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the chapters have a common subject, they are thrown together at random more than on any plan.

4. When the Work was first called the Lun Yu, we cannot tell.6 The evidence in the preceding section is sufficient to prove that when the Han scholars were engaged in collecting the ancient Books, it came before them, not in broken tablets, but complete, and arranged in Books or Sections, as we now have it. The old Lun was found deposited in the wall of the house which Confucius had occupied, and must have been placed there not later than B.C. 211, distant from the date which I have assigned to the compilation, not much more than a century and a half. That copy, written in the most ancient characters, was, possibly, the autograph of the compilers.

We have the Writings, or portions of the Writings, of several authors of the third and fourth centuries before Christ. Of these, in addition to “The Great Learning,” “The Doctrine of the Mean," and “ The Works of Mencius,” I have looked over the Works of Seun K'ing? of the orthodox school, of the philosophers Chwang and Leě of the Taouist school, and of the heresiarch Mih.9

In The Great Learning, Commentary, chapter iv., we have the words of Ana. XII. xiii. In The Doctrine of the Mean, ch. iii., we have Ana. VI. xxvii.; and in ch. xxviii. 5, we have Ana. III. xxiv. In Mencius, II. Pt. I. ii. 19, we have Ana. VII. xxxiii., and in vii. 2, Ana. IV. i.; in III. Pt. I. iv. 11, Ana. VIII. xviii., xix.; in IV. Pt. 1. xiv. 1, Ana. XI. xvi. 2; V. Pt. II. vii. 9, Ana. X. xii. 4.; and in VII. Pt. II. xxxvii. 1, 2, 8, Ana. V. xxi., XIII. xxi., and XVII. xiii. These quotations, however, are introduced by "The Master said," or “Confucius said,” no mention being made of any book called “ The Lun Yu," or Analects. In The Great Learning, Commentary, x. 15, we have the words of Ana. IV. ii., and in Mencius, III. Pt. II. vii. 3, those of Ana. XVII. i, but without any notice of quotation.

6 In the continuation of the “General Examination of Records and Scholars, (thi *), Bk.cxcviii. p. 17, it is said, indeed, on the authority of Wang Chóung (), a scholar of the 1st century, that when the Work came out of the wall it was named a Chuen or Record (V), and that it was when Kóung Gan-kwò instructul a native of Tsin, named Foo-k'ing, in it, that t first got the name of Lun Yu:一武帝得論語于孔壁中,皆名日傳 FLOW #hpp, ha bh. if it were so, it is strange the circumstance is not meutioned in Ho Au's preface. 77 Ep. 8 LE F. 71 F. 9 F

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In the Writings of Seun K'ing, Book I. page 2, we find the words of Ana. XV. XXX; p. 6, those of XIV. xxv. In Book VIII. P.

13. we have the words of Ana. II. xvii. But in these three instances there is no mark of quotation.

In the Writings of Chwang, I have noted only one passage where the words of the Analects are reproduced. Ana. XVIII. v. is found, but with large additions, and no reference of quotation, in his treatise , on “The state of Men in the world, Intermediate,"10 placed, that is, between Heaven and Earth. In all those Works, as well as in those of Lët and Mili, the references to Confucius and lis disciples, and to many circumstances of his life, are numerous.ll The quotations of sayings of his not found in the Analects are likewise many, especially in the Doctrine of the Mean, in Mencius, and in the works of Chwang. Those in the latter are mostly burlesques, but those by the orthodox writers have more or less of classical authority. Soine of them may be found in the Kea Yu, 12 or“ Family Sayings," and in parts of the Le Ke, while others are only known to us by their occurrence in these Writings. Altogether, they do not supply the evidence, for which I am in quest, of the existence of the Analects as a distinct Work, bearing the name of the Lun Yu, prior to the Ts'in dynasty. They leave the presumption, however, in favour of those conclusions, which arises from the facts stated in the first section, undisturbed. They confirm it rather. They show that there was abundance of materials at hand to the scholars of Han, to compile a much larger Work with the same title, if they had felt it their duty to do the business of compilation, and not that of editing.



1. It would be a vast and unprofitable labour to attempt to give a list of the Commentaries which have been published on this Work. My object is merely to point out how zealously the business of interpretation was undertaken, as soon as the text had been recovered by the scholars of the Han dynasty, and with what industry it has been persevered in down to the present time.

10 1 F 11 In Mil's chapter against the Literati, he mentions some of the characteristics of Confucius, in the very words of the 10th Book of the Analects. 12

2. Mention has been made, in Section I. 6, of the Lun of prince Chang, published in the half century before our era. Paou Heen, a distinguished scholar and officer, of the reign of Kwang-won, the first emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty, A.1). 25–57, and another scholar of the surname Chow,' less known but of the same time, published Works, containing arrangements of this into chapters and sentences, with explanatory notes. The critical work of Kóung Gan-kwö on the old Lun Yu has been referred to. That was lost in consequence of suspicions under which Gan-kwõ fell towards the close of the reign of the emperor Woo, but in the time of the emperor Shun, A.D. 126– 144, another scholar, Ma Yung,t undertook the exposition of the characters in the old Lun, giving at the same time his views of the general meaning. The labours of Ch‘ing Heuen in the second century have been mentioned. Not long after his death, there ensued a period of anarchy, when the empire was divided into three governments, well known from the celebrated historical romance, called “ The Three States.” The strongest of them, the House of Wei, patronized literature, and three of its high officers and scholars, Ch'in K‘enn, Wang Suh, and Chow Shang-löě,in the first half, and probably the second quarter, of the third century, all gave to the world their notes on the Analects.

Very shortly after, five of the chief ministers of the Government of Wei, Sun Yung, Ch'ing Chóung, Tsaou lle, Seun Kae, and Ho An,6 united in the production of one great Work, entitled, “A Collection of Explanations of the Lun Yu."? It embodied the labours of all the writers which have been inentioned, and having been frequently reprinted by succeeding dynasties, it still remains. The preface of the five compilers, in the form of a memorial to the emperor, so called, of the House of Wei, is published with it, and has been of much assistance to me in writing these sections. Ho An was the leader among them, and the work is commonly quoted as if it were the production of him alone.

1包成光武,周氏4至順帝時,南郡太守,馬融亦 為之訓說,司晨,陳韋太常王肅;博士,周生列。光 祿大夫,關內侯孫急,

光祿大夫,鄭;散騎常侍中領 軍, 安鄉亭侯曹義;侍中,荀題;尚書,射

馬都尉關內侯, To # ft.

3. From Ho An downwards, there has hardly been a dynasty which has not contributed its labourers to the illustration of the Analects. In the Leang, which occupied the throne a good part of the sixth century, there appeared the “Comments of Wang K‘an,"8 who to the seven authorities cited by Ho An added other thirteen, being scholars who had deserved well of the Classic during the intermediate time. Passing over other dynasties, we come to the Sung, A.D. 960–1279. An edition of the Classics was published by imperial authority, about the beginning of the 11th century, with the title of " The correct Meaning" The principal scholar engaged in the undertaking was Hing P'ing.' The portion of it on the Analects10 is commonly reprinted in “The Thirteen Classics,” after Ho An's explanations. But the names of the Sung dynasty are all thrown into the shade by that of Choo He, than whom China has not produced a greater scholar. He composed, in the 12th century, three Works on the Analects: the first called “Collected Meanings,"11 the second, “Collected Comments;"12 and the third, “Queries."13 Nothing could exceed the grace and clearness of his style, and the influence which he has exerted on the literature of China has been almost despotic.

The scholars of the present dynasty, however, scem inclined to question the correctness of his views and interpretations of the Classics, and the chief place among them is due to Maou K'e. ling, 14 known by the nom de plume of Se-ho,15 His writings, under the name of " The collected Works of Se-ho,"16 have been published in 80 volumes, containing between three and four hundred books or sections. He has nine treatises on The Four Books, or parts of them, and deserves to take rank with Ch‘ing Heuen and Choo He at the head of Chinese scholars, though he is a vehement opponent of the latter. Most of his writings are to be found also in the great Work called “A collection of Works on the Classics, under the Imperial dynasty of Ts'ing,"17 which contains 1,400 sections, and is a noble contribution by the present rulers of China to the illustration of its ancient literature.

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In “The Collection of Supplementary Observations on The Four Books," the second chapter contains a general view of commentaries on the Analects, and from it I extract the following list of various readings of the text found in the comments of Ch'ing Heuen, and referred to in the first section of this chapter. Book II. i, fit for #; viii., lite for fp; xix., for #; xxiii

. 2, + T *H. without , for til H . Book III. vii, in the clause iv tet F-, he makes a full stop at t; xxi. 1, Ã for it. Book IV. x., tak for it, and for. Book V.

# Book VI, vii, he has not the characters Book VII. iv., en for de ; xxxiv., F 3 simply, for F. Book IX. ix, fi for. Book XI. xxv. 7, Ek for , and for S. Book XIII. iii. 3, F# for £ ; xviii, 1,5 for . Book XIV. xxxi, for ; xxxiv

. 1, for E tag that the hil for To The two # Hl. Book XV. i. 2, ME for W. Book XVI. i. 13, Hf for #. Book XVII. i., fit for $ ; XXIV. 2, penge for BK Book XVIII. iv., for ; viii

. 1, Pfor #

Ixi., he puts a full stop at

These various readings are exceedingly few, and in themselves insignificant. The student who wishes to pursue this subject at length, is provided with the means in the Work of Teih (? Chih) Keaou-show, expressly devoted to it. It forms sections 449-473 of the Works on the Classics, mentioned at the close of the last section.


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