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矣將止有皆有社蒙夫訊

完去 危言不日禮主顯子 男用 而已欲夫之且且更 出彼陳电子臣在音求

了 持力孔欲也者無 W矣顯就于

子之何城先乃 龜且面、 日吾以之王爾

不不求二伐中以是 毁 扶貧 能周臣為吳為過 於過則者任者

者任者再是東頭。

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3. Confucius said, “K'ew, is it not you who are in fault here?

4. “Now, in regard to Chuen-yu, long ago, a former king appointed it to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mung; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our state; land its ruler is a minister in direct connexion with the emperor:-What has your chief to do with attacking it?”

5. Yen Yew said, “Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers wishes it."

6. Confucius said, “K'ew, there are the words of Chow Jin, "When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen ?'

7. And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or wild bull escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or gem is injured in its repository :—whose is the fault?” small territory in Loo, whose ruler was of the F to the Mung hill. He is not merely 'to attack, or 4th order of nobility. It was one of the states but 'to attack and punish,' an exercise of judi. called Fit JF, or 'attached,' whose chiefs could cial authority, which could emanate only from

the emperor. The term is used here, to show not appear in the presence of the emperor, ex

the nefarious and presumptuous character of cepting in the train of the prince within whose the contemplated operations. 2. There is somo jurisdiction they were embraced. Their exis- difficulty here, as, acc. to the 'Historical Retence was not from a practice like the sub-in-cords,' the two disciples were not in the service feudation, which belonged to the feudal system of the Ke family, at the same time. We may of Europe. They held of the lord paramount suppose, however, that Tsze-loo, returning with or emperor, but with the restriction which has the sage from Wei on the invitation of duke been mentioned, and with a certain subservience Gae, took service a second time, and for a short also to their immediate superior. Its particu- | period, with the Ke family, of which the chief lar position is fixed by its proximity to Pe, and was then Ke K'ang. This brings the time of the

和無寡安無傾夫 而患不安蓋

寡聞 之求必近有價

而君為於日中

必子子費
不 有癌疾亮今

家之夫憂。 傾均不者聲。舍孔

孔取电過 無患不丘帽子後 如貧貧患也日世而 而

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日今夫額免因 續中是誰之過與

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8. Yen Yew said, “But at present, Chuen-yu is strong and near to Pe; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants."

9. Confucius said, “K'ew, the superior man hates that declining to say-I want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for the conduct.

10. "I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be fow, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings. transaction to B. C. 483, or 482. ##$ a minister of the altars to the spirits -lit., 'is going to have an affair. 3. Conf. ad of the land and grain.' To those spirits only, dresses himself only to K‘ew, as he had been a the prince had the prerogative of sacrificing, considerable time, and very active, in the Ke The chief of Chuen-yu having this, how dared service. 4. It was the prerogative of the prin- an officer of Loo to think of attacking him? ces to sacrifice to the hills and rivers within the is used of his relation to the emperor. Chuen-yu, imperially appointed (the former choo He makes the phrase=

XZ king' is probably bit, the second emperor of a minister of the ducal house," saying that the the Chow dynasty) to be the lord of the Mung three families had usurped all the dominions mountain, that is, to preside over the sacrifices proper of Loo, leaving only the chiefs of the atoffered to it. This raised him high above any tached states to appear in the ducal court. I tain Mung is in the present district of Pe, in the prefer the former interpretation. To Whe department of E-chow. It was called eastern, to

the must be understood with reference to the Shen-se, which was the western Mung. I ke. appears to be an expletive, unless we ## til Ź 91-this is mentioned, to

—this is mentioned, to conceive it joined with the for, the two charshow that Chuen-yu was so situated as to give acters together being simply='why' or 'how.' Loo bo occasion for apprehension. T 5. * F, our “master' i. e., the chief of the

而在蕭牆之內也

标不 文是


愛於能也遠 今來
不守

由之
內也。
6分

: 也。顯

與恐謀離而也 之1

相夫子遠人不服

安之今由與求
文德以來之既來之
是故遠人不服則修

0十三師

11. “So it is.—Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil.

12. “Now, here are you, Yew and K'ew, assisting your chief. Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it.

13. “And yet he is planning these hostile movements within our state.-I am afraid that the sorrow of the Ke-sun family will not be on account of Chuen-yu, but will be found within the screen of their own court." Ke family. 6. Chow Jin is by Choo He simply means every one getting his own proper name called-'a good historiographer of ancient times and place. From this point, Conf. speaks of the Some trace him back to the Shang dynasty, and general disorganization of Loo under the manothers only to the early times of the Chow. agement of the three families, and especially of There are other weighty utterances of his in

the Ke. By we certainly cannot unvogue, besides that in the text. 7. Choo He explains by #, a wild bull. The dict. stand the people of Chuen-yu. 11. 7 is to be says it is like an ox, and goes on to describe it understood with a hiphil force, 'to make to come,' ne 'one-horned.' The #3B, says

*to attact. 12. 不能來不能守 that and 星

to be understood of the head of the Ke family, are different terms for the

as controlling the government of Loo, and as Bame animal, i. e., the rhinoceros. I cannot being assisted by the two disciples, so that the rethink that there is the living tortoise. That proof falls heavily on them. 13. The would not be kept in a 櫃 or 'coffer,' like a 之內,Choo He simply says 蕭牆,屏 gem. Perhaps the term is, by mistake, for t-seaou-ts-eang means a screen. In the 9. The regimen of extends down to the end dict., after Ch'ing K'ang-shing, seaou in this 夫-asin XL.2 4. 為之辭

, 'reverent, and has alone means

screen,' and the phrase is thus explained :ZE, V. 7. 10. Officers, on reaching the screen, which they had

only to pass, to find themselves in the presence here, with ref. to the of their head, were supposed to become more in p. 8. , equality, ' XA, Text="among his owo immediate officers.”.

reverential'; and hence, the expression in the

are

of the par.

pass.

is

the same idiom as

Conf. uses the term

天下有道則庶人不

天下 五世

諸下禮 有 了道 首則

則伐 政希 謝禮

不矢自侯樂天 :

失陪 出、 征子有

矣。臣夫蓋伐出道 議。夫。天就出十自

出于自天則

孔子日天下有

CHAPTER. II. 1. Confucius said, “When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions, proceed from the emperor. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the great officers of the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the kingdom, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three generations.

2. “When right principles prevail in the empire, government will not be in the hands of the great officers.

3. “When right principles prevail in the empire, there will be no discussions among the common people.”

which the emperor might order such expeditions. On the imperial prerogatives

, see the #NE.

XXVIII. , is here=th), “generally these utterances, Conf. had reference to the speaking,” “as a rule.! Po =

a 陪臣家臣, disorganized state of the empire, when the son of Heaven' was fast becoming an empty name,

“family-ministers,' the princes of states were in bondage to their previous Theo, FLE, , but having been great officers, and those again at the mercy of their family ministers. 1. $ , HE Ö, usurped by the princes, and now again snatched

from them by their officers, they can no longer -compare XIV. 1. BLE

be spoken of as imperial affairs, but only as together, as in the transl. "We read of four Ź, é state matters.' 3. Le 11E, i. e., expeditions,-cast, west, north, and private discussions ; ' i. e, about the said etate south ; and of nine te i. e., nine grounds on of public affairs.

2. THE SUPREME AUTHORITY OUGHT EVER TO MAINTAIN ITS POWER. THE VIOLATION OF THIS RULE ALWAYS LEADS TO RUIN, WHICH IS SPEEDIER AS THE RANK OF THE VIOLATOR IS LOWER -In

are the same as the

are to be taken

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了損 之夫室
者孔 五孔


友益友 微矣矣
便矣友 益矣

矣。故政
節 者侯友直, 夫逮
禮三損換 友, 三於去
樂樂矣。碎說友 恒大 大公

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孔子日益者三方

CHAPTER III. Confucius said, “The revenue of the state has left the ducal house, now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of the great officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced."

CHAPTER IV. Confucius said, “There are three friendships which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendship with the upright; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation:-these are advantageous

. Friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the glib-tongued: these are injurious.

CHAPTER V. Confucius said, “There are three things men find enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment in

3. ILLUSTRATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THB (武), Pring(平), and Hwan (桓) See the death of duke Wän, his rightful heir was killed

, | , III

. XXVI. dom. He is in the anals as duke Seuen(宣)

In the 備旨 , Ting, in whose time this must have been spoken. EXT****** their great officers, so that it might be said the #t after the charrevenue had gone from them. Obs. that here and

acter 友 is always verbal and-交,“to have in the prec. ch., t# is used for a reign.' "The three Hwan' are the three families, as being all descended from duke Hwan; see on II. 5.

terin by 'friendship’ throughout. At t-therefore,' uttered with a sigh.—

- "sincere, without the subtractions required in

XIV. 18, 3, XV. 36. 301. – here, Choo He appears to have fallen into a mistake in enumerating the four heads of the Ke family 'practised.' ###ŽŽIis who had administered the government of Loo as Woo, Taou, P'ing, and Hwan, as Taou (11)

as in XI. 17, 3.

skilfulness in being bland. died before his father, and would not be said therefore to have the government in his hands. The right enumeration is Wăn (X), Wool with three pronunciations and in three

LAST CHAPTER.

and the son of a concubine raised to the duke

4. THREE FRIENDSHIPS ADVANTAGEOUS, AND THREE INJURIOUS.

- it is said

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intercourse with.' It is as well to translate the

is here

5. THREE SOURCES OF ENJOYMENT ADVANTAGEOUS, AND THREE INJURIOUS. Here we have

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