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miserable life, to begin another, the misery of which will never end.' Hist. des Emp. i. p. 142. Observe, that this unhappy youth was then but nineteen years of age; that he had been bred up at court under Tiberius, in a sort of genteel prison; that probably he had never heard Christianity even mentioned; and that history relates no one bad thing concerning him : so that the Pagan ignorance of this poor child was altogether invincible, and might have been thought sufficient to qualify him at least for Purgatory.

*Tantum relligio potuit suadere maloruin ! It is remarkable, that in the little edition of Tillemont the passage stands thus: he ended his miserable life.' What follows was added afterwards in the quarto edition, whence we may learn that the good man, as he grew older, grew more uncharitable in his religious notions. The apo. phthegm of Horace is not always true :

• Lenit albescens animos capillus.' The hoary heads of some persons are like Mount Ætna, where the snow and the fire dwell together in strict friend.

ship.

cscd, quamvis nimio fervens exuberet æstu,

Scit nivibus servare fideinClaudian Rapt. Pros. i. 165.

These are some of the doctrines which have unhappily helped to propagate atheism or deism, and have made many a man say to himseif, 'If this be Christianity, let my soul be with the philosophers.'

The old Christians were more charitable, and had nobler sentiments of the divine benignity. Justin Martyr, in his Apology, i. 46. speaks handsomely of Socrates, and of other worthy men in the Pagan world, and represents them as a sort of Christians, and doubtless entertained favourable thoughts of their future state. Tòy Xplotov πρωτότοκον του Θεού είναι εδιδάχθημεν, και προεμηνύσαμεν λόγον όντα, ού παν γένος ανθρώπων μετέσχε και οι μετα λόγου βιώσαντες, Χριστιανοί εισι, καν άθεοι ένομίσθησαν. οον έν "Ελλησι μεν Σωκράτης και Ηράκλειτος, και οι όμοιοι αυτοις ωστε και οι προγενόμενοι άνευ λόγου βιώ

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σαντες, άχρηστοι και εχθροί των Χριστώ ήσαν, και φονείς των μετα λόγου βιούντων" οι δε μεια λόγου βιώσαντες, και βιούντες, Χριστιανοί και άφοβοι, και ατάραχοι υπάρχoυσι. - Christum primogenitum Dei esse ac rationein illam, cujus omne hoininum genus particeps est, didicimus, et supra declaravimus. Ei qui cuin ratione vixerunt, Christiani sunt, etiamsi athei existimati sint; quales apud Græcos fuere Socrates et Heraclitus, iisque similes.--Similiter qui olim absque ratione vixere, improbi et Christo inimici fuere, et eorum qui cum ratione vivebant, homicidæ. Qui vero cum ratione vixerunt et vivunt, Christiani sunt, atque impavidi atque intrepidi.' Ed. Paris. 1742. Now turn to the Preface, p. xxxii. and see the Benedictin editor, fighting for a theological system which has nothing at all to do with an edition of Justin; and taking 'great pains to clear the good father from the shameful imputation of supposing that a virtuous Pagan might be saved, as well as a monk. What will the Benedictin say for Clemens Alexandrinus? This learned and good-natured father was of opinion that Christ and his apostles preached the gospel in Hades to the dead, and that the souls which repented and believed were re. ceived to favour: επεί σωτήριοι, και παιδευτικαί αι κολάσεις και του Θεού, είς επιστροφήν άγουσαι, και την μετάνοιαν του αμαρτωλού μάλλον ή τον θάνατον αιρούμεναι και ταυτα καθαρώτερον διοραν δυναμένων των σωμάτων απηλλαγμένων ψυχών, κάν πάθεσιν επισκοτωνται, δια το μηκέτι ΕΓΙΠΡΟΣΘΕΣΘΑΙ σαρκίω. “ Sunt enim salutares, et quæ erudiunt, Dei castigationes, adducentes ad conversionem, et potius pænitentiam peccatoris eligentes quam mortem : idque præcipue cum possint animæ purius perspicere, quæ sunt liberæ a corporibus, etiamsi obscurentur perturbationibus, eo quod non se amplius eis opponat et impediat ca. runcula.'

I think it should be, -έπιπροσθείσθαι σαρκίω, “ obnubi

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lari,' from ITT portw. For the corrections of God are salutary, and instructive, leading to amendment, and preferring the repentance to the death of a sinner; and souls in their separate state, though obumbrated with perturbations, yet have a clearer discernment than they had whilst they were in the body, as they are no longer clouded and encumbered with the flesh.' Strom. vi. p. 764. See also p. 794, and the notes.

- In the Epistles of Ignatius there is a harshness of style, but a lively spirit, and a noble enthusiasm, especially in that to the Romans. : He tells the Ephesians that he had a design to write them another letter, and to instruct them in some points, páncota

av ó Kúpiós por átonalúin, especially if the Lord should reveal any thing to me.' Whence it seems not improbable that he had been favoured with some revelations. xx.

The same inference may be made from these words to the Philadelph. vii. - When I exhorted you to adhere to your bishop, presbyters, and deacons, some of you suspected that I had been informed of dissensions amongst you,' μάρτυς δέ μοι εν ώ δέδεμαι, ότι από σαρκός ανθρωπίνης ουκ έγνων" το δε πνεύμα εκήρυσσεν λέγων τάδε. Χωρίς του ET LO HÓTI OU MOV 7018īte. Testis autem mihi is est, in quo vinctus sum, quod a carne humana non cognoverim ; sed Spiritus annunciavit, dicens ista; Sine episcopo nihil facite.'

* Ad Rom. vii. Zwv yap yeków ýmīv, épôv toū o Todavčív. ο έμος έρως έσταύρωται, και ουκ έστιν εν εμοί, πυρ φιλόυλον ύδωρ δε ζων, και λαλούν εν εμοί, έσωθεν μοι λέγον, δευρο TopO'S TOP matégoc. “Vivens enim scribo vobis, amore captus moriendi. Meus amor crucifixus est; et non est in me ignis amans materiæ. Sed aqua vivens et loquens in me, intus mihi dicit; Veni ad Patrem."

There is in this something very sublime and pathetic. The expression üdwp danour, resembles the vocales undee which inspired the poets and prophets. Statius Silv. i. ï. 6.

Et de Pieriis vocalem fontibus undam.' An oracle of Apollo Delphicus, given to Julian, and preserved by Cedrenus:

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Le Clerc says, “Est in exemplari Græco, műe Binochov. Ignis materialis est Dinbüros, amans materiæ ; quâ nempe alitur. Sed spiritualis ignis, quo urebatur Ignatius, materice, hoc est, rerum corporearum, amans non erat. Quod est nonnihil coactum, ut et sequentia de aquâ in eo loquente. Sed sancti viri sermo refertus est ejusmodi violentis adlusi. onibus.'

The 7.02.0Ūy uswe must not be altered : it is sufficiently confirmed by the citations of Cotelerius in this very note where he is inclined to reject it; and it is more elegant and proper than Le Clerc imagined..

Ignatius, who was a Syrian, and bishop of Antioch, was well acquainted with the oracle of Apollo Daphnæus, and with the Castalian fountain, which were at his door, and which are frequently mentioned by ecclesiastical writers. Sozomen in his description of Daphne says, "Hy yap éve θάδε Δαφναίου Απόλλωνος περικαλλές άγαλμα, και νεως μεγαλοφυώς τε και φιλοτίμως εξειργασμένος-έπιστεύετο δε παρα τους τάδε πρεσβεύουσι, δείν αυτόθι και ύδωρ μαντικών απο Κασταλίας της πηγής, ομοίως της εν Δελφοίς ενεργείας T: Hai napoonyopías layouons: 'Erat enim illic Apollinis Daphnæi pulcherrimum simulacrum et templum magnifice atque ambitiose constructum.-Credebatur etiam ab illis qui ista colunt et prædicant, aquam illic divinatricem fluere ex fonte Castalio, qui idem nomen eandemque efficaciam haberet, quam ille Delphicus.' v. 19.

Ignatius therefore opposes to the speaking prophetic waters of the Pagans, the living waters mentioned by our Lord in John iv. 14, which speak better and nobler things than the fabulous and poetic fountains. The interpolator, who could not put himself in the place of Ignatius, and had not the same thoughts and images which arose in the mind of the martyr, flung away i wp dancūv, the speaking water, which he understood not, and for which he had no taste, and put in üdwp áadó jesvov, to make it a closer copy from St. John. · In the interpolated epistle Tüp Cinolly To is absurd; but 0:7.607.oy nlp makes good sense. He who in this passage,

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