now, brought from the neighbourhood of Old Cairo, but they are rare in Egypt.

Another little animal that particularly called my attention, and excited my admiration, was the scarabæus, or sacred beetle. Numbers of these were running about in all directions in the warm sunshine, engaged in rolling their balls over the desert with such industry, and in so curious a manner, that I cannot refrain, although on the path to the pyramids, from stopping to notice the insect so famed in Egyptian story, and that formed so conspicuous a part in the symbolic language and the mythology of



this ancient people. The more I consider the habits and manners of animals, the more am I convinced that it was an accurate observation of their natural history and instinets that attracted the attention of the ancients, and on which was formed much of their mythological system and hieroglyphic character. This was not peculiar to the Egyptians, for we find the car of Bacchus drawn by tigers, evidently alluding to the conquest of a country to which those animals were peculiar; and in like manner are represented the conquests of Alexander, not expressed in words or by any written character, but shown forth by the representations of the animals peculiar to each region, as depicted in the mosaic pave ment at Præneste.

These little creatures, the scarabæi, which are possessed-of amazing strength and perseverance, form balls of clay and camel's dung, which they mix up into a kind of mortar, very like that used by swallows to construct their nests ; in these they deposit their eggs,

and thus it forms a crust or shell to the larvæ within ; they then roll these balls, when sufficiently dried, over the sand in a truly remarkable manner. The male is provided with two projections in the form of horns on the head, and uses them as a lever to raise and push the ball forward from behind, while the female mounting before keeps it revolving onward by drawing it down with her fore feet, as in the annexed representation. 1

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Sometimes three or four will gather about one ball, either for the mere sake of work, or to get it over any impediment. Others again propel them with their hind legs, and will sometimes assume the most grotesque attitudes, literally standing on their heads, and pushing at them with their hind feet. So far as I am able to judge, they keep rolling these balls about over the



sand for the whole day, and do not place them at once in holes, like other coleopterous insects. I have watched them at evening, and as soon as the sun had set they invariably deserted their charge, and returned to their holes, and what is more remarkable, if the day became suddenly clouded, off they waddled, and left the ball till a gleam of returning sunshine called them again to work with renewed vigour. It appears to me, from the manner they rolled these balls, that they intended the sun should act equally on all sides of them, and thus secure a certain temperature in the process of incubation. It may, however, be but for the purpose of drying the surface. The sexes of these beetles are well known to the Arabs, one of whom, who could just speak a word or two of English, pointed out the difference in the forms of the “men” and the “women" scarabæi.

Scarabæi, in every shape and attitude, and of all sizes, are figured on the Egyptian monuments, are used in the hieroglyphics, and models of them are generally found on the breasts of mummies; besides, many of a smaller size form part of the necklaces worn by such. In these two latter positions they may have been used as amulets. Others are carved in different stones and gems, as signets, having the names of the various Egyptian kings cut in hieroglyphics on the face. It was the emblem of creative power, of the earth, and of the sun, in which latter case the ball alone is often used.*

I now passed the pyramids of Aboosier, but without time to do more than just look at them. They are apparently less carefully constructed than either those of Geza or Sackara, and are much dilapidated. The whole of the ground I rode over presented a most extraordinary spectacle ; for miles it is literally strewn over with the sacking of the tombs, consisting of quantities of linen, pieces of broken mummy-cases, and bits of blue crockery-ware, with remains of human bones, and also those of the inferior animals, which, since their exposure to light and air, have become intensely white, but excessively friable, crumbling in the fingers. The whole plain is covered with heaps of rubbish, like mole-bills, thrown up from the tombs, which have been opened by the Arabs for the sake of their contents. These

* Appendix, L.

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