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道君至故待”三 優萬道。
問子道口 日其 百優物洋大圖
廣忙焉至後 禮于發人


Chapter XXVII. 1. How great is the path proper to the sage!

2. Like overflowing water, it sends forth and nourishes all things, and rises up to the height of heaven.

3. All complete is its greatness! It embraces the three hundred rules of ceremony, and the three thousand rules of demeanour.

4. It waits for the proper man, and then it is trodden.

5. Hence it is said, * Only by perfect virtue can the perfect path, in all its courses, be made a fact.”

6. Therefore, the superior man honours his virtuous nature, and inaintains constant inquiry and study, seeking to carry it out to its passage, defined by a place,' 'a small exegetical of it. Y, it is said, is here, as every plot. In the town is defined as where else in the work (see the , in loc.), JT Z Ž 'the first-produced of the the path which is in acc. with the nature. The chelonia ;" ti as the chief 2, when the predicate about the nourishing of of scaly animals;' ME as being a ‘kind of 誼;

all things puzzles and confounds him. 2. tala as being “a kind of the while the main

is not here the adverb, but= 'reaching to.' has scales like a fish, feet like a dragon, and is

3. By 禮儀 we are to understand the great

er and more general principles of propriety, related to the By Hy are intended pearls "such,' says the H* as capping, marriage, and valuable shells; by , fish, salt, &c. 10. mourning, and sacrifice ;' and by See the She-king, IV.i. Bk. I. Ode. II. st. 1. The

intended all the minuter observances of those. attributes of the ordinances of Heaven, and the virtue of king Wản, are here set forth, as sub- The former are also in mother

,經and 正 I stantially the same. Ast="fine and pure,' ** ; the latter, til hve, and they met. See the

meaning of ceaselessness," quoting the last #, in loc. 300 and 3000 are round num-
clause here, , as if it were de- minutiæ, to show how, in every one of them,

bers. Reference is made to these rules and their finition, and not description.

as proceeding from the sage, there is a principle, 27. THE GLORIOUS PATH OF THE SAGE; AND

to be referred to the Heaven-given nature. 4. HOW THE SUPERIOR MAN ENDEAVOURS TO ATTAIN

Comp. ch. xx. 2. In · Confucius Sinarum PhilosoTO IT. The chapter thus divides itself into two phus,' it is suggested that there may be here a parts, one containing five parr., descriptive of prophecy of the Saviour, and that the writer the 聖人

may have been under the influence of that or SAGE, and the other two, des

spirit, by whose moving the Sibyls formerly criptive of the F, or superior man, which prophesied of Christ. There is nothing in the {wo appellations are to be here distinguished. text to justify such a thonght. 5. et "to conthat follow." They are, indeed, to be taken us / geal;' then, = h; "to complete,' and 'to

反古之道如此者及 好自專生乎今

反而保以足為以 日


其容以下 盡 日身

與不 温 其 國倍,

倍是故很 此既無國故而極 好之明道有居知高 自謂且其道上新明

用 默 其不敦而 及世暖 以足言驕厚道


person ?"

breadth and greatness, so as to omit none of the more exquisite and minute points which it embraces, and to raise it to its greatest height and brilliancy, so as to pursue the course of the Mean. He cherishes his old knowledge, and is continually acquiring new.

He exerts an honest, generous, earnestness, in the esteem and practice of all propriety;

7. Thus, when occupying a high situation, he is not proud, and in a low situation, he is not insubordinate. When the kingdom is well-governed, he is sure by his words to rise; and when it is illgoverned, he is sure by his silence to command forbearance to himself. Is not this what we find in the Book of Poetry,—“Intelligent is he and prudent, and so preserves his

CHAPTER XXVIII. 1. The Master said, “Let a man who is ignorant be fond of using his own judgment; let a man without rank be fond of assuming a directing power to himself; let a man who is living in the present age go back to the ways of antiquity ;-on the persons of all who act thus calamities will be sure to come. fix. The whole par. is merely a repetition of the prec. one, in other words. 6 道 in both cases here, -, 'to proceed from,' or “by.' It is connection of the kind thus indicated between

this chapter and the last, but the principal obsaiul correctly, that -mg ject of what is said here, is to prepare the way the first sentence - ni DEM W Bium or him, a sage without the throne. 1. The , is the brains of the whole paragraph. i different clauses here may be understood gene

rally, but they have a special reference to the tik itn F.-See Ana. II. XI. 7. This de- general scope of the chapter. Three things are bcribes the superior man, largely successful in required to give law to the empire: virtue (inpursuing the course indicated in the prec. par. cluding intelligence); rank; and the right time. 倍-背詩日—See the She-king, II. 愚 is he who wants the virtue; is he who

wants the rank; and the last clause describes


iii. Ode VI. st. 5.



杞禮德不倫。下禮其 之宅不藥莉


推車不身 存足

有同制者 從焉徵


軌度也 也日

不 學吾 亦焉

為荷同考天 周學說 不雖 雖無文文子 禮殷夏敢有 行今 今禮禮作其德 天議



may not

2. To no one but the emperor does it belong to order ceremonies, to fix the measures, and to determine the characters.

3. Now, over the empire, carriages have all wheels of the same size; all writing is with the same characters; and for conduct there are the same rules.

4. One may occupy the throne, but if he have not the proper virtue, he may not dare to make ceremonies or music. One may have the virtue, but if he do not occupy the throne, he

presume to make ceremonies or music.

5. The Master said, “I may describe the ceremonies of the Hea dynasty, but Ke cannot sufficiently attest my words. I have learned the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, and in Sung they still continue. I have learned the ceremonies of Chow, which are now used, and I follow Chow.” the absence of the right time. In this last | propriate to many characters, written or printed. which should have given course in China mente , in the text, must denote both the form and doctrine of Progress. 2. This, and the two sound of the character. Pat to discuss,' and Tsze-sze, illustrating the prec. declarations *; 'to examine,' but implying, in each case, of Confucius. We have here the imperial the consequent ordering and settling. There prerogatives, which might not be usurped. is a long and eulogistic note here, in . Confucias *Ceremonies' are the rules regulating religion Sinarum Philosophus,' on the admirable uniforand society; the measures' are the prescribed mity secured by these prerogatives throughout forms and dimensions of buildings, carriages, the Chinese empire. It was natural for Roman clothes, &c.; ☆ is said by Choo He, after Catholic writers, to regard Chinese uniformity K-ang-shing, to be the names of the value, of such a system in its formative intuence characters.' But is properly the form of be judged, both in the empire of China, and in the character, representing, in the original char- the church of Rome. 3. 4, 'now' is said acters of the language, the TE, or figure of the with reference to the time of Tsze-sze. The object denoted. The character and name toge- par. is intended to account for Confucius' not ther are styled *; and is the name ap- giving law to the empire. It was not the time.

請之民不焉不無乎重國 馬道弗尊者信徵上焉王 民本從不雖民無焉 天 考諸故信善弗徵者寡下 諸身君不不從不難過有 三徵子信算下信善矣:


CHAPTER XXIX. 1. He who attains to the sovereignty of the empire, having those three important things, shall be able to effect that there shall be few errors under his government.

2. However excellent may have been the regulations of those of former times, they cannot be attested. Not being attested, they cannot command credence, and not being credited, the people would not follow them. However excellent might be the regulations made by one in an inferior situation, he is not in a position to be honoured. Unhonoured, he cannot command credence, and not being credited, the people would not follow his rules.

3. Therefore the institutions of the Ruler are rooted in his own character and conduct, and sufficient attestation of them is given by the masses of the people. He examines them by comparison with those of the three kings, and finds them without mistake. He sets 軌 the rut of a whel' 4. 禮樂; but we which we have seen, in the notes on the last ch., must understand also the measures,' and “char

to be necessary to one who would give law to acters,' in par. 2. This par. would seem to

the empire. Maou mentions this view, inclicatreduce most emperors to the condition of rois ing his own approval of it. is used as a faineants. 5. See the Ana. III. ix., xiv., which verb, 6 to make few.”—IIe shall be able to effect chapters are quoted here; but in regard to what

that there shall be few errors,' i. e., few errors is said of Sung, with an important variation. The par. illustrates how Confucius himself as among his officers and people. 2. By Ethi T712, 'occupied a low station, without and TX, Kʻang-shing understands

sovereign and minister,' in which, again, we being insubordinate.'

must pronounce him wrong. The translation 29. AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE SENTENCE IN

follows the interpr. of Choo He, it being underTUIE XXVIITH CHAPTER-- WHEN HE OCCUPIES A

stood that the subject of the par. is the regulaHIGH SITUATION, HE IS NOT PROUD;' OR RATHER,

tions to be followed by the people. E# 1. Different opinions have having a reference both to time and to rank, obtainel as to what is intended by the 三重,下焉者 must liave the sanie. Thus there • three important things.' K'ang-shing says they is in it an allusion to Confucius, and the way is are = Iz to, the ceremonies of the still further prepared for his eulogium. 3. By three kinys, i.e.

, the founders of the three dy- # F is intended the EXT# in par. nasties, Hea, Yin, and Chow. This view we may safely reject. Choo He makes them to be the 1,—the emperor-sage. By I must be intended imperial prerogatives, mentioned in the last all his institutions and regulations. "Attestachapter, par. 2. This view may, possibly, be tion of them is given by the masses of the peocorrect. But I incline to the view of the com ple;' i. e., the people believe in such a ruler, mentator Luh (EFE), of the Tang dynasty, adaptation to the general requirements of hu

and follow his regulations, thus attesting their hat they refer to the virtue, station, and time, I manity. “The three kings, as mentioned above,


不則天世知百寶百家王 厭遠下為人世鬼世悖而 詩之 之法 天也以神以質不 日目 是侯而侯諸緣 在不 首故

故聖無聖 彼望 行君人

人疑 近 子而知 惡之天 動 不天不無地 在則下為


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them before heaven and earth, and finds nothing in them contrary to their mode of operation. He presents himself with them before spiritual beings, and no doubts about them arise. He is prepared to wait for the rise of a sage, a hundred ages after, and has no misgivings.

4. His presenting himself with his institutions before spiritual beings, without any doubts about them arising, shows that he knows Heaven. His being prepared, without any misgivings, to wait for the rise of a sage a hundred ages after, shows that he knows men.

5. Such being the case, the movements of such a ruler, illustrating his institutions, constitute an example to the empire for ages. His acts are for ages a law to the empire. His words are for ages a lesson to the empire. Those who are far from him, look longingly for him; and those who are near him, are never wearied with him.

6. It is said in the Book of Poetry,—“Xot disliked there, not tired of here, from day to day and night to night, will they perare the founders of the three dynasties, viz., the general trial of a sovereign's institutions by the great Yu, Trang, the Completer, and Win and efficacy of his sacrifice, in being responded to by Woo, who are so often joined together, and

the various spirits whom he worships. This is spoken of as one. -謬, and should be

the view of a llo Kle-clien (何蛇膽), and read in the low. 30 tone. I hardly know what to make of 35 F Wh. Choo, in his is preferable to any other I have met with. 類,says:一 一此天地只是道耳,


Mencius, II. Pt. I. ii. 17. 6. See the She-king, E in bil ÜTNI IV. i. Bk. 11. Ode III. st. 2. It is a great descent Heaven and Earth here simply mean right to quote that ode here, however, for it is only reason. The meaning is—I set up my institutions here, and there is nothing in them contradie- praising the fendal princes of Chow. # 在彼 tory to right reason.' This, of course, is expl.ining the text away. But who can do any- there,' means their own States ; and itt thing better with it?" I interpret

there,' is the imperial court of Chow. For 4:1 THI, with ref. to sacrificial institutions, or the the She-king has

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