תמונות בעמוד

Mat, xxi.18. as he returned into the city, he hungered.

Jerusalem. 19.

And when he saw a fig-tree in the way,
Mark si. 13. afar off, having leaves,
Mat, xxi.19. he came to it,
Mark xi. 13. if haply he might find any thing thereon : and when he

came to it,
Mat. xxi.19. and found nothing thereon, but leaves only,
Mark xi. 13. for the time of figs was not yet,

14. Jesus answered and said unto it, No man eat fruit of

thee hereafter, Mat. xxi.19. and he said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee hencefor

wards for ever. Mark xi. 14. And his disciples heard it. Mat. xxi.19. And presently the fig tree withered away.

MARK xi. part of ver. 12, 13, 14. 12 And-he was hungry:

13 And seeing a fig tree he came he found nothing but leaves

14 And-for ever-disciples heard it.

Christ again casts the Buyers and Sellers out of the


MARK xi. 15-17.
Mark xi. 15. And they come to Jerusalem : and Jesus went into the

temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought

8 Dr. Hales having taken for granted that the temple was cleansed on the Tuesday, and not on the Monday, has preferred the order of St. Mark, and made some minor alterations in the position of these events. The foundation of bis reason. ing is removed by the arguments of Pilkington, which are inserted in the note to section 3. p. 389.

In Matt. xxi. 13. when our Saviour drove the buyers and sellers out of the temple, he said to them, “ It is written, my house shall be called an house (not the house) of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves; or, if it be read with an interrogation, And have yo made it a den of thieves ? 'Yueus αυτόν εποιήσατε ΣΠΗΛΑΙΟΝ ΛΗΣΤΩΝ, then the indignation will be increased, from the opposition between God and ye. The same is related by Mark xi. 17. with the same two words, orýdalov 1y5ūv, and so by Luke xix. 46. It may be asked, why the temple should be said by our Saviour to be made ORÝLalov 175ūv, a cave of robbers; was it because there were some who bought and sold in it? or because the moneychangers, or those who sold doves, sat there? None of these persons could be called lysal, latrones, or public robbers: nor did their business lie in orýala, speluncæ, dens or caves, so as to cause the temple, in which they were, to be called otýkalov. St. Jobo, however, in his account of this matter, mentions a circumstance, without the knowledge of which, the reason of this expression, otýkalov answv, in the other three Evangelists, and in Jer. vii. Il, whence it is taken, could not have been understood, and very probably that

Mark xi. 15. in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money

changers, and the seats of them that sold doves;
16. And would not suffer that any man should carry any

vessel through the temple.
17. And he taught them, saying unto them, Is it not writ-

ten, My house shall be called of all nations the house of
prayer ? but ye have made it a den of thieves.

The Scribes and Chief Priests seek to destroy Jesus.

MARK xi. 18. LUKE xix. 47, 48.
Lu. xix. 47. And he taught daily in the temple.
Mark xi, 18.

And the Scribes and the Chief Priests,
Lu. xix. 47. and the chief of the people,
Mark xi. 18. heard it, and sought how they might destroy him :
Lu. xix. 48. And could not find what they might do:
Mark xi. 18. for they feared him, because all the people were astonish-

ed at his doctrine.
La. xix. 48. and were very attentive to hear him.

LUKE xix. part of ver. 47.
47 -But the chief priests and the scribes-sought to destroy

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him ;

is the reason why it is mentioned by bim, chap. xi. 14, 15. and
(Jesus) found in the temple those who sold oxen and sheep,
BOAX kai II POBATA, and doves, &c. and when he had made a
scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple,
and the sheep, and the oxen. Now it is well known, to those
who are moderately versed in antiquity, that the porai were
were wont to bring into their otýlaca, or caves in the rocks,
the oxen and sheep which they bad stolen. Such an one was
Cacus in Virgil, Æneid. viii. 193. who stole Hercules's oxen,

Hic spelunca fait vasto submota recessa, &c.
who is called by Propertius, iv. 10. metuendo Raptor ab antro,
i. c. λησης από σπηλαιο. Hence σπήλαιον ληςρικόν in Ηeliodorus
Aethiopic. v. 2. See Plutarch in Sertor, p. 576. D. Josephus
often in Bello Judaico. and in Antiq. xiv. xv. p. 651. ed Huds.
where he makes mention of λησων τινών εν σπήλαιοις κατοικ-
SVTwv. So that our Saviour had just reason to resent their
profanation of his Father's house; as if he had said, God hath
declared in the Scriptures, my temple shall be a place of prayer,
have ye (supposing it to be read with an interrogation,) the
boldness to convert it to the use which robbers make of
their caves, and to turn it into a receptacle and stall for oxen
and sheep? Bat nobody, I imagine, could have known the
meaning and propriety of the words σπήλαιον and λήτων, if St.
John bad not informed us that oxen and sheep were brought
into the temple to be sold; whereby the prophecy of Jer. vii.
11. Μή σπήλαιον λήτων ο οίκος μ8, (to which our Saviour al-
ludes) was fulfilled; for the temple could not have been called
ornalov \ysy, had not oxen and sheep been brought into it.
-See Bowyer.


Christ retires in the evening from the City.

MARK xi. 19,
And when the even was come, he went out of the city.

Mark xi, 19.

Tuesday-Third Day before the Passover. The Fig Tree

is now withered.

MATT. xxi. 20—22. MARK xi. 20—26, Mark xi. 20. And in the morning, as they passed by, they saw the fig-tree dried


from the roots.
Mat. xxi.20. And when the disciples saw it, they marvelled, saying,

How soon is the fig-tree withered away!
Mark xi. 21. And Peter calling to remembrance saith unto him,

Master, behold, the fig-tree which thou cursedst, is

withered away!
22. And Jesus answering, saith unto them, Have faith in


For verily I say unto you.
Mat. xxi.21. that if ye have faith, and doubt not, ye shall not only do

this, which is done to the fig.tree, but also
Mark xi. 23. That whosoever shall say unto this mountain', Be thou

removed, and be thou cast into the sea ; and shall not
doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things

which he saith shall come to pass;
Mat. xxi.21. it shall be done.
Mark xi. 23. he shall have whatsoever he saith.
Mat. xxi.22. And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer be-

lieving, ye shall receive.
Mark xi. 24. Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye de-

sire when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye
shall have them.


was the epithet attached by the Jews to any הוא עוקר הרים

of their learned or eminent men, who excelled in explaining
the difficulties of Scripture (a).

Peter was told, if be bad faith he should be able to remove
mountains, &c. &c. It is difficult to perceive the immediate
connection between the surprize of Peter, and the exhortation
of our Lord. It may possibly refer to the power which was
afterwards given to the Apostles to interpret the Scriptures in
their spiritual sense, and to change the religion of the world.
Such is the supposition of Witsius, that St. Peter understood
that Christ, by the withering away of the fig-tree, intended lo
signify the destruction of the Jewish Church; and that Christ
alluded, in Mark xi. 23. to that Apostle becoming the means of
throwing the mountain (the temple,) into the sea (the world :)
that is, that St. Peter should be chosen to open the doors of the
Church to the Gentile world (b).

(a) See Lightfoot, 8vo. edit. vol. iii. p. 135. Mr. Pitman has con ferred a great service upon the public by his accurate edition of Lightfoot. (6) Witsii Melet. Leidens. de ficu Maled. sect. xv.

Mark xi. 25. And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye haye ought Jerusalem.

against any; that your Father also which is in heaven,

may forgive your trespasses.
26. But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which
is in heaven, forgive your trespasses.

MATT. xxi. part of ver. 21.
21 Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily I say anto
you—if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and
be thou cast into the sea-

Christ answers the Chief Priests, who inquire concerning

the Authority by which he acted-Parables of the Vine

yard and Marriage Feast.
MATT. xxi. 23. to the end, and xxii. 1-14. MARK xi. 27.

to the end, and xii. 1-12. LUKE XX. 1-19.
Luke xx. 1. And it came to pass, that on one of those days,
Mark xi. 27. they come again to Jerusalem :
Mat.xxi. 23. And when he was come into the temple,
Lake xx. 1. as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the

Gospel, the Chief Priests and the Scribes,
Mat.xxi.23. and the elders of the people came unto him, as he was

Mark xi. 27. and as he was walking in the temple,
Luke xx. 2. And spake unto him, saying, Tell us by what authority

doest thou these things ? or who is he that gave thee this

authority ? Mark xi. 28. to do these things?

29. And Jesus answered, and said unto them, Mat. xxi.24. I also will ask you one thing, which if you tell me, I in

likewise will tell you by what authority I do these things.

25. The baptism of John, whence was it? Mark xi. 30. was it from heaven, or of men ? answer me.

31. And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall

say, From heaven; he will say, Mat. xxi.25. unto us, Why did ye not then believe him?

26. But if we shall say, Of men; we fear the people ;
Luke xx. 6. all the people will stone us: for they be persuaded that

John was a prophet.
Mark xi. 32. they feared the people: for all men counted John, that he

was a prophet indeed.

33. And they answered, and said unto Jesus, We cannot tell. Luke xx, 7. whence it was. Mark xi. 33. And Jesus answering, saith unto them, Neither do I tell

you by what authority I do these things. Mat. xxi.28. But what think you ? A certain man had two sons; and

he came to the first, and said, Son, go work to-day in my

29. He answered, and said, I will not: but afterward he

repented, and went.

Mat. xxi.30. And he came to the second, and said likewise. And he Jerusalem.

answered, and said, I go, Sir ; and went not.
31. Whether of them twain did the will of his father? They

say unto him, The first. Jesus saith unto them, Verily
I say unto you, that the Publicans and the harlots go into

the kingdom of God before you.
32. For John came unto you in the way of righteousness,

believed him not; but the Publicans and the har-
lots believed him : and



had seen it, repented
not afterwards that ye might believe him.
Luke xx. 9.

Then began he to speak to the people this parable;
Mat, xxi.33. Hear another parable: There was a certain householder

which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, Mark xii. 1. and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the

wine-fat, Mat. xxi.23. and digged a wine-press in it, and built a tower, and let

it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country:

Luke xx. 9. for a long time.


And at the season
Mat. xxi.34. when the time of the fruit drew near,
Lu. xx. 10. he sent a servant to the husbandmen,
Mark xii. 2. that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of

the vineyard.
Lu. xx. 10. but the husbandmen
Mark xii. 3. caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.

4. And again he sent unto them another servant; and at

him they cast stones,
Lu. xx. 11. and they beat him also,
Mark xii. 4, and wounded him in the head,
Lu. xx. 11, and intreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.
Mark xii. 4. shamefully handled.
Lu. xx. 12, And again he sent a third : and they wounded him also,

and cast him out.
Mark xii. 5. And again he sent another; and him they killed, and

many others; beating some, and killing some. Lu. xx. 13. Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do?

I will send my beloved Son: it may be they will rever

ence him when they see him.
Mark xii. 6. Having yet therefore one Son, his well-beloved, he sent

him also last
Mat. xxi.37. last of all
Mark xii. 6. unto them, saying, They will reverence my son.

But when the husbandmen saw the son,
Lu. xx. 14. they reasoned


Mat. xxi.38. they said among themselves, This is the heir ; come, let

us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance.
89. And they caught him, and cast him out of the vineyard,
and slew him.


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