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Mar.xvi.14. meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hard- Jerusales.
ness of heart, because they believed not them which had
seen him after he was risen.
and Thomas with them. Then came Jesus, the doors
27. Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and
my hands ; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust
and my God 3.
31 The first appearances of our Lord to his apostles appear
32 The disbelief of the Apostles is the moans of furnishing us with full and satisfactory demonstration of the resurrection of Christ. Throughout the divine dispensations, it is to be observed, that every doctrine, and every important truth, is gradually revealed, and here we have a conspicuous instance of this progressive system. An angel first declares the glorious event! The empty sepulchre confirms the women's report. Christ's appearance to Mary Magdalene shewed that be was alive-that to the disciples at Emmaus proved that it was at least the spirit of Christ, by expounding the prophecies, and breaking of bread--that to the eleven shewed the reality of bis body, and the conviction given to St. Tbomas, proved it the self-sarne body that had been 'crucified. The resurrection was testified by the conviction of the senses. The ear heard it, and blessed-the eye saw it, and gave witness—tbe hand was satisfied with feeling-the intellect was fed upon the heavenly teaching, and the Holy Ghost descended in confirmation of the holy truth. The miracle of the draught of fishes gave evidence of the continued existence of the same divine and almighty nature, which had been displayed before the crucifixion, and the Spirit of God, was manifested in opening the Scriptures, till their hearts burned within them. Every possible demonstration was vouchsased that man could receive, or God bestow. The wounds which had been inflicted upon the body
John xx. 29. Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen Jerusalem.
me, thou hast believed : blessed are they that have not
of Christ were still visible, bearing testimony to his identity,
My Lord and my God."
The question whether St. Thomas, at the moment of his conviction, intended his address to our Lord as an act of religious worship, must be decided by a consideration of the conclusions from which it must have originated. St. Thomas had denied the possibility of the resurrection. Our Lord convinced him of his error, when he expressed himself in these remarkable words, My Lord, and my God. So far, says Bishop Horsley, as the disciples believed in Jesus as the Messiah, in the same degree they understood and acknowledged bis divinity. In the first interview of Nathaniel with our Lord, when he proved to him his omniscience, be exclaimed, “ Thou art the Son of God,” thou art the divine and expected king of Israel. When the miraculous draught of fishes convinced St. Peter of the power of Christ, he addressed him as his “ Lord.” When the Angel Jebovab appeared to the patriarchs of old, they all worshipped and paid their homage in the same mapper, and with similar expressions to those nsed by the Evangelists. It was some sudden proof of divinity in the mysterious personage who addressed them, which elicited the language of homage and adoration.
The exclamation of the Apostle was Ο Κύριος μου, και ο θεός us, in the nominative, which is frequently put for the vocative, in pure, as well as in Hellenistic Greek. It seems, however, preferable to read the passage où el, understood, Thou art my Lord, even my God; or, as the word Kvpios corresponds to the principal oames, given in the Old Testament to the manisested God of Israel, it would be better to interpret the exclamation accordingly, as if he had said, ox, n or as the Jews were accustomed to omit the ineffable name, and substitute •78 in its place, he might have used only the latter Drogbx •3978. It seems, however, more probable, that on the present occasion he would omit the substituted term, and express himself in the very language of the Scriptures, :Ox ". This was the pame given to the manifested God of the Old Testament, and the exclamation of the apostle therefore may be more fully rendered—Thou art the Lord Jehovah, the manifested God of my fathers.
It is true that the word #POOKUVEW, in the original, which is rendered by our translators by the term worship, is used by the Evangelist to denote civil respect, or the bomage due to persons of rank and dignity. But the word is one of general import; and the cases in which it must be understood of religious adoration on the one band, or of civil homage on the other, can be discriminated only by attending to the circumstances in each instance. To assist in determining the true sense in the examples under consideration, let the following remarks be considered.
1. Out of sixty places in which this word occurs in the New Testament, there are only two or three in which it indisputably bears the inferior sense ; there are forty-three in which it is manifestly to be understood of religious worship: and the remaining instances are those of application to Christ, the genuine import of which we are desirous of ascertaining.
2. Our Lord, during the whole of his public ministry, evi
mountain in Galilee.
MATT. xxviii. ver. 16, 17. and part of ver. 18. Mt.xxviii16 Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into Galilee.
a mountain where Jesus had appointed them.
And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but
sation with Peter 25,
JOHN xxi. 1-24.
disciples at the sea of Tiberias ; and on this wise shewed
dently made it a principle of his conduct, to disavow and refuse all eartbly eminence. Tbe repeated attempts which were made to invest him with the regal dignity, he inflexibly discountenanced. Even wben he was accosted with an epithet which he might have accepted very inoffensively, he rebuked the person who gave it, because he perceived it was the language of compliment rather than of sincere conviction : "Why callest thou me good?". On the contrary, he never refused acknowledgments of spiritual supremacy. He openly claimed to be called Lord and Master, the Son of God, and the King of his Church.
A translation of tbe New Testament into Hebrew has been lately published by the London Society for Promoting the Conversion of the Jews; in this translation the words of St. Thomas are rendered literally 7x7 •377x This Hebrew translation, so far as I am able to judge, appears to be executed with ability and faithfulness.
Horsley's Letters in reply to Dr. Priestley, p. 239. Sermon on the Adoration of our Lord Jesus Christ, vindicated from the charge of Idolatry. By Dr. Pye Smith. 8vo. 1811.
33 Beza reads this passage soc ldiotaoav, they did not doubt any longer. The Prussian version reads, apooerúvnday airy, oi dè édioracay, they worshipped him, even those who had doubted. In which sense it should be o te. Grotius interprets it, but some had heretofore doubted. Bishop Pearce conjectures, that those who doubted did so because they might be at a greater distance from bim than others; and therefore could not so well distinguish.
34 si. Matthew's words are mai apogedowv ó 'incong dályoey avrois; implying, that wben our Lord first appeared to them it was at a distance: #pocelow is rendered by Grotius accedens. -See Townson, p. 167. and Bonyer, p. 136.
36 The contents of this section are very curious, and important. So little did the apostles anticipate their future elevation, as the reformers of the religion of the world, that they bad ab solutely returned to their former occupation as fisbermea of Galilee. Humble and unambitious, they appear to have as much forgotten all the splendid hopes and expectations of the past, as they were igaorant of their future high destinies.
John xxi. 2. There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas called Galilee.
Didymus, and Nathaniel of Cana in Galilee, and the sons
of Zebedee, and two other of his disciples. 3.
Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. They say unto him, We also go with thee. They went forth, and entered into a ship immediately; and that night they caught nothing.
But when the morning was now come, Jesus stood on
Then Jesus saith unto them, Children, have ye any
of the ship, and ye shall find. They cast therefore, and
Therefore that disciple whom Jesus loved saith unto
And the other disciples came in a little ship; (for they
As soon then as they were come to land, they saw a
great fishes, an hundred and fifty and three 38 : and for
all there were so many, yet was not the net broken.
the disciples durst ask him, Who art thou ? knowing that
it was the Lord.
This is now the third time that Jesus shewed himself
Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me more than these?
36 The number of fishes caught was the number of the thousands of proselytes in the reign of Solomon. Some suppose tbis to have been the number of the nations then known in the world.
37 These words may either refer to the third appearance wbich St. John relates, or the third appearance Christ made to the apostles when all, or most of them, were together. He manifested himself to ten of them, John xx. 19. again to eleven of them, ver. 26. and at this time to seven, see ch. xxi. 2. But when the accounts of all the Evangelists are collated, we shall find that our Saviour distinctly revealed himself eleven times after his resurrection,
Joh. xxi.16. He saith to him again the second time, Simon, son of Galilee
. Jonas, lovest thou me? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed
my sheep. 17.
He saith unto him, the third time, Simon, son of Jonas,
I love thee? Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep.
thou girdedst thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest:
whither thou wouldest not.
him, Follow me.
Then Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved following, which also leaned on his breast at
supper, and said, Lord, which is he that betrayeth thee? 21.
Peter seeing him, saith to Jesus, Lord, and what shall this man do?
Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, 22.
what is that to thee? follow thou me. 23.
Then went this saying abroad among the brethren, that that disciple should not die: yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall not die ; but, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?
This is the disciple which testifieth of these things, and 24.
wrote these things : and we know that his testimony is true.
sions them to convert the World.
ACTS I, 4, 5. And being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but
Acts i. 4.
38 Peter was now in the act of girding on his dry clothes, and our Lord, according to his custom, spoke from the object before him.
39 This command was given for the fulfilment of the prophecy of Isaiah, (ch. ii. 3.) “ that out of Sion should go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.” On the feast of Pentecost the publication of the law on Mount Sinai took place; and on its approaching apuiversary a new, aod spiritual law, was to be delivered to the world, the substance and substitute of the former figurative economy. The injunction of our Lord evidently shews an appointed analogy between the old and new dispensations. The time wben this address was spoken by our Lord cannot be exactly ascertained. There is reason,