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變則誠 見 國至

誠其 誠 化。化明則 將著將將之 唯則形致 至龜亡與道 天動形曲, 善動必必可 下動則曲 必乎有有以 至則著能 先四妖頑前 誠變著有


CHAPTER XXIII. Next to the above is he wha cultivates to the utmost the shoots of goodness in hin. From those he can attain to the possession of sincerity. This sincerity becomes apparent. From being apparent, it becomes manifest. From being manifest, it becomes brilliant. Brilliant, it affects others. Affecting others, they are changed by it. Changed by it, they are transformed. It is only he who is possessed of the most complete sincerity that can exist under heaven, who can transform.

CHAPTER XXIV. It is characteristic of the most entire sincerity to be able to foreknow. When a nation or family is about to flourish, there are sure to be happy omens; and when it is about to perish, there are sure to be unlucky omens. Such events are seen in the milfoil and tortoise, and affect the movements of the four limbs.

would show itself, and it will travel round the

stone, and come out crookedly at its side.' So it is 1 *, 'the next,' or

with the good nature, whose free development

is repressed. It shows itself in shoots, but if - his next,' referring to the Bad HJ , they be cultivated and improved, a moral con

dition and influence may be attained, equal to of ch. xxi. lh is defined by Choo He-- that of the saye. VT, one half,' ' a part. Kóung-shing explains it by 小小之事, very small maters. '

至誠之道 is the quality in the abstract, , Maou defines it by 14, 'a corner,' and refers

while we at the end, is the entirely sincere

individual, -the sage, by nature, or by attainto Ana. VII. viii, 41-19TVEH ment. JF, 'lucky omens. In the dict, 反 as a sentiment analogous to the one in le T is used to define Ti. Tik may be used HbThere is difficulty about the term. It also of inauspicious omens, but here it cannot properly means'crooked,'and with a bad applica- embrace such. Distinguishing between the two tion, like VT, often siguifies deflection froin what terms, Ying-tă says that unusual appearances is straight and right.' Yet it cannot have a bad

of things existing in a country are

JTE, and apmeaning here, for if it have, the phrase, - pearances of things new are 旗:妖孽。 El dll, will be, in the connection, unintelligi- unlucky omens,' the former being spoken of ble. One writer uses this comparison :- Put a • prodigies of plants, and of strangely dressed stone on a bambou shoot, or where the shoot i boys singing ballads,' and the latter of prudi




包也所以成物 者非自成已而

已者子誠者而 神知
也非誠無物道誠 之之

之物之自者、 故

為是終道 至 成已貴。故始也成 物而誠君不誠也 如先



When calamity or happiness is about to come, the good shall certainly be foreknown by him, and the evil also. Therefore the individual possessed of the most complete sincerity is like a spirit.

CHAPTER XXV. 1. Sincerity is that whereby self-completion is effected, and is way is that by which inan must direct himself.

2. Sincerity is the end and beginning of things; without sincerity there would be nothing. On this account, the superior inan regards the attainment of sincerity as the most excellent thing.

3. The possessor of sincerity does not merely accomplish the self-completion of himself. With this quality he completes other mun and things also. The completing himself shows his perfect virtue. gious animals. The subject of the verbs All the commen. of the Sung school say, that

is the events, not the omens. Fortle | 誠 is here 天命之性, the learch-conmiltoil and tortoise, see the l'il-king, App. I. xi. ferred nature,' and that I is VEŽI They are there called itb $), spiritual things.' " the path which is in accordance with the naDivination by the milfoil was called th; that ture: They are probably correct, but the diffi

culty comes when we go on with this view of by the tortoise was called They were Did to the next par. 2. I translate the expanused from the highest antiquity. See the Shooking, II. i. 18; V. iv. 20-30 四體,four

sion of this in the All that fill up

the space between heaven and earth are things limbs,' are by Kang-shing interpreted of the fect of the tortoise, each foot being peculiarly

(). They end and they begin again; they Appropriate to divination in a particular season. begin and proceed to an end; every change beChoo lle interprets them of the four limbs of ing accomplished by sincerity, and every phe. the human boily. thu Tilt must be left as in

nomenon having sincerity unceasingly in it. So detinite in the translation as it is in the text.

far as the mind of man ( 2 ) is conThe whole chapter is eminently absurd, and cerned, it there be not sincerity, then every gives a character of ridiculousness to all the movement of it is vain and false. How can an magniloquent teaching about entire sincerity.' unreal mind accomplislı real things ? Although The foreknowledge attributed to the sage, -the it may do something, that is simply equivalent mitte of Ileaven,-is only a guessing by means to nothing. Therefore the superior man searches ut aligury, sorcery, and other follies.

out the source of sincerity, and examines the 23. HOW FROM SINCERITY COMES SELF-COM evil of insincerity, chooses what is good, and PLETION, AND THE COMPLETION OF OTHERS AND firmly holds it fast, so seeking to arrive at the

I have had difficulty in translating place of truth and reality.' Maou's explanation this chapter, because it is difficult to under- is :-Now, since the reason why the sincerity of Atand it. We wish that we had the writer be- spiritual beings is so incapable of being repressfore us to question him; but if we had, it is not ed, and why they foreknow, is because they enter likely that he would be able to afforil us much into things, and there is nothing without them: satisfaction. Persuaded that what he denom -shall there be anything which is without the inates simetrity is a figment, we may not won entirely sincere man, who is as a spirit?' I have der at the extravagance of its predicates. 1. given these specimens of commentary, that the


配成所博遠久也、性 天物 以厚則故故之 悠也覆所博則 至時 德

入博物以厚徵誠措也 也仁 無厚,也載请徵。無 疆配悠物厚則息宜 如產地 地久也則悠不也外物 此高所高高遠息 之知 者明以明明悠則 道也。


The completing other men and things shows his knowledge. Both these are virtues belonging to the nature, and this is the way by which a union is effected of the external and internal. Therefore, whenever hethe entirely sincere man-employs them,—that is, these virtues,their action will be right.

CHAPTER XXVI. 1. Hence to entire sincerity there belongs ceaselesssness.

2. Not ceasing, it continues long. Continuing long, it evidences itself.

3. Evidencing itself, it reaches far. Reaching far, it becomes large and substantial. Large and substantial, it becomes high and brilliant.

4. Large and substantial ;—this is how it contains all things. High and brilliant;—this is how it overspreads all things. Reaching far and continuing long ;-this is how it perfects all things.

5. So large and substantial, the individual possessing it is the coequal of Earth. So high and brilliant, it makes him the coequal of Heaven. So far-reaching and long-continuing, it makes liim intinite. reader may, if he can, by means of them, gather! 26. A PARALLEL BETWEEN TIIE SAGE PO8some apprehensible meaning from the text. 3. SESSED OF ENTIRE SINCERITY, AND HEAVES AND I have translated 17€ by"complete other men EARTH, SHOWING THAT THE SAME QUALITIES and things also,' with a reference to the account

BELONG TO THEM. The first six parr, show the

way of the sage; the next three show the way of the achievements of sincerity, in ch. xxii. On

of lleaven and Earth; and the last brings the 性之德也合外內之道也, the two ways together, in their essential nature, in

a passage from the She-king. The doctrine of Hi paraphrases :-"Now both this perfect the chapter is liable to the criticisms which have virtue and knowledge are virtues certainly and been made on the 22.1 ch. And, moreover, there originally belonging to our nature, to be referred is in it a sad confusion of the visible heavens for their bestowment to Heaven ;—what distinc.

and earth with the immaterial power and reation is there in them of external and internal ?' -All this, so far as I can sce, is but veiling son which govern them; in a word, with God ignorance by words without knowledge. 1. Because of the iske, hence,' or therefore,

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夫 也地武言

天明之則 成章 撮萬 斯也道其盡天 土物 也昭悠博士也地動 之覆日昭也也物其之而 多焉月之久厚不為道變


6. Such being its nature, without any display, it becomes manifested ; without any movement, it produces changes; and without any effort, it accomplishes its ends.

7. The way of Heaven and Earth may be completely declared in one sentence.— They are without any doubleness, and so they produce things in a manner that is unfathomable. 8. The

The way of Heaven and Earth is large and substantial, high and brilliant, far-reaching and long-enduring.

9. The heaven now before us is only this bright shining spot; but when viewed in its inexhaustible extent, the sun, moon, stars, and constellations of the zodiac, are suspended in it, and all things are overspread by it. The earth before us is but a handful of soil; but when regarded in its breadth and thickness, it sustains Choo He is condemned by recent writers for to illustrate the unfathomableness of Heaven making a new chapter to commence here. Yet and Earth in producing things, showing how the matter is sufficiently distinct from that of it springs from their sincerity, or freedom from the precedling one. . Where the pill takes hold of doubleness. I have already observed how it is

only the material heavens and earth which are the text above, however, it is not easy to discover. presented to us. And not only 90;-we have The gloss in the says that it indicates mountains, seas, and rivers, set forth as acting a conclusion from all the preceding predicates with the same unfathomablenens as those entire about sincerity. Tad is to be understood, bodies and powers. The Visays on this:

- The hills and waters are what Heaven and now in the abstract, and now in the concrete. But the 6th paragraph seems to be the place Earth produce, and that they should yet be able

themselves to produce other things, shows still to bring out the personal idea, as I have done.

more how Heaven and Earth, in the producing PILE SA, without bounds,'=our infinite. Surely of things, are unfathomable. The confusion it is strange--passing strange--to apply that

and error in such representations are very term in the description of any created being. lamentable. The use of in the several 7. What I said was the prime idea in D, viz., clauses here perplexes the student. On AZ • simplicity,' 'singleness of soul, is very conspi- B , Choo He says—ut # cuous here. 其為物不武一為 is the subst. verb. It surprises us, however, to find in Ź: This is speaking of it—heaHeaven and Earth called things,'at the same time that they are represented as by their entire sin

ven—"as it appears in one point. In the

' 中庸 cerity producing all things. 9. This par, is said it in loc., there is an attempt to make this

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之 顯口詩麗夫生一海:
所文天 云蚊水之卷

為 之所 与之魂 1.車
文德以之繼之 居多萬
也之為命生多之及 物獄

: 及寶 其
已平 已殖測焉草 振

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mountains like the Hwa and the Yoh, without-feeling their weight,
and contains the rivers and seas, without their leaking away. The
mountain now before us appears only a stone; but when contem-
plated in all the vastness of its size, we see how the grass and trees
are produced on it, and birds and beasts dwell on it

, and precious
things which men treasure up are found on it. The water now
before us appears but a ladleful; yet extending our view to its
unfathomable depths, the largest tortoises, iguanas, iguanadons,
dragons, fishes, and turtles

, are produced in them, articles of value and sources of wealth abound in them.

10. It is said in the Book of Poetry, “The ordinances of Heaven, how profound are they and unceasing!” The meaning is, that it is thus that Heaven is Heaven. And again, “How illustrious was it, the singleness of the virtue of king Wăn!” indicating that it was thus that king Wăn was what he was. Singleness likewise is unceasing. out by a definition of the #*-there are five peaks, or i worship

E, is overplus, meaning a small ped in China, the western one of which is called overplus.' DJ-comp. the Shoo

(low. 3d tone) Here, however, we king, I. 3. In that pass., as well as here, many

are to understand by each term a particular
tako das meaning the planets, but we need

mountain. See the 集證 and 中庸說,
not depart from the meaning of stars' gene- | in loc. In the 集證, the Yelow river, and
rally. F is applied variously, but used along that only, is understood by YPJ, but both it and
with the other terms, it denotes the conjunc-
tions of the sun

and moon, which divide the must be taken generally. read k‘euen,
circumference of the heavens into twelve parts. I lower 1st tone, is in the dict., with ref. to this

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