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Jo. xvii. 36. Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if Jerusalem. my kingdom were of this world, then would
Because ,ניון רחזו דנפישי להו רוצחין ולא יכלו למידן ,reason was this
opinion, that the Romans divested the council of their autho-
And again it is said in another Talmudical tradition, “ Since
“ The slothfulness of the council destroyed its own authority, the law slept while wickedness was in the height of its revels ; and primitive justice was so out of countenance, that as to uncertain murders they made no search, and against certain ones they framed no judgment. The Sanhedrim, from mere inactivity, or a foolish tenderness towards an Israelite, as a seed of Abraham, so far neglected to punish bloodshed, and other crimes, that wickedness grew so untractable, that the authority of the council trembled for fear of it, and dared not kill the killers. In this sense that saying must be understood, ' It is not lawful for us to put any man to death,' for it is evident, when they make this assertion, they do not deal fairly with Pilate; for their authority of judging had not been taken from them by the Romans, but lost by themselves, and despised by the people. Under those circumstances it was only exercised when there was no danger to be apprehended. They were bappy enough to use it when they had the opportunity of judging, persecuting, and torturing poor men and Christians; and they would cer. tainly have condemned our Saviour to death, had they not feared the people, and if Providence had not otherwise determined it."
Lightfoot mentions many other circumstances which took place after Judea had long been subject to the Roman yoke,
fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews : but Jerusalem.
now is my kingdom not from hence.
and for this cause came I into the world, that I should
Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he
which clearly affirm the opinion, that the authority of the coun-
The Romans were always the ruling power wherever their
(a) Biscoe on the Acts, vol. i. p. 116. (6) Οίπερ εισι περί τας κρίσεις, ώμοι, παρά πάντας τες Ιωδαιες.-P. 896, b. 37. (c) Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 10. 2. Bell Jud. I. vi. 2. 4. (d) Káv blaopnuñón tis eis Tótov, kolázeolai Bavarw. De Bell Jud. 1. 2. c. 8. sect. ix. (e) Hebrew, and Talmud. Exercit. vol. i. p. 248, 249.) See Bowyer's Critical Conj. p. 318.; Doddridge; Rosenmuller; the discussion of Lardner, in his Credibility, &c. &c. ' Lightfoot, in his Talmudical Exercitations apon the Acts, observes, on the occasion of the Sanhedrim granting letters to Paul, to go to Damascus, that the power of life and death was not yet taken from the Sanhedrim. Selden is of opinion that the power of the Sanhedrim to punish capitally was only much interropted and disused at the time of the crucifixion. Krebsias, quoted by Rosonmuller, is of opinion that the power of inflicting capital panishments, in cases of offences against religion, was left to the Jews, but in civil offences it was taken away-in criminibus autem aliis, e. g. seditionis, tumultus, perduellionis, et ad læsam majestatem Cæsaris pertinentibus, illud jus iis non fuisse concessum. Kuinoel has adopted also this conclasion of Biscoe-Mihi perplacet Angustini et Chrysostomi ratio, etiam Semlero probata, qua Judæorum verba v. 31. ad diem referuntur hoc sensa : nobis non licet quenquam supplicio afficere ob re. ligionem diei festi; erat enim napaokeun) TOŨ táoxa, xix. 14—42. quam eamdem ob causam, neque prætorium ingressi erant coll. v. 28.– Kuinoel in Joan. 19. 31.
had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and saith Jerusalem.
And the Chief Priests accused him of many things : but
Then saith Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee?
14. And he answered him to never a word. Mark xv. 4. And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou
nothing? Behold how many things they witness against
5. But Jesus answered nothing :
MATT. xxvii. part of ver. 2. and 11.
MARK XV. part of ver. 1, 2, 3. 5.
2 And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews ? And
3 -he answered nothing.
LUKE xxiii. part of ver. 1. ver. 3. and part of ver. 4.
3 And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the
JOHN xviii. part of ver. 33. 38.
LUKE xxiii. 5-12.
And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up
from Galilee to this place.
man were a Galilean.
jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself also was
at Jerusalem at that time.
for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because
seen some miracle done by him.
answered him nothing.
Luxxiii.10. And the Chief Priests and Scribes stood and vehe, Jerusalem,
mently accused him.
mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and
sent him again to Pilate.
together : for before they were at enmity between them-
Him innocent, and endeavours to persuade the People to
13-19. JOHN xviii. 39.
Priests and the rulers and the people,
as one that perverteth the people: and, behold, I, having
man touching those things whereof ye accuse him:
nothing worthy of death is done unto him.
16. I will therefore chastise him, and release him. Mtxxvii. 15. Now at that feast the governor was wont to release unto
14 Some time before this reconciliation, Pilate had dedicated some shields of gold to Tiberius, and placed them in the palace of Herodium. The Jews, under the sanction of Herod, peti. tioned Pilate for their removal, but in vain. They determined therefore to appeal to Tiberius, and for this purpose sent a de. putation to the emperor, at the head of which were the four sons of Herod. This act seems to have been the cause of their difference, as it was regarded by the Jews and by Herod as a violation of their religion : and Herod was not reconciled to Pilate till the Roman Governor, desirous not to assist the Jews in the condemnation of our Lord, acknowledged the power of Herod, by sending to his tribunal at Jerusalem the holy Jesus.
Dr. Townson justly observes, that it is probable both Pilate and Herod occupied different parts of the palace called Herodium, which some time before had been built by Herod the Great. It consisted of two distinct spacious buildings, one of which was named Cæsareum, and the other Agrippeum: it stood near the temple (a).
(a) Philo leg. ad Caiom, vol. ii. p. 589. ed. Mangey ap Townson. See also Hale's Analysis, vol. ii. part ii.
15 Hottinger has written a treatise on this passage, de ritu dimittendi Reum in festo Paschatis; which is bound up in the thirteenth volume of the Critici Sacri. He opposes the opinion of Whitby, that a prisoner was released only at the feast of the passover. He considers the custom (quoting Grotius and Ger. Vossius,) as contrary to the stern inflexibility of the Mosaic institutions; erat siquidem divina per Mosen, lata lex xwpis oirtip
Mark sv. 6. one prisoner, whomsoever they desired.
And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas, Mark xv. 7. which lay bound with them that had made insurrection
with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.
And the multitude crying aloud, began to desire him to
do as he had ever done unto them. Lu.xxij.17. (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the
Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate
said unto them, Jo.xviii. 39. ye have a custom that I should release unto you one at
the passover: Mtxxvii.17. Whom will
that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ? Jo. xviii. 39. will ye therefore that I release unto you the king of the
Jews? Mar. xv. 10.
For he knew that the Chief Priests had delivered him
Mtxxvii.19. When he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife
sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that
dream because of him.
tude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. Lu.xxiii.18. And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this
man, and release unto us Barabbas.
MATT. xxvii, ver. 18.
MARK XV. part of ver. 6. and ver. 9. 11.
9 But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews ?
11 But the Chief Priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.
20-23. JOHN xviii. 40. Lu.xxiii.20.
Mūv sine omni misericordia, Heb. x. 28. nec cuiquam bomini
This deviation from their established law is a proof how much