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has been added to our stock of information, since the publication of Sir James Clark's work, which, moreover, did not touch upon those shores of the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean which it was my fortune to visit. I trust that persons in search of health will glean from my pages some useful information relative to the accommodations and best seasons for visiting the various places we touched at in the Levant and elsewhere.
The kind reception given to the first edition of this Narrative, and its rapid sale, having induced its publishers to bring out another and less expensive edition, I have carefully revised the whole, and considerably enlarged it in many parts. For the latter purpose I have carefully noted the history and progress of events that have taken place in the countries described in this work, during the last five years. On several of the subjects treated, I have corresponded with the residents in those countries, particularly with regard to the climate, and the means of access. I have likewise carefully examined the best works descriptive of the same localities, which have appeared since the first publication of this narrative in 1840, and have introduced whatever might afford the reader substantial information on any of the subjects discussed in this book; so that in its present form it partakes somewhat of the nature of a handbook to those scenes which are attempted to be described. I have also endeavoured in this edition to correct many of those imperfections in style and language which I am but too conscious existed in the former one.
Since the first edition appeared, I have received a most interesting communication from Corunna, on the subject of the ancient Pharos of Hercules, not only confirmatory of my original observations, but likewise throwing more light on the origin, history, and use of that antique building, (one of the very oldest in Europe, and one intimately connected with the first colonization of this country,) than can be found in any other work in our language. And even while these sheets were passing through the press, I received an old Spanish MS. which clears up much of the obscurity attending this disputed topic. For some further and more detailed notice of this subject, I must refer the reader
to the “Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy” for this year ; and drawings of both the ancient and modern tower will be found at page 9 of this edition.
Of Madeira and the Canaries, I feel that too much cannot be said ; and upon comparing my own notes with the opinions and investigations of others, I am daily more and more convinced, that for a particular class of invalids they are vastly superior to any other climate within the same distance of our shores.
The chapter on Madeira has been almost re-written, and from the interest which it appeared to excite in its original state, as well as to answer the multifarious questions which are so frequently put to me by those intending to visit the island, I have enlarged it with a variety of information suited to invalids and temporary residents, and derived from the most authentic sources. Teneriffe has been revised in a like manner.
Dr. Lepsius and others having claimed as a discovery the proper understanding of the mode in which the coating was placed upon the Pyramids, in accordance with the text of Herodotus, subsequent to the reprint of those pages in which the subject is discussed, I have answered his and the views of Messrs. Perring and James Wild, in “The Athenæum" for April 20th, 1844.
On the subject of Tyre I have had the advantage of the observations of those engineers who visited that place previous to the late Syrian war.
The researches concerning the topographies of ancient Tyre and Jerusalem, have cost me much labour and patient investigation, and I trust they may continue to be thought of interest, both by the biblical student and the general reader. The topographical portion of Jerusalem, I have very carefully revised; and while I see no reason to change the opinions which I originally put forward on that most interesting subject, I have stated the views of Dr. Robinson, I trust with fairness and truth. In these opinions I have likewise been strengthened by those of Gesenius; and those objections, which I was the first to urge against the views of Dr. E. D. Clarke, have since been confirmed by all observant travellers.
It is gratifying to find that several of the speculations on which I ventured with regard to the social or political condition of some of the countries we visited, have since turned out true; and of these, the French possession (so-called) of Algiers, affords a striking proof; and the war now carrying on by France with Abd-el Kadir, and the emperor of Morocco, is merely what I had foreseen and anticipated in the chapters on Algiers. My opinions on Greece and its government have been likewise confirmed in almost every particular.
Many of the tombs and monuments upon the coast of Asia Minor, which I have examined and described, appear to have been comparatively overlooked by others.
Though much has lately been written about the change now taking place in Egypt, it is a subject upon which the British public can never be too well informed, and cannot take too deep an interest, considering how materially our means of rapid communication with our Indian possessions must be influenced by the condition of that country.
The Appendix contains some disquisitions upon subjects which I trust will interest the antiquary and the student of natural history, though perhaps too abstruse for the general reader.
I have again to acknowledge the many facilities afforded me in my investigations in other lands, and the many, many kind attentions of my esteemed friend and fellow-traveller, Mr. Robert Meiklam.
Throughout the revision of this work, I have had recourse to the original notes, and while retracing my steps through scenes that must ever live in my recollection, I feel that I cannot again appear before the public, without acknowledging the flattering reception which, with all its imperfections, this my first book met with.
15, WESTLAND Row, DUBLIN,
tation-View of the Coural das Freiras-Its Descent-Regions of Vegetation-Magni-