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Mat. xii.17. For verily I say unto you, that many prophets and

righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them: and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.

MATT. xiii. part of ver. 10. and ver, 13. 10 -and

13 Therefore speak I to them in parables : because they seeing, see not; and hearing, they hear not: neither do they understand.

MARK IV, ver. 11. 11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God

LUKE viii. part of ver. 9. and ver. 10. 9 And his disciplos asked him10 And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables ; that seoing they might not soo, and hearing they might not understand.

SECTION XXXII.
Explanation of the Parable of the Sover.
MATT. xü. 18-23. MARK iv. 13-23.

LUKE viii. part

of ver. 9. and 11-15. Mark iv. 10. They that were about him with the twelve asked of him

the parable. Luke viii. 9. saying, What might this parable be? Markiv.13. And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable ?

and how then will ye know all parables ?
Mat.xiii. 18. Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower.
Lukeviii.11. Now the parable is this : the seed is the word of God.
Mark iv. 14. The sower soweth the word.
Mat, xiii.19. When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and

understandeth it not, then
Mark iv. 15. immediately,
Lakeviii, 12. lest they should believe, and be saved."
Mat. xiii.19. cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that
Mark iv. 15. the word
Mat, xii.19. that was sown in his heart.

This is he which received seed by the way-side.
20. But he that received the seed into stony places, the

same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy re

ceiveth it ; Markiv. 16. immediately receiveth it with gladness : Mat, xiii.21. Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while; Lakeviii.13. for a-while believeth, and in time of temptation Mat, xiii.21. for Markiv. 17. afterward, when affliction, Mat. xiii.21. when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the

word, by and by he is offended. Lakevii.13. and falleth away.

Mat, xii.

22. He also that received seed among the thorns, is he

that heareth the word : Lukeviii.14. and when he hath heard goeth forth, Mark iv.19. and the cares Mat. xiii.22. and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, Lakeviii.14. and pleasures of this life, Markiv. 19. and the lusts of other things entering in, Mat. xiii.22. choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful. 23.

But he that received seed into the good ground, is he

that heareth the word, and understandeth it. Mark iv, 20. and receiveth it Lukeviii.15. in an honest and good heart; and having heard the word,

keepeth it, and with patience, Mat. xiii.23. which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth some an hun

dred fold, some sixty, some thirty. Mark iv.21. And he said unto them, Lukeviii.16. No man, when he hath lighted a candle, covereth it

with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed; but setteth it on

a candlestick, that they which enter in may see the light. 17. For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest;

neither any thing hid, that shall not be known, and come

abroad. Mark iv, 23. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear. MARK iv. part of ver. 15, 16, 17. ver. 18. part of ver. 19, 20, 21.

and ver. 22. 15 And these are they by the way-side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard Satan cometh—and taketh away-that was sown in their hearts.

16 And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word

17 And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time-or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.

18 And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word.

19 -of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.

20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word-and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.

21 -Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed ? and not to be set on a candlestick ?

22 For there is nothing bid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad.

LUKE viii. part of ver. 12, 13, 14, 15. 12 Those by the way-side are they that hear; then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts

13 They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy ; and these have no root, which

14 And that which fell among thorns are they, which-and are choked with cares and riches and bring no fruit to perfection.

15 But that on the good ground are they, which-bring forth fruit

SECTION XXXIII.
Christ directs his Hearers to practise what they hear.

MARK iv. 24, 25. LUKE viii. 18.
Mark iv.24.
And he said unto them., Take heed what ye

hear: Lukeviii.18. how

ye

hear : Mark iv. 24. with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you ;

and unto you that hear, shall more be given. 25. For he that hath, to him shall be given : and he that

hath not, from him shall be taken away even that which

he hath. Lukeviii.18. even that which he seemeth to have.

LUKE viii. part of ver. 18. 18 Take heed therefore--for whosoever hath, to him shall be given ; and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken

68

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SECTION XXXIV.
Various Parables descriptive of Christ's Kingdom

MATT. xiii. 24–53. MARK iv. 26–34.
Mark iv, 26. And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man

should cast seed into the ground;

68 This phrase, “the kingdom of heaven," is used in the New Testament to denote the various gradations of that dominion which the Messiah was about to establish. It sometimes alludes to its commencement, Matt. iii. 2. by the preaching, influence, and death of Christ; sometimes it refers to its gradual progress, and the consequent setting up and establishment of the Chris tian Church, Matt. xiii. 47. Sometimes it is used to express the future perfection and consummation of

the happiness of mankind and of the Church in a future state. The word baoilala, ought frequently to be translated “the reign," instead of the kingdom.

“ Isaiah, Daniel, Micah, and others of the prophets, had encouraged the people to expect a time when the Lord of Hosts should reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, when the people of God should be redeemed, and made joyful in Messiah their king.” “This period was generally anderstood by the phrases βασιλεία τω θεώ and βασιλεία των ουρανών; the first approach of which was preached by the Baptist, and afterwards by Christ.” When the word therefore refers to the time, it ought to be rendered the reign of God-the reign of heaven; when to place, it should be translated kingdom (a).

We read also (Luke xvii. 21.)“ the kingdom of God is within you." There is a dominion over the passions and the inferior nature of man, which may be justly called the kingdom of heaven, or the reign of divine power within us. And it is of little consequence to us, personally and individually, what may be the nature, origin, progress, extent, and consummation, of all the plans of Providence, which shall establish the kingdom of God in the world; unless, obedience to God, and faith in God, and the peace of God, be so known to us, that our nature become changed before Him. We may even assist to build up the ark which shall save a drowning world, but without repentance and faith, we, like the builders of the ark, may bo de. stroyed by the deluge.

I am aware that the original, η βασιλεία του θεά εντός υμών

Mark iv, 27. And should sleep, and rise night and day; and the

seed should spring up, and grow, he knoweth not how.
łotiv, may be translated the kingdom of God is among you, or,
is now being established in the midst of you; and the evrós is
so used by Xenoph. Cyrop. I. 1. and in the Avab. lib. 6. c. 5.
9.5. we read évtos tñs páhayyos, intra spatium, in quo exer-
citus erat. The word is used twice only in the New Testa-
ment-in Matt. xxiii. 26. whore it evidently signifies the inside
of the cup, &c.-and in this passage, Luke xvii. 21. where it is
contrasted with the outward pomp and shew with which the
Jews expected the reign of their Messiah would commence.
The kingdom of God cometh not perd naparnpňoews Hein-
sius paraphrases the word “pon venit præstolando, aut ex-
spectando regaum Domini. Schleusner quotes from Saidas,
εντός οι λογισμοί και ενθυμήσεις και πάντα τα της ψυχής κινήματα,
and the Alexandrian version translates the word 39p in the last
clause of Ver. 1. of Ps. ciii. by the word evrós, &c. 27 g
where no other meaning can be assigned but that which is in-
ternal : that is, the thoughts and motives of the beart. The
phrase also, O'nun nian, was used among the Jews to denote
the influence of religion within the heart (6).

The Jews bad long spoken of, anticipated and described the future reign of the Messiah by the phrase now in question. They had been taught by their ancient prophets to expect a Messiah, who should restore the true reigion, reform the Jewish people, atone for their sins, and release them from a foreign yoke. The apostles and our Lord used only the popular language, when they adopted the term expressive of this dominion of the Messiah, That the expressions βασιλεία τ8 θεϊ-βασιλεία των ερανώνβασιλεία τε Ιησέ, did not refer only to the kingdom or dominion of Christ in the future world, is evident from the proclamation of the Baptist, Matt. iii 2. ryyice yap y baouleia, &c. and from the nature of the addresses of our Lord, such as in Matt. vi. 33. ζητείτε πρώτον την βασιλείαν τά θεέ, and those in the Lord's prayer, “thy will be done in earth.” &c.

As the treatise of Schoetgen is bound up with his larger work, and is rarely to be met, I have made an extract from his observations on this phrase.

The expression Dinun n73573, the same as oj Baoileia Twv Spavwv frequently occurs in Jewish writers. In general it means the polity of the children

of Israel under the old covenant, having God at its head. The kingdom of heaven is the same as the kingdom of God. In that kingdom the Jews were the subjects. Thus Josephus properly calls that government Deorparia, § 1. and 2.

To shew that Jewish writers used the expression in this sense, several quotations are brought, sect. 3. One is from Rabbi Schemoth: “When they (the Israelites) came to Sinai, and received the kingdom of God," &c. Our author supposes this “ receiving the kingdom of God," to imply a confession of faith, that may be repeated for the greater confirmation therein. He quotes Sohar Genes: “When a man goes to bed, he ought first of all to take upon himself the kingdom of heaven, and then repeat one or more prayers,” $4.

It appears that when a mao used the prayer Krischma, it was necessary first, suscipere regnum cælorum, $ 5. in fine. This is the common meaning of the phrase, kingdom of heaven,” among Jewish writers. Still they havo used it (hut rarely) in the sense of the times of the Messiah and the new dispensation. Targum, Micah iv. 17. “ The kingdom of heaven shall be revealed unto them on Mount Zion, from this time to all eternity." But, independently of quotations from

Mark iv. 28., For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the

blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. 29.' But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he

putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come. Mat. xiii.24. Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The

kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man, which sowed

good seed in his field : 25. But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares

among the wheat, and went his way. 26. But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth

fruit, then appeared the tares also. 27. So the servants of the householder came, and said unto

him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field ?

from whence then hath it tares ? 28. He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The

servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and

gather them up ? 29. But he said, Nay; lest, while ye gather up the tares,

ye root up also the wheat with them. 30. Let both grow together until the harvest; and in the

time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles, to burn them : but gather the wheat into my

barn. 31. Another parable put he forth unto them, Mark iv. 30. and he said, Mat. xiii.31. saying, Mark iv.30. Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with

what comparison shall we compare it?
these writers, it may be shewn, that the Jews used the expres-
sion in this sense; otherwise John the Baptist, Christ, the
Pharisees, and the hearers, would neither have used the phrase,
nor understood it. Thus a Pharisee, Luc. xvii. 20. asks,
When the kingdom of God should come," $ 6.

The expression took its origin from that passage of Daniel, where it is said, “ Unto him was given a kingdom, &c. and his kingdom shall not be destroyed,” 07.

In the New Testament, the expression ý Baoilua Te 08, means the Christian Church, or dispensation. The Apostle, Rom. xiv. 17. ex borts Christians not to condemn others about meats; “for,” says he, “ the kingdom of God is not meat and drink;" that is, the Christian Church, under its king, the Messiah, is not bound by the ceremonies enjoined under the law, $ 8,

There is sometimes an ellipsis of 086, or rūv spavwv; the word Baouléia occurring alone. Thus Christ is said to have preached tho Gospel of the kingdom, i. e. of the kingdom of the Messiah. The Jews are called viol ons Bao delas, because the kingdom of Messiah was first sent to them, s 9.

It also denotes subjection to the kingdom of Messiah, Mark X. 15. “Whoever does not receive the kingdom of heaven,” &c. S 10.

It is not denied that “ the kingdom of heaven” is sometimes used to denote eternal life, g 11.

(a) Campbell's Preliminary Dissertations, vol. i. p. 140. (6) Vide Schoetgen. Dissert. de regno Cælorum, Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 1149. Heinsius Exercit. Sacræ, p. 172, Schleusner in vo. cłytós, and Valpy's Greek Test, in Luke xvii. 20.

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