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Και έσχεν ούτως, είτε και ως αληθώς θεομαντείω τινί προλεχθέν, είτε και τότε υπο του ομίλου προς τα παρόντα θειασθέν. τελευταίος γαρ των Ιουλίων των απο 'Αινείου γενομένων εμονάρχησε. «Ηunc versum, ut vere Sibyllinum, canere ceperunt, • Ultimus• Id quod accidit, sive vere predictum divino oraculo, sive afflatu multitudinis ex 'statu rerum qui tum erat : nam is ultimus ex Julii familia, quæ ab Ænea profecta erat, regnavit.' Xiphil. p. 180. ed. Steph.
I shall conclude this poetical section with an oracle from the Anthologia, and as good an oracle as the Sibyl ever uttered : Προς τον μάντιν "Όλυμπον 'Ονήσιμος ήλθ' ο παλαιστής,
Και πένταθλος "Υλας, και σταδιευς Μενεκλής,
Γνωναι κακείνος τους ιερούς ενιδων, .
Clarus Olympiacis et Lycus in stadiis,
Hammonem Libyæ consuluere deum.
Indubitata quidem, si caveatis, ait,
Phegea, ne cursu te, Lyce, prætereat.
THERE is an epistle ascribed to Barnabas : we cannot certainly know by whom it was written.
The first who cites it is Clemens Alexandrinus, who was born about the middle of the second century, and there is a passage in it, which shows that it was written after the de. struction of Jerusalem. We may therefore conclude that it was composed after A. D. 70, and before 180, and probably in the first century. : He says of the temple; Δια γαρ το πολεμείν αυτους, καθηρέθη υπό των εχθρών, νυν και αυτοί οι των εχθρών υπηρεται
dvorrodouño ovom (dvoukodono ūo iv) avrov. Nam quia bellum gesserunt, ab hostibus destructum est; nunc vero ipsi hostium ministri illud reædificant.' xvi. He mentions not this destruction as an event which had just then come to pass, but says indefinitely nahrpeen, as if some time at least were elapsed since that calamity. There is a great conformity between the subject of this epistle and of that to the Hebrews; but a great difference between the epistles, for that to the Hebrews is in all respects superior.
Since the author of this cpistle, as it now stands, discovers not himself, and gives no internal mark by which we may find him out, and since the name of Barnabas d might be common to other persons, or assumed on purpose, one would willingly take occasion hence to ascribe it to some unknown author, rather than to the apostle Barnabas. If it were really the work of St. Paul's companion, there are internal characters in it, which should incline us to judge that he was not at that time under any particular guidance of the Holy Spirit. The antient Christians judged so, and received it not as a canonical book; which shows also that they were not so very credulous, and so ready to adopt every thing, as they are imagined by some to have been.
Barnabas is supposed by Clemens Alexandrinus, Eusebius, and many of the antients, to have been one of the seventy disciples; Tillemont, Hist. Eccl. i. 408. and when he is first mentioned in the Acts, nothing is said to intimate that he was converted after Christ's ascension.
When he preached with Paul, the Pagans of Lystra took him to be Jupiter, and Paul to be Mercurius, whence it might be conjectured that he looked, and that he was, much older than St. Paul; but I dare not lay a stress on this argument. Chrysostom says that he was anotñs özews c£10TEPETYS, that he had an air which commanded esteem and respect. I fancy that Chrysostom had the same conjecture in his mind, and thought that the Pagans were induced to take Barnabas for Jupiter, from his amiable aspect and majestic countenance, fit for the father of gods and men.' Upon the whole, there may be room to suspect either that he
d. Barnabas,' or “Son of Consolation,'.
did not survive the destruction of Jerusalem, or that he was then very old, and “emeritus,' and not likely to write a long and laboured epistle.
It has been said that Barnabas and Clemens Romanus speak not of miracles as being performed in the church in their time. Suppose it to be true, the same thing might be observed of some epistles in the New Testament, particularly of the epistle to the Hebrews, which were written before the destruction of Jerusalem, when St. Paul and some other apostles were living, and preaching the gospel in various places, the Lord working with them, and, as we may justly suppose, confirming the word with signs follow: ing.'
Barnabas, ch. xii. says, tróinde yae Todvta ő Qiv ocnie! autcús. that is: God caused all sorts of serpents to bite the people of Israel in the wilderness. I have sometimes thought that it should be Tupá EVTQ Civ. Num. xxi 6. * Misit Dominus in populum serpentes urentes, Seraphim; ignitos, as Jerom renders it. The LXX indeed has Davao TCīvtas. We translate it 'fiery serpents.' IłucósYTOR OCLV, in the singular, for "fiery serpents,' would be an Hebraism, as ver. 7. Ora ut tollat a nobis serpentem : but the emendation is uncertain. Justin Martyr, speaking of the same thing, says-MývTNO UY Qurcis locóra Gucía, sy laite za dorides, mais c'eWY Toãy nevas, o davátou tovaaóv. Apol.i.960. which favours the received reading in Barnabas. One would almost think that Justin took his não svos from Barnabas. Le Clerc thinks that he has found a remark in Justin's Apology borrowed from Barnabas. Bibl. Chois.li. 391. The Benedictin editor of Justin is of the same opinion, Addend. p. 603.
Valentinus, who made his appearance as a teacher, per. haps about A. D. 140,d says; Eic de tot! dyabos. OÚ 700ρησία ή δια του υιού φανέρωσης και δι' αυτου μόνου δύναιτο αν η καρδία καθαρα γενέσθαι, παντος πονηρου πνεύματος έξωθουμένου της καρδίας πολλά γαρ ενοικούντα αυτή πνεύ. ματα ουκ έα καθαρεύειν' έκαστον δε αυτών, τα ίδια εκτελεί Spychy Todaayus êvu6pulóvtwv én iSupérıs où Tipoonzovouis και μοι δοκεί όμοιόν τι πάσχειν τώ παιδοχείω ή καρδία και
d But see Massuet's Dissertation concerning him in Irenæus, in which he places him somewhat earlier.
γαρ εκείνο κατατιτραταί τε και δρύττεται, και πολλάκις κόπρου πίμπλαται, ανθρώπων ασελγως έμμενόντων, και μηδςμίαν πρόνοιαν ποιουμένων του χωρίου, καθάπερ αλλοτρίου καθεστώτος, τον τρόπον του τον και η καρδία, μέχρι μη προνοίας τυγχάνει, ακάθαρτος ούσα, πολλων σύστα δαιμόνων οικητήριον επειδαν δε επισκέιψηται αυτήν ο μόνος αγαθος Πατηρ, ήγίασται, και φωτί δια λάμπει και ούτω μακαρί?εται ο έχων την τοιαύτην καρδίαν, ότι όψεται τον Θεόν. «Εst autem unus Bonus, cujus fiduciâ est ea quæ fit per Filium manifestatio, et per eum solum potest cor fieri mundum, ejecto ex corde omni maligno spiritu. Multi enim in co habitantes spiritus, id mundum esse non sinunt. Unusquisque autem eorum propria efficit opera, sæpe non convenientibus insultans cupiditatibus. Ac mihi quidem videtur cor non esse absimile diversorio : illud enim perforatur et effoditur, et stercore sæpe repletur, cum homines se petulanter gerant, et locum nihil omnino curent, ut qui sit alienus. Eodem modo cor quoque : cum, quamdiu nulla ejus providentia geritur, sit immundum et multorum dæmonum habitaculum: postquam autem id inviserit, qui solus est bonus Pater, sanctificatum est, et luce resplendet, et sic qui tali est corde præditus, beatur, quoniam Deum videbit.'
This fragment is preserved by Clemens Alexandrinus Strom. ii. p. 489. where he stands up for human liberty against the Valentinians, who were a sort of Fatalists, or Predestinarians, and thought themselves to be the only elect. Observe that Valentinus bears witness to the autho. rity of the New Testament, for he takes passages or expressions from it to insinuate and recommend his own doctrines, as υιου φανέρωσις-δαιμόνων οικητήριον --- επισκέψηται-μόνος αγαθος Ιατηρ---φωτί διαλάμπει-μακαρίζεται, &c. -- όψεται Θεόν. See 1 Τim. iii. 16. Rev. xvii. 2. Luke vii. 16. Μat. xix. 17. Luke xi. 36. Μat. ν. 8.
He also seems upon the whole to imitate Barnabas, who says, Προ του ημας πιστεύσαι τω Θεώ, ήν ημών το οίκητήριον της καρδίας φθαρτον και ασθενές-ότι η πλήρης μεν ε.δυλολατρείας, και ήν οίκος δαιμόνων -- Διο εν τω κατοικτη ρίω ημων αληθώς ο Θεός κατοικεί εν ημίν πως και ο λόγος αυτου της πιστέως -- Antequam nos Deo crederemus, erat nostrum cordis habitaculum interitui obnoxium et imbecillum--quia erat quidem plenum cultu idolorum, et erat domus dæmonum,-Quare in domicilio nostre vere Deus existit: habitat in nobis. Quomodo? Verbum ejus fidei-'
CLEMENS ROMANUS is an author on whom I made some remarks, Disc. VI. p. 121. I have only this to add : Clemens Epist. i. 4. savs, Aid ñhoy ý nahe 'HMON 'IaHW 6 andox - Propter æmulationem pater noster Jacobus aufugit'---whence, I find, some persons have lately discovered and concluded that Clemens was a Jew. I think the passage will not prove it. Theophilus ad Autol. iij. 23.τα γράμματα του θείου νόμου, του δια Μωσέτες ημίν δεdou svou. The law was given to us, says Theophilus; and yet he had been converted from Paganism to Christianity. Therefore when any antient Christian writers use such expressions, it is not to be inferred thence, with any kind of certainty, that they were of Jewish extraction, or even that they had been proselytes to Judaism. Indeed nothing is more natural than for Christians to speak as if they were Abraham's children; as if the law, and the prophets, and the patriarchs belonged to them as well as to the Jews. In the same book, 24. Theophilus says, 'Apadre ó Teateráoxins nuwr. 94. Acrið ó Tapérovos ir Lie 27. 'Apacje του προπάτορος ημων.
HERMAS is cited by Irenæus, who was born about A. D. 120. He is also observed to have made no mention of mira, cles; but he had nothing to lead himn to it, and his book is taken up with visions and revelations. I offered a conjecture concerning it, that it was a parable. Disc. VI. on the Christ. Rel.
He mentions a vision of a formidable beast threatening to devour him, from which he was preserved ; and he interprets this of a great tribulation which was to come upon the Christians, and which some have applied to Domitian's persecution. L. i. Vis. ii. S 2, 3. p. 77. Vis. iv. p. 82.
POLYCARP, of whose epistle I have taken notice, p. 47. suffered martyrdom under Marcus Aurelius with exemplary courage and constancy. His death is said to have been honoured with some miracles, which are of such a kind, and attended with such circumstances, that there is some