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is made in all the tones, and not in the first or “even one only. The author, moreover, has fancied that he could detect that distinction in the pronunciation of teachers of the Court dialect. On this subject, however, he speaks with submission.
There are many deficiencies in the present volume in point of typographical execution, for which the author ventures to ask the indulgence of the reader. The only workmen employed upon it have been Chinese. He is under great obligation to his excellent friend, Mr. Hwang Shing, the superintendent of the Mission Printing Office; but well-skilled as he is in the English language, he could not perform the duties of proof-reader. The work of correction has mainly devolved on the author himself or members of his family, and has been done when the mind was otherwise occupied, or amid constant interruptions. The errors would have been much more nume. rous than they are but for the great kindness of Mr. Jeffrey, formerly of the “ China Mail” Office, who has read nearly all the shects before their finally going to press. To Mr. Low, of the same Office, and latterly to Mr. Dixson, the proprietor of the “China Mail,” the author is glad to take this opportunity of expressing his thanks for their advice and help in many typographical matters. The more serious mistakes will be found corrected, it is hoped, in the subjoined lists. For others of smaller importance the circumstances just mentioned may form some apology; and where the sound of a Chinese character may in a few instances have been represented somewhat incorrectly, the character itself in a foot-note, or its sound in the 7th Index, will supply the necessary correction. The author has likewise to thank his friend, and former colleague in the Mission at Hongkong, the Rev. Mr. Chalmers, for the compilation of the indexes of Subjects and Proper Names.
LIST OF TIE PRINCIPAL WORKS WHICH HAVE BEEN COXSULTED IN TIIE PREPARATION
OF THIS VOLUJE.
OF THE CHINESE CLASSICS GENERALLY.
BOOKS INCLUDED UNDER THE NAME OF THE CHINESE CLASSICS.
1. The Books now recognized as of highest authority in China are comprehended under the denominations of “The five King,”ı and “The four Shoo."2 The term King is of textile origin, and signifies the warp threads of a web, and their adjustment. An easy application of it is to denote what is regular and insures regularity. As used with reference to books, it indicates their authority on the subjects of which they treat. “The five King" are the five canonical Works, containing the truth upon the highest subjects from the sages of China, and which should be received as law by all generations. The term Shoo simply means Writings or Books.
2. The five King are:--the Yih,3 or, as it has been styled, “The Book of Changes;" the Shoo,4 or “The Book of History;" the She,5 or “The Book of Poetry;" the Le Ke, or “Record of Rites;” and the Ch'un Tsew,7 or “Spring and Autumn," a chronicle of events, extending from 721 to 480, B.C. The authorship, or compilation rather, of all these works is loosely attributed to Confucius. But much of the Le Ke is froin later hands. Of the Yih, the Shoo, and the She, it is only in the first that we find additions from the philosopher himself, in the shape of appendixes. The Ch'un Ts'ew is the only one of the five King which can rightly be described as of his own “making." 1 2 14 3 9 F - Fr. 52 Factor U. 7 Tek.