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BOOK I. HEĎ URH.
Ft + 乎。 個人來有之 Z 不不不朋不學 亦知亦自亦而
CHAPTER I. 1. The Master said, “Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application ?
2. "Is it not pleasant to have friends coming from distant quarters ?
3. “Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?” TITLE OF THE WORK.
Discourses together. Others seem devoid of any such and Dialogues ;' that is, the discourses or dis- principle of combination. The sixteen chapters cussions of Confucius with his disciples and
of this book are occupied, it is said, with the
fundamental subjects which ought to engage others on various topics, and his replies to their
the attention of the learner, and the great matinquiries. Many chapters, however, and one whole book, are the sayings, not of the sage ters of human practice. The word ' learn,' himself, but of some of his disciples. The rightly occupies the forefront in the studies of characters may also be rendered • Digested Con
a nation, of which its educational system has so versations, and this appears to be the more
long been the distinction and glory. ancient signification attached to them, the ac
1. THE WHOLE WORK AND ACHIEVEMENT OF count being, that, after the death of Confucius, his disciples collected together and compared
THE LEARNER, FIRST PERFECTING HIS the memoranda of his conversations which they
LEDGE, THEN ATTRACTING BY HIS FAME LIKEhad severally preserved, digesting them into the MINDED INDIVIDUALS, AND FINALLY COMPLETE twenty books which compose the work. Hence IN HIMSELF. 1. F, at the commencement, indithe title - Discussed Sayings,' or ‘Di
cates Confucius. F,'a son,' is also the common gested Conversations.' See at Fi designation of males, especially of virtuous
We find it, in conversations, used in the Tu E T I have styled the work .Con
same way as our Sir.' When it follows the surfucian Analects,' as being more descriptive of its it is equivalent to our “Mr.,' or may be rencharacter than any other name I could think of. dered 'the philosopher,''the scholar,''the officer,' HHEADING OF THIS Book.一學而
&c. Often, however, it is better to leave it un
translated. When it precedes the surname, it inThe two first characters in the book, after the
dicates that the person spoken of was the master introductory—“The Master said,' are adopted as its heading. This is similar to the custom
of the writer, as F F, my master, the of the Jews, who name many books in the Bible philosopher Yt: Standing single and alone, as in from the first word in them. —, The
the text, it denotes Confucius, the philosopher, or, first ;' that is, of the twenty books composing rather, the master. If we render the term by Conthe whole work. In some of the books we find fucius, as all preceding translators have done, a unity or analogy of subjects, which evidently we miss the indication which it gives of the guided the compilers in grouping the chapters | handiwork of his disciples, and the reverence
而務有亂上矣犯孝其 道本也者而不上弟為有 # # # # # # # TX 孝子之作犯鮮好也日
ARE THE FOUNDATION OF ALL VIRTUOUS PRAC
CHAPTER II. 1. The philosopher Yew said, “They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking
to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
2. “The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. which it bespeaks for him. , in the old com son's Dictionary, char. F. Its opposite is of mentators, is explained by all, to rend chant 1, 'a small, mean, man. 12*, Men ingly," "to discuss.' Choo He interprete it by te da nomen do not know,' that is, are stupid un'to imitate,' and makes its results to be der his teaching. The interpretation in the
text is doubtless the correct one. in 1977), “the understanding of all ex
2. FILIAL PIETY AND FRATERNAL SUBMISSION cellence, and the bringing back original goodness. Subsequent scholars profess, for the most part, great adıniration of this explanation. It
TICE. 1. Yew, named #s, and styled Ft is an illustration, to my mind, of the way in and F# a native of which Choo He and his followers are continually
was famed being wise above what is written in the classical among the other disciples of Confucius for his books. is the rapid and frequent motion of strong memory, and love for the doctrines of an
tiquity. In personal appearance he resembled the the wings of a bird in flying, used for 'to repent," "to practise! Ź is the obj. of the third Yew, the philosopher,' and he and Tsáng 'is'an
sage. See Mencius, III. Pt. II. iv. 13. Fis pers. pronoun, and its antecedent is to be found (or Sin) are the only two of Confucius' disciin the pregnant meaning of you is ex- ples who are mentioned in this style in the plained by 7, 'is it not ?" See 19 a part of some, that the work was compiled by klāt To bring out the force of ‘also'ported, but I have not found the peculiarity in 75 some say thus :—"The occasions for plen- pointed out satisfactorily explained. The tablet
of Yew's spirit is now in the same apartment sure are many, is this not also one?' at, read yuě, of the sage's temples as that of the sage hiinas always when it has the 4th tone marked, stands self, occupying the 6th place in the eastern for pt What is leerned becomes by prac
range of the wise ones.'
To this position it
was proinoted in the 3d year of K-een-lung tice and application one's own, and hence arises complacent pleasure in the mastering mind.
of the present dynasty. A degree of activity 悦 ht as distinguished from spam, lõh, in the next
enters in to the meaning of 為 in 為人,一 par., is the internal, individual
, feeling of plea-'playing the man,''as men, showing themselves sure
, and the other, its external manifestation, filial,' &c. *s, here=1*, ' to be submissive as implying also companionship. 2. JJ, proper. a younger brother,' is in the low.3d tone. With ly, “fellow-students;' but, generally, individuals its proper signification, it was anciently in the of the same class and character, like-minded. 20 tone. in='and yet,' different from its sim3. # F I translate here'a man of complete ple conjunctive use=and,' in the prec. ch. f. virtue.' Literally, it is—'a princely man.' See
a verb, “to love,' in the up. 3d tone, diff. from F, above. It is a technical term in Chin. the same char. in the tone, an adj.,='good.' moral writers, for which there is no exact cor. lit, up. 20 tone,='few.' On the idiom-# respondency in English, and which cannot be rendered always in the same way. See Morri
Ź see Premare's gram. p. 156.
乎人三會 Z 習與謀省了解日本者 乎。信朋而吾日矣巧與。
Filial piety and fraternal submission !—are they not the root of all benevolent actions ?"
CHAPTER III. The Master said, “Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.”
CHAPTER IV. The philosopher Tsăng said, “I daily examine myself on three points :—whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;—whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere ;—whether I may have not mastered and practised the instructions of
teacher. # F has a less intense singnification here GUILTY OF ANY IMPOSITION. Tsăng, whose name than in the last chap. I translate—“The supe . (Ts'an, now commonly read Sin,) and rior man," for want of a better term. # 'the his designation F , was one of the principal root,'' what is radical,' is here said of filial and disciples of Confucius. follower of the sage fraternal duties, and 'ways'or "courses,' of from his 16th year, though inferior in natural all that is intended by (=FT) E, below. other moral qualities
, he entirely won the The particles to resume the discourse
Master's esteem, and by persevering attention
mastered his doctrines. Confucius employed about # 5, and introduce some further him in the composition of the description of them. See Prem.
, p. 158. 1. Classic of Filial Piety. The authorship of the in the lower 1st tone, is half interrogative, an t, 'The Great Learning,' is also ascribed answer in the affirmative being implied. is to him, though incorrectly, as we shall see. Ten explained here as the principle of love, the served in the Le-ke. His spirit tablet among the
books, moreover, of his composition are previrtue of the heart.' Mencius says–EH sage's four assessors, occupying the first place it, Eis man,' in accordance with which,
on the west, has precedence of that of Mencius. Julien translates it by humanitas. Benevolence to read sing
, “to examine.' =* is naturally often comes near it, but, as has been said before understood of 'three times,' but the context and of # F we cannot give a uniform rendering
interpretation on three points. , 'the 3. Fair APPEARANCES ARE suspicious. I5 body,' 'one's personality;' =myself. The
is in low. 3d tone,='for. So, frequently, below. AU ,, -see Shoo-king, II. iii. 2. IT,‘skill in workmanship;' then, 'skill, "cleverness,' from #1, 'middle," the centre," and generally, and sometimes with a bad meaning, as M. 'the heart,'=loyalty, faithfulness, action here,='artful,”“hypocritical.' a law,' 'an
with and from the heart. SJ, see ch. 1. to order,' also 'good,' and here like I5, with a
*two hands joined,' denoting union. At bad meaning,='pretending to be good friends. 17* is very enigmatical
. "the manifestation of the feelings in the colour of the countenance,’ is here used for the appear. The translation follows Choo He. Tot ance generally.
explained quite differently :- whether I have 4. How THE PHILOSOPHER TSANG DAILY EX given instruction in what I had not studied and AMINED HIMSELF, TO GUARD AGAINST HIS BEING ' practised ?' It does seem more correct to take
consent of commentators make us assent to the
of this term.
力色窗有孝圈而 了國 事事子餘愛出子愛 敬 君父夏力原則日人 能每日則而弟弟使而道 致能賢以親謹子民信千 其賢學仁而入以節乘 身其易文行信則時。用之
Chapter V. The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons.'
CHAPTER VI. The Master said, “A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies.”
CHAPTER VII. Tsze-hea said, “If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost actively, “to give instruction,' rather than | F, 'younger brothers and sons,'taken together, passively
, 'to receive instruction. See 19 =youths, a youth. The 21 ) is for life, a 政錯, Xv. 17.
in ch. 2. 1 , coming in, going out,'=at 5. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE CO- home, abroad. ill is explained by Choo He VERNMENT OF A LARGE STATE. Ő is used for i
by 廣,wide,"widely; its proper meaning is "to rule,' 'to lead,' and is marked in the 3d tone, todistinguish it from the noun, which was an * the rush or overflow of water.' 7J,strength, ciently read with the 24 tone. It is diff. from here embracing the idea of leisure. * * which refers to the actual business of govern. I literary studies merely, but all the accomplish
ments of a gentleman also :-ceremonies, music, ment, while it is the duty and purpose thereof, archery, horsemanship, writing, and numbers. apprehended by the prince. The standpoint of the principles is the prince's mind. Je, in low.
Tsze-hea was the designation of 3a tone, a chariot,' diff
. from its meaning in my, another of the sage's distinguished the Ist tone, to ride.' A country of 1000 cha- disciples, and now placed 5th in the eastern range riots is one of the largest tiefs of the empire, of the wise ones.' He was greatly famed for which could bring such an armament into the his learning, and his views on the She-king and field. The last principle, — TL ED 0.5, the Ch'un Ts'ew are said to be preserved in the means that the people should not be called from comm. of E, and of 4 # @jar
and then the their husbandry at improper seasons, to du ser Dt. He wept himself blind on the death of vice on military expeditions and public works.
his son, but lived to a great age, and was much 6. RuLES FOR THE TRAINING OF THE YOUNG:
esteemed by the people and princes of the time. With regard to the scope of this chapter, there
7. TszE-HEA'S VIEWS OF THE SUBSTANCE OF LEARNING.
--DUTY FIRST AND THEN ACCOMPLISIMENTS.
則無學君矣。未交 厚慎勿友則子 矣。終慣不不不 吾而
自 收。如固。重 Ži
strength, if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has."
CHAPTER VIII. 1. The Master said, “If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.
2. “Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
CHAPTER. IX. The philosopher Tsăng said, “Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice ;—then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence.' is some truth in what the comm. Woo, Lt, says, F has here its lightest meaning,=a student
, -that Tsze-hea's words may be wrested to de
one who wishes to be a keun-tsze. FB, preciate learning, while those of the Master in the prec. ch. hit exactly the due medium. The of the lan dynasty, in the 1st half of the 2d 20 is a concrete noun. Written in full, century, took if, in the sense of “obscured,
dulled,' and interprets--Let him learn, and he 9, it is composed of the characters for a min. will not fall into error. The received interpretaister, loyal, and a precious shell. It conveys the tion, as in the transl., is better. 2. ideas of talents and worth in the concrete, but it is not easy to render it uniformly by any one
verb, 'to hold to be chief.' It is often used thus. term of another language. The 1st X is a verb, tists, is to improve one's knowledge and virtue ;
3. The object of friendship, with Chinese mora='to treat as a hëen.' has a diff. meaning -hence, this seemingly selfish maxim. from that in the 3d ch. Here it means “sensual 9. THE GOOD EFFECT OF ATTENTION ON THB pleasure.' Literally rendered, the first sentence would be, "esteeming properly the virtuous, and changing the love of woman,' and great
-AN ADMONITION OF Tsang Sın. **, 'the end,' fault is found by some, as in 19 =death, and 'distant,' have both the force XIII. 1, with Choo He's interpretation which of adjectives,= the dead,' and 'the departed,' or I have followed ; but there is force in what his “the long gone.' fi and mean, 'to be carederstood as if the individual spoken of had ever ful of,'' to follow, but their application is as in been given to pleasure, but simply signifies the the translation. , “thick,' in opposition to sincerity of his love for the virtuous. Ik here , thin;' metaphorically;=good, excellent. The = 'to give to,” “to devote.'
force of this to return,' is to shew that this 8. Principles OF SELF-CULTIVATioN. 1. #virtue is naturally proper to the people.
PART OF PRINCES TO THE OFFICES TO THE DEAD: