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whatever may be their observations and their knowledge, seldom give them to the world.* The former are the fewer in number, and seldom possessed of those pecuniary means so necessary to engage in scientific research. To remedy this latter defect, some effort should be made by the different literary and scientific institutions of our country.
In almost every land that I have visited, I have met collectors of natural history, antiquaries, botanists, and other men of similar attainments located, who had been sent out, some by the governments, and others by the different colleges, universities, and learned societies of Europe, particularly those of France and Germany; but never was it my lot to meet with a single individual sent on such a mission from Ireland.
Aware of the value that such persons, properly educated and supplied with requisite means, would be to science, the Society of the Dilettanti was formed in London, in the year 1734. One of the resolutions of this society was, " that persons properly qualified, should be sent, with sufficient appointments, to some parts of the east, in order to collect information, and make observations relative to the ancient state of those countries, and to such monuments of antiquity as were then remaining." In 1764, James, Earl of Charlemont, the first president of the Royal Irish Academy, and a name ever dear to Irishmen, as connected with the science, literature, and best interests of this country, particularly patronized the Society of the Dilettanti, and was placed at the head of its committee of superintendence. It was under the auspices, and by the assistance of this society, that the celebrated Doctor Chandler travelled, and, with the assistance of Messrs. Revett and Wood, presented the Ionian Antiquities, and other eminent works, to the world.t In later times, the University of Cambridge established travelling fellowships, for a like laudable purpose. Of these, I believe Dr. E. D. Clarke filled one of the first ; and the Rev. Mr. Low in Madeira, and Mr. Smith in Teneriffe, now occupy two of these with much credit to themselves, and many advantages to the interests of science and literature. The value of such men has been duly appreciated by our continental neighbours, and much of their labour is to be seen in the collection of the Jardin des Plantes, and in the libraries and museums of the different German colleges. Without such persons, the lifetime of a dozen Cuviers would not have sufficed to collect and arrange the Regne Animal.
Although much has been done for the cultivation of natural science, by the universities and institutions of England, both at home and abroad, much still remains to be done ; but I regret to add, that I may almost say, we have yet to commence in the University of Dublin.
# To this, however, we have one honourable exception of late years, in the work of Lord Lindsay. + See also the valuable papers of this Society, publisliell in London in 1769.
servation was pened, a reform, the greatest for the last half century, has been effected in our University, in the appointment of Mr. Phillips, Professor of Geology ; Dr. George Allman, Professor of Botany : Mr. Ball, Curator of the Museum ; and Dr. Harvey, Curator of the Herbareum and the splendid botanical collection of the late lamented Dr, Coulter. With one more appointment, that of a Professorship of Zoology and Natural Flistory, our University might vie with any in Europe.
This being an age of travel, it requires little to be said for the advantages that all derive from such an occupation of time, and the pen of an Addison has already opened up, though not exhausted, the valuable mine of information that may be drawn from it, and the lasting benefits it gives to the scholar and the gentleman. It is to be regretted that the youth of this country do not in general receive an education that fits them to become observant or scientific travellers ;-and from this cause much valuable and interesting information has been lost to science and literature, by travellers not being able to appreciate what they saw, or observe with effect the wonders amidst which they happened to be located. This is a position in which I have often felt myself placed, and had frequent occasion to regret.
I know of no learned profession in this country that gives a proper preliminary education to its students. This is a truth that I think few will deny; and it is one felt by all who enter these professions, at some one period of their course through life.* I may be asked, does not the divinity student receive a proper education ? Surely not, while he is ignorant of that language in which the volume is written from which he is to give and receive instruction or with that tongue with which very often the generality of his flock are conversant--while the first ten years of his academic life are spent in acquiring a knowledge of languages, in which he only reads the fabulous tales of Greek and Latin authors, or in learning the immorality and false doctrines of heathen philosophers. Not that I would in any way depreciate a knowledge of the classic authors, or detract from their value; but I do think that they are overstudied, while Hebrew and other languages of more enduring account are, with some few exceptions, either comparatively or completely neglected. Surely that education cannot be complete, while the student is in total ignorance of those wonders of the animal and vegetable creation to which in after life he daily calls his hearers to look as evidences of design, or as displaying the power and magnificence of their Maker. « On this subject," says Mr. Swainson, in his “ Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural History," " it cannot be concealed, however, that this exclusion of zoology as a 'part and parcel' of our academic studies, is a national stigma; that it has repeatedly been adverted to, in terms of regret and of censure, by our own writers; and that it calls forth the astonishment and reproach of every enlightened foreigner. A stranger, ignorant of our national peculiarities, would almost
• So much was this deficiency felt by the legal profession, that a school of law was lately established in this city. It was much wanted; it promiseul well; but, like many other good institutions in this country, it was crushed in its very infancy.
imagine, from the rigour with which their study is enforced, that the writings of the heathen poets were peculiarly adapted to purify the heart, and curb the licentiousness of the youthful imagination; or that they formed, in some inexplicable way, a string of commentaries upon our religious creed. And he might be further led to suppose that those wonders of the visible creation, which, when considered, will bring home conviction to the philosophic sceptic, were unworthy of study or regard, as if they were things of mere chance-produced by a congregation of fortuitous atoms, alike incapable of demonstrating the being of a God, or the care he bestows upon his creatures."
But it is not to the clerical profession alone that this applies, the preliminary education of which has been so much improved in our University of late years ; it is not to the ill-recompensed, hard-working clergy alone that this refers ; in the medical profession affairs are still worse. In it, there is no preliminary education; I know it from experience, and state it with regret. Such, it is true, may be, and is by some possessed; but so long as it is not required by our Licensing Institutions, it will never be possessed by the generality of students. Here, on the other hand, the classic authors are comparatively unknown, and modern languages are never thought of. Of mathematics, mechanics, and natural philosophy, our medical and particularly our surgical student knows little or nothingnothing of zoology, or comparative anatomy, and little of either botany or chemistry. How long is this to continue ? Not only would the professional man, but the country gentleman, or the statesman, derive profit from this early cultivation of the natural sciences; not only would they, and all who interest themselves in such pursuits, have an entertaining and useful store of knowledge laid up for after years, but all would be better fitted to form observant travellers in their own or other countries.
The government of this country is not, and never has been, a patron of science. There is little or no emolument to be attained by those who spend their lives in the pursuit of scientific subjects. It is, therefore, the “bounden duty" of our chartered bodies, and particularly of our University, to assist the cause of science, and to further its advance by following the bright example of the English colleges, in creating travelling fellowships. It would be presumptuous in me to point out the best method of carrying this into effect; but of the value of such fellowships, and of the researches and discoveries that men educated like those who grace our College would make, little doubt can be entertained, and the works that would then issue from our press would soon wipe off the long, too longcontinued motto of the “ SILENT Sister.” Another defect in our national education is the want of instruction in eastern languages, particularly Arabic, Turkish, and Persian. In a diplomatic point of view the study of these tongues is particularly requisite. It is a well-known fact, that in the countries in which these languages are spoken, all diplomatic conferences must be carried on through the medium of an interpreter. This
should if possible be avoided; for many of the necessary secrets of an embassy are thus entrusted to natives of the country in which it is placed. It is a curious, but I believe an undeniable fact, that lately at Constantinople, the chief dragomen to the English, French, and Russian mivisters, were brothers !! In concluding this hint upon the education suitable to travellers, and the advantages of travelling fellowships, I trust that the University will overlook the insignificance of the proposer, in the importance of the proposition.
N.B._Several of the observations originally put forward in this sketch have, I am proud to say, become matters of history since the first edition of this Narrative. I leave them, however, as memorials of what things were, not what they are ; and I feel assured, so rapid is the progress making in this country, despite all the agitation of designing men, that should another edition of this work be required within the same space of time as between this and the former one, a still greater change for the better will have taken place. What could be achieved by travelling fellowships in our University may be conceived from the labours of Dr. Kennedy Bailie on the site of the Apocalyptic churches.
THE PHYSICAL AISTORY OF THE GUANCHES.
THERE are few of the extinct races of man that have elicited more inquiry, or of whom there is less known, than the Guanches. Their history is so wrapped in obscurity, and their vestiges so rare, that our speculations as to their origin and manners are principally derived from their embalmed remains, or the questionable authority of ancient writers and travellers. As the work of Dr. Prichard contains a collection of the greater portion of the history of this singular people, I shall here take the liberty of quoting some of the most important information that he has been able to procure. “ It is supposed that the Guanches, the ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, were a branch of the great Lybian or Atlantic stock. It has been often conjectured that the Canary Islands were the mnou. Maraewy of the ancients, and the site of the fabulous gardens of the Hesperides. They seem to be obscurely indicated in the traditions of the early Grecian mythology; but the first occasion in which they are mentioned in history, or in any account that approaches to authenticity, is in the report which was given by Sartorius, on the credit of which we are told by Plutarch, that the Roman general was seized with a desire to return to them, and live in peace and repose. It is said that, when flying from the arms of Sylla, Sartorius met with some seamen but newly arrived from the
Atlantic islands, which were said to be distant 10,000 furlongs from the coast of Africa. They are called,' says Plutarch, the Fortunate Isles.' Rain only falls there, as it is said, in moderate showers; the seasons of the year are temperate ; and gentle breezes abound, bringing with them soft dews, which so enrich the soil, that it bears, untilled, plenty of delicious fruits, and supports its inhabitants, who enjoy an immunity from toil."Lyon's Travels.
These islands were described by Juba, an African prince, and one of the oldest travellers and geographers. According to him, one of the islands was called Canaria, (now Grand Canary,) from its containing a number of dogs of a great size. In his time the islands seem to have been but very partially inhabited. During a long lapse of time-that is, from the period when Juba wrote, in Cæsar's time, to the 14th century-history is silent as to the state of the Fortunate Isles. In the 15th century, Cadamosto, the Spanish navigator, and discoverer of the Cape de Verd Islands, waged war against the Guanches; and at that period the population of Grand Canary amounted to 9,000, and that of Teneriffe to 5,000. “The natives of the latter island are said to have been of great, and even gigantic stature.” This assertion is certainly not verified by the remains of Guanches found at the present day. “They were a people of very simple habits, and possessed of very few arts; were ignorant of the use of metals, and are said to have plowed the land by means of the horns of bullocks. They helieved in a future state, and worshipped a Supreme Being, whom they termed Achuharahan, the author and preserver of all good things. They also believed in a malignant being, termed Guayotta, and placed the abode of the wicked in the burning crater of Teneriffe.”
“ What remained of the Guanches," says Humboldt, “ perished mostly in 1494, in the terrible pestilence called the Modorra, which was attributed to the quantity of dead bodies left exposed to the air by the Spaniards, after the battle of La Laguna. The nation of the Guanches was therefore extinct at the beginning of the sixteenth century. A few only were found at Candelaria and Guimar."
“ The practice of embalming bodies and laying them up in mummy-caves or catacombs in the sides of mountains, is the most curious circumstance in the history of the Guanches; it is at least that which has attracted the greatest attention. The mummies were placed erect upon their feet against the sides of the caves; chiefs had a staff placed in their hands, and a vessel of milk standing by them." The vessels that were shown me in the museum at Santa Cruz, as those found along with the mummy, were rude wooden bowls. A similar practice was observed by the ancient Peruvians. “ Nicol, an English traveller, states, that he had seen 300 of these corpses together, of which he says, that the flesh was dried up, and the bodies as light as parchment. Scorey was assured that in the sepulchre of the kings of Guimar there was to be seen a skeleton measuring fifteen feet, the skull of which contained cighty teeth." As this, however, is but parole or hearsay