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most languages, for obvious reasons, the sun is masculine, the moon feminine ; but in Gothic, Anglo Saxon and German it is the reverse; der mond, die sonne; and in Russian the sun is neuter. Again, in German a spoon is masculine (der loeffel), a fork feminine (die gabel), a knife neuter (das messer); so, too a jug is masculine (der krug), a cup feminine (die tasse), a basin neuter (das becken); wine is masculine, milk feminine, beer neuter (der wein, die milch, das bier); the beginning is masculine, the middle feminine, and the end neuter (der anfang, die mitte, das ende), and to crown this capricious absurdity, the word for wife, of all things in the world, is neuter (das weib.) French has discarded the neuter gender; and English (like Persian and Chinese) abandons genders altogether, and only expresses them (when necessary), by a separate word, except in the third personal pronoun (he she, it) and the relative (who, which). We may well congratulate ourselves, therefore, that our language has been one of the very few which have had the wisdom to disrobe themselves of this useless rag of antiquity, and to make all inanimate objects neuter, except in the rare cases where they are personified for the purposes of poetry.” — Farrar's Greek Syntax.

MASSACHUSETTS TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. TWENTY-THIRD MEETING. — The twenty-third Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Teachers' Association will be held in Springfield, at the City Hall, Oct. 17, 18, and 19, 1867. The following is the programme of exercises.

Thursday Evening, Oct. 17. At 742 o'clock: Address of welcome by Hon. A. D. Briggs, Mayor of Springfield, and transaction of the general business of the Association. At 8 o'clock: An address from Prof. Seelye, of Amherst College.

FRIDAY, Oct. 18. At 9 o'clock: A paper by Rev. H. G. Harrington, Superintendent of Schools of New Bedford. Subject: Our Grammar School Teaching and Examinations for Admission to High Schools. Why don't they turn out better material ?. To be followed by discussion. At 11 o'clock : Exercise with a class from the School of Observation attached to the Westfield Normal School, conducted by Miss Kingsley. At 2 o'clock, P. M.: A paper by J. W. Dickinson, Esq., Principal of Normal School, Westfield. Subject: Method in Teaching and Study. To be followed by discussion. At 4 o'clock: A paper on Elocution, by Prof. L: B. Monroe. At 742: A lecture by Rev. William L. Gaye, of Chelsea. Subject: The Study of the Bible Lands. To be followed by select readings by Prof. L. B. Monroe.

SATURDAY, Oct. 19.–At 9 o'clock: Meeting for election of officers and other business. At 10 o'clock : A paper by W. C. Collar, Esq., Principal of Latin School, Roxbury. Subject: A Course of Study, to be followed by discussion.

It is designed that exercises in music, gymnastics, etc., shall be interspersed among these exercises, and especially that time shall be afforded for a free discussion upon practical subjects of every day school life, such as the following:1. Daily Sessions in Primary Schools. Are they now too long? 2. School Gymnastics, as now practised. Are they producing the desired results ? 3. Employment of Monitors. 4. Recesses : how long, how frequent? 5. Notes from parents requesting dismissal, excuses, etc. How far are they obligatory upon teachers ? 6. When, how, and how long should English grammar be taught in our Public Schools ?

Arrangements have been made with proprietors of hotels for entertainment of teachers, at prices varying at different houses from $2.00 to $3.00 per day. The usual arrangements with railroads may be expected. M. F. Cooke, Secretary.

C. C. CHASE, President. [We trust that all our arguments will be refuted and all our prophecies proved false by the magnitude and success of this meeting. The managers say justly in their Circular to School Committees requesting the discontinuance of the schools, that “ their efficiency and progress depend far less upon the number of days and hours during which they are in session than upon that professional zeal and love of the teacher's vocation which these conventions are so admirably calculated to

foster and promote.” The Boston School Committee has voted to dismiss the · city schools, to enable their teachers to attend.]

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION. [We give below a condensed sketch of the proceedings of : his body, which should have come more properly in our last number. We do not give them here at greater length, because both proceedings and speeches are always reported verbatim in the annual volume of the Society, which we hope will fall into the bands of many of our readers. We take the occasion to say that the annual volume for 1866, containing both debates and lectures, is now ready (price $1), and will be sent to all subscribers of $1 at the last meeting, and that the volume for 1865 and those for several preceding years are also on hand, price 75 cents. The whole series now numbers 36 volumes, but the early numbers are entirely out of print.]

The Institute met at Tremont Temple July 31, at 2y, o'clock — the President, Wm. E. Sheldon, Esq., in the chair,-and was welcomed on behalf of the city by Dr. John A. Lamson of the School Committee. The first paper read was by Hosea H. Lincoln, Esq., master of the Lyman School, Boston, on “ School Dis-cipline, its Methods and Uses.” The paper gave rise to an animated discussion, in which a large number of gentlemen took part.

In the evening, C. 0. Thompson, Esq., Master of the Arlington (late West Cambridge) High School gave a lecture on “ The Teacher's Profession.”

On Thursday a paper was read by the Rev. Isaac F. Cady of Bristol, R. I., on “ The Place Natural History should occupy in a course of Instruction, and how it should be taught,” which was followed by a discussion. The following resolution was passed :—“Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to examine the Constitution and the Records of the Proceedings of the Institute, and report the Constitution as it now stands, with such amendments as they deem

proper at the next annual meeting." Messrs. Admiral P. Stone of Portland, Me., D. B. Hagar of Salem, Mass., and J. W. Bulkley of New York, were appointed the Committee. [The resolution is understood to have reference to the admission of women to membership.]

The Hon. Henry Barnard then addressed the meeting on the subject of the sphere and operations of the National Bureau of Education, of which he is at the head. At the close of his address the following resolution was adopted unanimously:

Resolved, that we tender our hearty thanks to the Hon. Henry Barnard for his lucid statement of the character and aims of the new National Department of Education ; that we cordially commend the recent action of Congress in establishing a National Department of Education; and that from its appropriate work of collecting and diffusing information as to the best systems of education for towns, cities and States, the evils still remaining and the remedies and changes needed, we anticipate the bappiest results to the whole country. We deem education one of the chief agents needed in the wise reconstruction of States, and especially in fraternizing the people of the North and South, and we bespeak the wise coöperation of all classes in this one greatest and most vital interest of the nation. Adopted unanimously. The President called up Rev. Dr. McKenney of Texas, who occupied a few moments.

The discussion on School Discipline occupied the remainder of the session.

In the afternoon a paper was read by Z. Richards, Esq., of Washington, D. C., on “ Reading — styles and methods,” and Dr. Leigh illustrated his new method of. teaching reading with pupils from the Training School and from the Home for Little Wanderers. Mr. Leonard of Boston also read. The discussion of the subject of School Discipline occupied the remainder of the session, and at the close the following resolutions were passed :

Resolved, that we extend our hearty thanks to H. H. Lincoln, Esq., for his very able and interesting paper on School Discipline.

Resolved, that while we believe that the best methods of school discipline are those which involve the most kindness and the least severity, provided they answer the true ends of government, we still believe that the interests of our schools would be sacrificed rather than promoted by legislative restrictions in regard to methods of discipline. [A vote was afterwards passed for the immediate publication of Mr. Lincoln's lecture.]

In the evening the Rev. Mr. Duncan of Florida, and Mr. Ware of Georgia, spoke of the condition of things in their States, and a memorial address in commemoration of the founders of the Institute was delivered by Elbridge Smith, Esq., Master of the High School in Dorchester.

On Friday a discussion, opened by the Rev. Mr. Miner, took place on Rightmindedness as favorable to intellectual growth, and a lecture was given by Mr. Crittenden of New York on “ A Model School.” In the afternoon the Rev. B. G. Northrop, Secretary of the Connecticut Board of Education, spoke on the subject of Truancy, and a paper was read by President Hill of Harvard College, on “The Proportion in which Knowledge and Discipline should be made the ends

of Education.” A resolution, offered by Mr. Hammond of Monson, proposing the establishment of a New England Journal of Education, was, after a brief discussion, laid upon the table.

Representatives of various States were then called upon, and several gentlemen spoke in reply. The new President, Mr. Kneeland, was inducted into office, and after the passage of the usual resolutions of thanks to the retiring President, the managers of railways, the lecturers, etc., the Institute adjourned. The following is the list of officers for the ensuing year:

President, Jobn Kneeland, Roxbury, Mass.

Vice-Presidents, William Russell, Lancaster, Mass.; Henry Barnard, Hartford, Conn.; Samuel S. Greene, Providence, R. I.; Ariel Parish, New Haven, Conn.; George B. Emerson, Boston, Mass.; Nathan Hedges, Newark, N. J.; Zalmon Richards, Washington, D. C.; John W. Bulkley, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Thomas Sherwin, Boston, Mass.; David N. Camp, New Britain, Conn.; John D. Philbrick, Boston, Mass. ; Alpheus Crosby, Salem, Mass. ; Ebenezer Hervey, New Bedford, Mass.; Henry E Sawyer, Middletown, Conn.; Edward P. Weston, Farmington, Me.; Emory F. Strong, Bridgeport, Conn.; D. B. Hagar, Salem, Mass.; A. P. Stone, Portland, Me.; B. G. Northrop, New Haven, Conn.; T. W. Valentine, Brooklyn, N. Y.; J. E. Littlefield, Bangor, Me.; Joseph White, Williamstown, Mass. ; Charles Hammond, Monson, Mass.; Abner J. Phipps, Medford, Mass.; John W. Dickinson, Westfield, Mass.; Merrick Lyon, Providence, R. I.; Elbridge Smith, Dorchester, Mass.; Samuel W. Mason, Boston, Mass.; A. A. Miner, Boston, Mass. ; Albert Harkness, Providence, R. I. ; M. H. Buckham, Burlington, Vt.; D. W. Stevens, Fall River, Mass.; David Crosby, Nashua, N. H.; Wm. P. Atkinson, Cambridge, Mass.; W. E. Sheldon, West Newton, Mass. ; Homer B. Sprague, New Britain, Conn.; George M. Gage, Farmington, Me.

Recording Secretary, George T. Littlefield, Somerville, Mass.
Assistant Recording Secretary, C. 0. Thompson, Arlington, Mass.

Corresponding Secretaries, T. D. Adams, Newton, Mass. ; J. J. Ladd, Providence, R. I.

Treasurer, George A. Walton, Boston, Mass.

Curators, J. E. Horr, Brookline, Mass.; Samuel Swan, Boston, Mass. ; Henry C. Hardon, Boston, Mass.

Censors, James A. Page, Boston, Mass. ; C. Goodwin Clark, Boston, Mass.; Edward Stickney, Newton, Mass.

Counsellors, Charles Hutchins, Boston, Mass.; George N. Bigelow, Newburyport, Mass.; Wm. T. Adams, Boston, Mass.; A. G. Boyden, Bridgewater, Mass.; W. A. Mowry, Providence, R. I.; N. A. Calkins, N. Y. City; J. W. Webster, Boston, Mass.; D. W. Jones, Roxbury, Mass.; A. S. Higgins, Brooklyn, N. Y.; I. N. Camp, Burlington, Vt. ; D. W. Hoyt, Providence, R. I.; E. A. Hubbard, Springfield, Mass.

We are requested to give notice that the Saturday-afternoon meetings for the discussion of educational subjects have been resumed at the rooms of the Teachers' Association, 118 Washington Street, and all teachers and others interested in the subject are cordially invited to attend.

We are also requested to announce that the lecture of Mr. Lincoln on School Discipline is printed, and may be procured at a very low price at the bookstores.

We ask the special attention of our readers to the French courses advertised in this number for the coming winter, by Prof. Bôcher.

INTELLIGENCE. In the Superior Court, in the case of LEVERETT M. CHASE, Esq., Master of the Washington Grammar School, Roxbury, an appeal from the verdict of the lower Court, in the matter of the corporal punishment of a pupil, the jury rendered a verdict of " not guilty” without leaving their seats. We have already recorded the unanimous re-appointment of Mr. Chase by the Roxbury School Committee. The following is the ruling of the judge in reference to the law:

“ The relation between the teacher and scholar is a peculiar one. It partakes, while the pupil is in school, of a parental character, and is, if he chooses it, absolute and without appeal from any quarter, when exercised within its proper limits. Such also is the power of the parent. His authority is absolute at home, on the same conditions, if he chooses to exercise it. A good parent desires to co-operate with the teacher, and is thankful for any proper correction of his child. A good teacher desires to aid parents in training up his pupils in babits of good order and obedience to authority. Between the school and the home the jurisdiction of the teacher and the parent is concurrent. If the teacher sees or knows a boy to violate the laws; if he finds him acquiring habits of a dangerous character; if he sees bim becoming vicious, and his example injurious to others, or calculated to affect his own standing at school or at home, it is his duty to interfere, to restrain and retorm. For this purpose it is his right to punish, to a reasonable extent, if no other method will avail. But the teacher must hold himself responsible to the law in his punishment, and be careful not to transcend in severity its humane and proper limits.”

Mr. HENRY F. MUNROE, for the past eight years Principal of the Derby Academy, Hingham, has been appointed teacher of the Latin department of the Chicago High School.

The New JERSEY NORMAL School. — The State Normal School opens with a larger number than have ever before been in attendance at one time. There are 136 pupils in the Normal department, 144 in the boys' department of the Model School, and 193 in the young ladies' department; total, 473. The Farnum Preparatory School at Beverly likewise opens with about fifty per cent above its usual attendance at this season of the year, having 181. The average age of the class admitted to the Normal School is nearly 19. State Gazette.

[The school is now under the efficient management of John S. Hart.]

BOOK NOTICES. We notice in Child's Publisher's Circular several announcements, which will be of interest to teachers. Messrs. Leypoldt & Holt, of New York, propose to publish in the original French, with a full vocabulary, the charming little book by Jean Macé, “ Histoire d'une Bouchée de Pain.” — History of a mouthful of Bread, - a little treatise on Physiology which will make an excellent class-book, and will entertain and instruct grown people as well as children. They also announce A Manual of Anglo-Saxon for Beginners, comprising a Grammar, Reader, and Glossary, which we trust will find its way into our High Schools; and also Prof. Hiram Corson's long-promised Thesaurus of Archaic English, which we recommend to the attention of all students of the English Language as the work of an accomplished and indefatigable scholar, wbose excellent little edition of Chaucer's Legend of Good Women, we

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