תמונות בעמוד

並萬之載土。文国 而終此 行物 錯無 無辟武 武仲逢 而並行不如上 尼有 君射 不育如覆天律

日懦地天述於未幾 情不

不月辟之時堯天有凤 小相之 如無下舜下不夜

害代四 襲憲者如以 川道明時持水


petuate their praise.” Never has there been a ruler, who did not realize this description, that obtained an early renown throughout the empire.

CHAPTER XXX. 1. Chung-ne hanled down the doctrines of Yaou and Shun, as if they had been his ancestors, and elegantly displayed the regulations of Wăn and Woo, taking them as his model. Above, he harmonized with the times of heaven, and below, he was conformed to the water and land.

2. He may be compared to heaven and earth, in their supporting and containing, their overshadowing and curtaining, all things. He may be compared to the four seasons in their alternating progress, and to the sun and moon in their successive shining.

3. All things are nourished together without their injuring one another. The courses of the seasons, and of the sun and moon, are pursued without any collision among them. The smaller energies

30. THE EULOGIUM OF CONFUCIUS, AS THE ) were very remote. Was not the true reasori BEAU-IDEAL OF THE PERFECTLY SINCERE MAN, this, that he knew of nothing in China more THE SAGE, MAKING A TERXION WITI HEAVEN

remote than Yaou and Shun? By the times and Eantil. 1. fub -Sec ch. ii. The va of heaven' are denoted the ceaseless regular rious predicates here are explained by K'ang- movement, which appears to belong to the shing, and Ying-tă, witli reference to the Spring heavens; and by the water and the land,' and Autumn,' making them descriptive of it,

we are to understand the earth, in contradistincbut such a view will not stand examination.

tion from heaven, supposed to be fixed and unIn translating the two first clauses, I have followed the editor of the 參匯, who says: 一

moveable. , 'astatute," a law;' hero used

一祖 Tun klo ZS follow,' ' to accord with The scope of the par.

as a verb, 'to take as a law. W=,to ## . In the mind is, that the qualities of former sages, of Heaven


and of Earth, were all concentrated in Con聞編 e, it is observed that in what he handed

fucius. down, Confucius began with Yaou and Shw,

2. 辟,一reall as and-,錯 because the times of Fuh-he and Shin-nung read tsíðh,= “successively, “alternatingly.'

以最齊剛足有能 地流 有也莊毅以臨聰唯之 別文中足有也明天所德 也正以容寬睿下以敦 溥 溥密、足有也裕知至為化 博祭以執發温、足聖此 洲足有也强柔以爲也,天


are like river currents; the greater energies are seen in mighty transformations. It is this which makes heaven and earth so great.

CHAPTER XXXI. 1. It is only he, possessed of all sagely qualities that can exist under heaven, who shows himself quick in apprehension, clear in discerniment, of far-reaching intelligence, and, all-embracing knowledge, fitted to exercise rule; magnanimous generous, benign, and mild, fitted to exercise forbearance; impulsive, energetic, firm, and enduring, fitted to maintain a firm hold; self-adjusted, grave, never swerving from the Mean, and correct, fitted to command reverence; accomplished, distinctive, concentrative, and searching, fitted to exercise discrimination.

2. All-embracing is he and vast, deep and active as a fountain, sending forth in their due seasons his virtues. • This describes,' says Choo Ile, “the virtue of and Earth, in the manner here described.' Conthe sage.' 3. The wonderful and mysterious sidering the whole chapter to be thus descripcourse of nature, or--as the Chinese conceive,- tive of Confucius, I was inclined to translate in of the operations of Heaven and Earth, are des the past tense, _ It was only he, who could,'&c. cribed to illustrate the previous comparison of Still the author has expressed himself so inConfucius,

definitely, that I have preferred translating the 31. THE EULOGIUM OX CONFUCIUS CONTINU whole, that it may read as the description of ED. Choo He says that this chapter is an ex the ideal man, who found, or might have found, pansion of the clause in the last paragr. of the his realization in Confucius. 1. PfEFTE preceding, -• The smaller energies are like river currents.' Even if it be so, it will still have | 聖 , -see ch. xxi. here takes the place of reference to Confucius, the subject of the preceding chapter. K'ang-shing's account of the first . Collie translates : It is only the most paragraph is : 言德不如此不可 HOLY man.' Remusat :-*It n'y a dans l'univers

qu’un saint, qui... So the Jesuits :- Hic commem以君天下也蓋傷孔子有其 orat et commendat summe SANCTI virtutes.' But ho

liness and sanctity are terms which indicate the TTE 17. “It describes how no one

, humble and pious conformity of human character who has not virtue such as this, can rule the and life to the mind and will of God. The Chinese empire, being a lamentation over the fact that idea of the is far enough from this. the appointment;' that is, of Heaven, to occupy - Bore the approach the throne. Maou's account of the whole chap- of the honourable to the mean is called lin. It ter is :- Had it been that Chung-ne possessed denotes the high drawing near to the low, to the empire, then Chung-ne was a perfect sage. influence and rule. 2. 3 an abyss, a been able to put forth the greater energies, and spring,' equal, acc. to Choo Ile, to 静深而 world, and show himsell the coequal of llcaven 1 #still and deep, and having a root." 0.

[ocr errors]


氣月通 及是 而

莫照 百聲

露覆: 民溥



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

3. All-embracing and vast, he is like heaven. Deep and active as a fountain, he is like the abyss. He is seen, and the people all reverence him; he speaks, and the people all believe him; he acts, and the people all are pleased with him. Therefore his fame overspreads the Middle kingdom, and extends to all barbarous tribes. Wherever ships and carriages reach; wherever the strength of man penetrates; wherever the heavens overshadow and the earth sustains; wherever the sun and moon shine; wherever frosts and dews fall:all who have blood and breath unfeignedly honour and love him. Hence it is said, “He is the equal of Heaven.”

CHAFTER XXXII. 1. It is only the individual possessed of the most entire sincerity that can exist under heaven, who can adjust i Ź, “always,'—or, in season--puts them in the t , x. 15, as representaforth,' the Ź,' them,' having reference to the tives of all barbarous tribes. Ble, read chuy, qualities described in par. 1.3. 見“he is low.ad tone =墜 to tal. seen;'-with reference, says the to the robes and cap,' the visibilities of the ruler. “He “The chapter,' says Cboo He, expands the speaks ;'-with reference to his instructions, de- clause in the last par, of ch. xxix., that the clarations, orders.' 'He acts; '—with reference greater energies are seen in mighty transforma

tions. The sage is here not merely equal to to his ceremonies, music, punishments, and acts

| Heaven :-he is another Heaven, an indepenof government.” 4. This par. is the glowing dent being, a God. 1. K and are proexpression of grand conceptions. the gen

cesses in the manipulation of silk, the former eral name for the rude tribes south of the Mid

denoting the first separating of the threads, and dle kingdoin. He is another name for the the latter the subsequent bringing of them to狄 or rude tribes on the north. The two stand gether, according to their kinds. 天下之 here, liko i * Ana. III. v. and like 19 ***- the great invariabilities of the world;'



[ocr errors]


知天固浩其焉天天天 詩之德聰浩仁有地下下

者明 洲所之之之 衣 其聖 淵倚化大

熟知其肺育本經 尚 能達不潤肺夫知立

the great invariable relations of mankind, establish the great fundamental virtues of humanity, and know the transforming and nur turing operations of Heaven and Earth;—shall this individual have any being or any thing beyond himself on which he depends ?

2. Call him man in his ideal, how earnest is he! Call him an abyss, how deep is he! Call himn Heaven, how vast is he!

3. Who can know him, but he who is indeed quick in apprehension, clear in discernment, of far-reaching intelligence, and all-embracing knowledge, possessing all heavenly virtue?

CHAINTER XXXIII. 1. It is said in the Book of Poetry, “Over explained of the 達道 and 九經, in ch. Choo He reclaims, and justly. In the MA H XX. 8, 12. 天下之大本, the great | 編 we read:一天人本無二,人只有 root of the sorld revidently with reference to 此形體,與天便隔視聽思 the same expression in ch. i. 4. H is taken as contatics 有默契為非旦聞見黨動作皆由我各我其

我,可知其小也,除却形體 Ź TO E, he has an intuitive apprehension of, and agreement with, them. It is not DEA EP to , that he knows them merely by hearing and see 只克去有我之私,便是除也, ins:夫焉有所倚 This sponelbs | 关這般廣大吾心亦這般 K'ang-shing with the next par., and he interprets it of the Master's virtue, 'universally af- Still PE FE ## itse reaching only to those near him or to few. #. 'Heaven and man are Choo He more correctly, as it seems to me, takes not originally two, and man is separate from

EPAT 'to depend on. I translate Heaven only by his having this body. Of their the expansion of the clause which is given in ing, their moving and acting, men all say!

seeing and hearing, their thinking and revolvConfucius Sinarum Philosophus.—“The perfectly is from me. Every one thus brings out his holy man of this kind therefore, since he is such and so great, how can it in any way be, let the body be taken away, and all would be

SELF, and his smallness becomes known. But that there is any thing in the whole universe, Heaven. How can the body be taken away? on which he leans, or in which he inheres, or on Simply by subduing and removing that selfwhich he behooves to depend, or to be assisted having of the ego. This is the taking it away. by it in the first place, that he may afterwards That being done, so wide, and great as Heaven operate ?' 2. The three clauses refer severally | is, my mind is also so wide and great, and proto the three in the prec. paragraph. is vir- duction and transformation cannot be separated tuous humanity in all its dimensions and capa

Heaven.' cities, existing perfectly in the sage. of

sterious speculation are Chinese thinkers condo not know what to say. The old Comm. in- ducted by the text:-only to be lost in them. terpret the second and third clauses, as if there As it is said, in par. 3, that only the sage can were a fins before H and F, against which know the sage, we may be glad to leave him.

[ocr errors]

from me.

Hence it is said--llow vast is his

次無惡於志君子 孔之昭故君子内心


知不日章君 疚之詩微遠厭亡)

之之簡君人之其 潜顯近 子之道文 可知文之;

文之道闇之 1 與 風溫道的然著 內矣之而 淡然而也 子省亦德自理而


be sure,

her embroidered robe she puts a plain, single garment,” intimating a dislike to the display of the elegance of the former. Just so, it is the way of the superior man to prefer the concealment of his virtue, while it daily becomes more illustrious, and it is the way of the mean man to seek notoriety, while he daily goes more and more to ruin. It is characteristic of the superior man, appearing insipid, yet never to produce satiety; while showing a simple negligence, yet to have his accomplishments recognized; while seemingly plain, yet to be discriminating. He knows how what is distant lies in what is near. He knows where the wind proceeds from. He knows how what is minute becomes manifested. Such an one, we may will enter into virtue.

2. It is said in the Book of Poetry, “ Although the fish sink and lie at the bottom, it is still quite clearly seen.” Therefore the supe. 33. THE COMMENCEMENT AND THE COMPLE 衣斃 and are synonyms. (up. 3a

The chapter is understood to contain a summary of the whole tone) IZŽ is a gloss by Tsze-sze, giving Work, and to have a special relation to the first the spirit of the passage. The ode is understood chapter. There, a commencement is made with

to express the condolence of the people, with the Heaven, as the origin of our nature, in which are grounded the laws of virtuous conduct.

wife of the duke of Wei, worthy of, but denied, This ends with Ileaven, and exhibits the pro- the affection of her husband. #F Zİ, gress of virtue, advancing step by step in man, till it is equal to that of High Heaven. There I3-6 seems here to correspond are eight citations from the Book of Poetry, exactly to our English way, as in the translabut to make the passages suit his purpose, the tion. As-the primary meaning of it is at his pleasure. Origen took no more license DJ, “bright,‘displayed.' ' , 'displayedwith the scriptures of the old and new Testa: like,' in opp. to M X 'concealed-like.fi ment than Tsze-sze and even Confucius himself do with the Book of Poetry. 1. The first requi- i zi-what is distant, is the nation to site in the pursuit of virtue is, that the learner think be governed, or the fainily to be regulated ; of his own improvement

, and do not act from a regard what is near, is the person to be cultivated. *** to others. El-see the She-king, I. v. Ode a Ź-the wind is the influence exerted III. st. 1., where we read, however, #sik upon others, the source of which is one's own


« הקודםהמשך »