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Mat.xxv.44. Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when Jerusalera.
saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or
naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto
45. Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily, I say unto
you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these,
ye did it not to me. 46.
And these shall go away into everlasting punishment ; but the righteous into life eternal.
Christ retires from the City to the Mount of Olives.
LUKE xxi. 37, 38.
Lu, xxi. 37. And in the day time he was teaching in the temple;
and at night he went out, and abode in the mount that is
called the mount of Olives.
38. And all the people came early in the morning to him in
the temple, for to hear him.
Wednesday, second Day before the Crucifixion-Christ
foretells his approaching Death.
MATT. xxvi. 1, 2. MARK xiv. 1.
Markxiv.l. After two days was the feast of the Passover, and of
Mat,xxvi.l. And it came to pass when Jesus had finished all these
sayings, he said unto his disciples,
2. Ye know that after two days is the feast of the Pass-
over, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.
The Rulers consult how they may take Christ.
MATT. xxvi. 3-5.
LUKE xxi. 1, 2.
LU. xxii, 1. Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is
called the Passover. Mat.xxvi.3.
Then assembled together the Chief Priests, and the
Scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of
the High Priest, who was called Caiaphas,
4. And consulted
Mark xiv.1. [and] sought how they might take
Mat.xxvi.4. Jesus by subtilty,
Mark xiv.2. by craft, and him to death.
3. But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an
uproar Mat.xxvi.5. among the people:
La. xxii. 2. for they feared the people.
MATT. xxvi. part of ver. 4, 5.
4 –that they might take-and kill him.
5 But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an up-
MARK xiv. part of ver. 1, 2.
1 and the Chief Priests and the Scribes-him-
2 -of the people.
LUKE xxii. part of ver. 2.
2 And the Chief Priests and Scribes sought how they might
Judas agrees with the Chief Priests to betray Christ*.
MATT. xxvi. 14-16. MARK xiv. 10, 11. LUKE xxi. 3-6.
La, xxii. 3. Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, be-
ing of the number of the twelve.
2 The Jews in this instance feared the people, and therefore delivered our Lord to the Roman Governor, whose power and authority would prevent the possibility of a rescue. Such is the opinion of Schoetgen, who quotes Sanhedrim, fol, 89, 1. Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 225.
22 The question concerning the unction at Bethany has been already discussed. I have placed the account of Judas going to the Chief Priests to betray Christ in this section, on the authority of Michaelis and Doddridge, who suppose that several days elapsed between the unction at Bethany, and Judas' betrayal. Bishop Marsh, on the contrary, supposes that the assembling of the Chief Priests, the unction at Bethany, and the betrayal by Judas, were simultaneous, or more properly continuous actions.
That the rebuke, be observes, which Judas Iscariot recoived from Christ at the unction in Bethany, determined him in his resolution to betray his Master, that Christ's rebuke, therefore, and Judas's revenge, were cause and effect, and that the account of the one is very properly joined by St. Matthew (and also by St. Mark,) to the account of the other, I readily admit with Michaelis, in opposition to Dr. Priestley, who says, in bis observations on the Harmony of the Evangelists, p. 100. that the verses of Matt. xxvi. 6–13. which contain an account of the unction, 'stand very awkwardly in their present situation. But I cannot agree with him in the opinion that several days elapsed between the unction at Bethany, and Judas going to the assembly of the Chief Priests with an offer to betray Christ ; and consequently that the account of the unction at Bethany belongs to Matt. xxi. according to the order of time. For whoever reads in connection Matt. xxvi. 1-11. must perceive that these three facts-Ist, Assembling the Chief Priests and Elders at the bouse of Caiaphas : 2ndly, The unction of Christ at Bethany: and 3dly, Judas's departure from Bethany, to go to the assembly of the Chief Priests, are represented by the Evangelists as facts immediately connected one with another; and not as facts wbich were separated from each other by the intervention of all those transactions, which had been recorded in several preceding chapters. St. Matthew having mentioned io ver. 2. that " after two days was the passover," immediately adds, in ver. 8. Tóre ovvhxonoav oi åpxcepcīs, k. rod. And St. Mark says,
Lu. xxii, 4. And he went his way,
Markxiv.10. unto the chief priests, to betray him unto them.
ver. 1. "Ην δε το πάσχα και τα άζυμα μετά δύο ημέρας και εζήτεν
oi ápxtepkis k. 7.d. Both St. Matthew and St. Mark, therefore,
represent the assembly of the Chief Priests as held on the third
day before the passover ; and though Michaelis will not allow
any determinate meaning to Tote in St. Matthew's account, we
cannot explain away what is said by St. Mark. St. Matthew
then proceeds in ver. 6. το δε Ιησου γενομένη εν Βηθανία εν οικία
Sipwvog te det pā, k. T... And St. Mark, ver. 3. kai óvtos aúts
εν Βηθανία εν τη οικία Σίμωνος, του λεπρού κ. τ. λ. They then
relate the unction with Christ's conversation on it, which being
ended, St. Matthew continues in ver. 14. Tóte popevēkis elç rüv
δώδεκα ο λεγόμενος Ιέδας Ισκαριώτης πρός τες αρχιερείς, είπε κ.
7.1. And in St. Mark, in ver 10, kai ó 'lédas o 'lokaputns,
εις των δώδεκα απήλθε προς τις αρχιερείς κ. τ.λ. Then again it
is evident that both St. Matthew and St. Mark represent Judas
as going immediately from the unction of Bethany (a village not
more than two miles from Jerusalem,) to the assembly of the
Chief Priests and Elders, which was held during the unction,
and which did not break up before the arrival of Judas.-Mi-
chaelis, vol. iii. part iv. p. 24.
In reply to this argument, I would suggest the total absence
of proof from the words of St. Matthew, that the Evangelist in-
tended, as the Bishop supposes, to represent these events as
continuous. Three circumstances are recorded—the meeting of
the priests, the unction, and the betrayal ; and the point in dis-
pute must be decided by the meaning of the words which are
thought to connect them as three several events which took
place at the same time. The two first verses of Matt. xxvi.
ought to have concluded the preceding chapter. The expression
which ends ver. 2. is the sentence which completed our Saviour's
predictions concerning Jerusalem, and the illustrative parables
which followed them. From narrating the discourse of our
Lord, the Evangelist proceeds to his actions, using the word
TÓTE, a word of very indefinite signification, which may not im-
properly be translated, “ about that time.” He relates the fact,
that about the time when our Lord finished bis predictions, the
Chief Priests ouv“xOndav were assembled together. He then
somewhat abruptly proceeds to give an account of the cause of
our Saviour's betrayal by Judas to this assembly of the Priests,
which he imputes to our Lord's reproof of his Apostles' disguis.
ed covetousness. In ver. 14, the Evangelist introduces the
effect of this reproof by the same word róte; and it seems in-
tended to imply, not that Judas went that moment to the Priests,
but that he went about that time, or as soon as possible, to the
council of the Chief Priests; and by introducing the conse-
quence of our Lord's reproof thus abruptly, St. Matthew seems
to bint that the assembly of Priests, to whom Judas applied, was
now sitting at the very time when our Lord had finished his
predictions. Bishop Barrington apud Bowyer, would insert
Matt. xxvi. 6–13. as a parenthesis.
But Bishop Marsh observes, with reference to the argument from the word Tóte, that even if this be insufficient to prove that Michaelis is mistaken, yet we cannot explain away what is said by St. Mark-ήν δε το πάσχα, και τα άζυ μετά δύο ημέρας, &c. &c. who, as well as St. Matthew, represents the assembly of Priests as meeting three days before the Passover. In reply to which it may be answered, that it is acknowledged a meeting of
Lu. xxi. 4. and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he Jerusalem.
might betray him unto them. Mt.xxvi.15.
And said unto them, What will ye give me, and I will
deliver him unto you? Mark xiv.ll. And when they heard it, they were glad, and promised
to give him money. Mt.xxvi.15. And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver.
16. And from that time he sought opportunity to betray
Markxiv.11. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him.
La. xxii, 6. And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray
him unto them in the absence of the multitude.
MATT. xxvi. ver. 14.
14 Then one of thc twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto
the Chief Priests.
MARK xiv. 10.
10 And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went-
LUKE xxii, ver. 5.
5 And they wero glad, and covenanted to give him money.
Thursday—The Day before the Crucifixion. Christ di-
rects two of his Disciples to prepare the Passover.
MATT. xxvi. 17-19. MARK xiv. 12-16.
Narkxiv.12. And the first day of unleavened bread, when they killed
the Passover, his disciples
the Priests was then held, but the question is whether the unc-
tion took place at that time, and bere we are again brought to
the word TÓTE, Matt. xxvi. 14. and to an expression in St. Mark
xiv. 13. which does not even allude to the exact period at which
the betrayal took place. Iέδας-απήλθε προς τους Αρχιερείς,
&c. The Evangelist appoars to relate the reproval at Bethany
as the cause of the treason of Judas, without referring to the
time that this offence should be committed.
Tóte-non proprie videtur adverbium esse, sed accusativus
neutrius generis, elliptice positus. ut plene dicatur repà TÓTE TO
mépoç xpóvov, id quod colligi potest ex loco Lysiæ, orat. vi. cap.
2. ου θαυμασόν, εί τότε τας μορίας εξέκοπτον, εν ω εδέ τα ημέτερα
αυτών φυλάττειν εδυνάμεθα. It is true it is generally used in the
New Testament adverbially, but as frequently in its general, as
it is in its more detinite signification. The word occurs one
hundred and fifty-six times in the New Testament, and if we
refer to any passages taken in their consecutive order, we shall
find that this preceding remark is correct. Thus we meet it in
Matt, ii. 7. ii. 16. ii. 17, iii. 5. In the two first and last of
these it is used in the more general sense, and many would in-
terpret the third passage in the same way; and so it must be
interpreted in the great majority of the passages in which it
occurs. If we refer to the Septuagint, which is generally sup-
posed to use the Greek words, in precisely the same sense as the
New Testament, we shall find that the remark of Michaelis is am-
ply justified. Thus the Septuagint render the Hebrew xun nya,
Isaiab xx. 2. by the word Tótt.
Mt. xxvi.17. came to Jesus,
Jerusalem. Mar, xiv.12. [and] said unto him, Where wilt thou that we go and pre
pare that thou mayest eat the passover ? 13.
And he sendeth forth two of his disciples, La. xxii. 8. Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare
that we may eat.
9. And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we pre-
Mar.xiv.13. And saith unto them, Go ye into the city,
La.xxii, 10. and behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall
Mar.xiv.13. meet you a man, bearing a pitcher of water, follow him,
La.xxii.10. into the house where he entereth in.
Mar. xiv.14. And wheresoever ye shall go in, say ye to the good
man of the house, The Master saith
La.xxii. 11. unto thee,
Mt.xxvi.18. My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy
house with my disciples.
Mar.xiv.14. Where is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the passover
with my disciples.
15. And he will shew you a large upper room, furnished
and prepared ; there make ready for us.
And his disciples went forth, and came into the city,
Mt. xxvi.19. and did as Jesus had appointed them,
Mar.xiv.16. and found as he had said unto them : and they made ready
MATT. xxvi. part of ver. 17, 18, 19.
17 Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the dis-
ciples-saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for
thee to eat the passover?
18 And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto
him, The master saith-
19 — the disciples—and they made ready tbe passover.
LUKE xxii. ver. 7. part of ver. 8. 10, 11. and ver. 12, 13.
7 Then came the day of unleavened bread, when tbe passover
must be killed.
8 And he sent-
10 And he said unto them-a man meet you, bearing a pitcher
of water: follow bim-
11 And ye shall say unto the good man of the house, The Master saith—Where is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples ?
12 And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished; there make ready
13 And they went and found as be had said unto them: and
they made ready the passover.
Christ partakes of his last Passover ».
MATT. xxvi. 20.
MARK xiv. 17. LUKE xxii. 14-18.
JOHN xiji. 1.
John xiii, 1. Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus
23 Before we enter upon the discussion of the difficult ques-
tion, whether our Lord ate the last passover with his disciples,