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part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, till it arrives at the King's wine-presses, or the King's gardens, which are placed by all topographers between the fountain of Siloam and the lower pool of that name. Here then, we have an accurate plan laid down of the east wall; and it is very remarkable that from the tower to the Horse-gate, the greater portion of the ancient wall of the city is still in existence, so that, as I before remarked, it is the same in the modern, and also in that of the prophetic or millennial cities. Nay, it is still more curious and extraordinary that Mr. Fry, totally unacquainted, at the time he wrote, with the existence of this wall, says, “along this line the point of the temple was extended; the prophecy does not notice this; we are to take for granted that the line is restored !"
We now turn to the northern boundary, and here we read that the measuring line is to extend from the tower of Hananeel to the Corner-gate. This gate I have marked in the wall of Nehemiah, near to the place called the grotto of Jeremiah, and beside the Tower of the Corner. From that, it proceeds still farther, and crosses over the hill Gareb, which is a slight elevation north-west of the present city. But where are we to stop here? This is answered by Mr. Fry's explanation of the passages in Zechariah. “I conceive," says he, “that we are to understand the Hebrew particle with which the sentence begins in its comparative sense. The land shall be elevated and built upon 'as from the gate of Benjamin to the place of the old gate, so also to the corner-gate;' that is, in the same proportional distance shall the wall be built up to the corner-gate from an opposite point, as from the gate of Benjamin, to the place of the former gate.” (Fry on the Second Advent, vol. i. page 564.)
In the map used by the author from whom I have just quoted, the gate of Benjamin is placed in the north-east angle, and therefore the measure is incorrect. But, having established this gate to be situated on Mount Moriah, corresponding to that which is now called the Golden-gate, and in the times of Jeremiah, the High-gate--and also the first, or former gate to be in the northern wall of Nehemiah, about midway between the Fish-gate, and the tower of the corner—a line equal in length to the distance from the old gate to that of Benjamin, and carried straight forward from the Corner-gate over the hill of Gareb,
THE VISION OF EZEKIEL.
will give us the circuit of the city wall in that direction which exactly corresponds in length with that of the eastern side. Having now formed two sides of a city, which we read elsewhere in the inspired volume is to be a square, it is easy to extend the line so as to complete the other two sides. From the hill Gareb it is to compass about Goath, or Goatha, a place which many readers suppose to be Golgotha. The western line then passes through part of the upper pool of Gihon, and reaches the northern extremity of Mount Gihon. Having completed the east, north, and western walls, the line then turns to encompass the southern side of the city, and passing through the lower pool of Gihon, crosses over the summit of Mount Sion, and joins the eastern wall at the King's gardens. “The valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields unto the brook Kedron,” I conceive to refer to that part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, along the eastern boundary, in which are several corn fields, the brook Kedron, and which is in some places literally paved with tomb-stones. Now that these prophecies relate to a future city, there can be no manner of doubt, for the city rebuilt by permission of Cyrus, after the captivity, has been long since destroyed. · Let us now look into another prophecy that bears upon this restored city. While the captive Israelites mourned over their condition, and wept for the destruction of their temple, their city, their country, and their homes, as exiles in a strange and distant land, whither they had been banished for their iniquities and rebellions against God, a young and highly favoured Hebrew was endowed with the spirit of prophecy, and uttered many predictions concerning extraordinary events, which were to take place in the world ; some of which have been already fulfilled, and others yet remain to be accomplished. He foretold the ruin of many kingdoms ; he threatened cities, and lived to see his predictions fulfilled ; he warned kings and nations of their approaching doom, and though he predicted many fearful visitations and judgments which were to come upon the Jewish people, no prophetic historian is more full and explicit in the cheering promises of restoration to the ancient people of the Lord, or the temporal prosperity and power, together with the spiritual blessings that are in store for them under the THEOCRACY that is yet to flourish in the country of their forefathers.
While this prophet, whose name was Ezekiel, slept by the river of Chebar,* he was carried in a vision to the land of Israel, and there appeared to him the frame or form of a city, situated on a mountain, or raised ground, to the south of where he stood; and there met him a man of a bright or shining appearance, having in his hand a line of flax, and a measuring reed of six cubits long.—(Ezek. chap. xl.) This man was prepared to show and explain to the prophet the different parts of this building, and to describe to him the pattern after which it should be constructed, in order that he might declare all that he saw unto the house of Israel. After describing the form, the dimensions, and the uses of each particular part, as well as the ceremonies to take place there, he informed the prophet that the circuit of this four-sided building was two thousand reeds, or five hundred on every side. Now allowing the cubit to be eighteen inches of our measure, which multiplied by nine, the number of cubits in a reed, and then by two thousand, we have the circumference of the city in inches, which, reduced to feet, gives us the square that is laid down in this plan, corresponding exactly with the lines of the four-sided city of Jeremiah and Zechariah marked yellow on the map. Nay more, take up any tolerably well-constructed map, that gives any thing like an outline of the former city and the surrounding elevations, and measure according to its scale a square of two thousand cubits, taking the tower of Hananeel as the north-east point, and it will enclose the space mentioned by the two last prophets, so that, as Mr. Fry says, “ Jeremiah's 'city of Jehovah,' and Ezekiel's city-like temple are found to occupy the same space.”
It is but fair to state that objections have been urged against this literal interpretation of these prophecies. It is said that they are but emblematical and refer to spiritual matters; but if so, of what manner of use would be the reference to the topography of ancient Jerusalem ; what spiritual import or meaning could there be in the towers, the gates, the hills and valleys, brooks and wine-presses, described by the prophets ? What mystical or
Chebar, a river of Mesopotamia, which falls into the Euphrates, Dear Karkemish. Strabo mentious it under the name of Abonas ; Animianus, as Aboras; Ptolemy, as Chaloras.
symbolical meaning can possibly be attached to the courts, the gates, the pavements, the porches, the chambers, the houses, altars, arches, palm trees, and decorations spoken of, and minutely detailed in the vision of the Babylonish captive? To get rid of this argument, another class of commentators have supposed that the prophet referred to the temple of Solomon, built on Mount Moriah, and restored by Zerubbabel, after the return from the captivity; or that rebuilt and beautified by Herod. But a comparison of the measures of both will prove their dissimilarity ; besides, Mount Moriah itself, on which Solomon's, Zerubbabel's, and Herod's temples stood, is not one-eighth of the space to be occupied by this “city-like temple,” which is to be twenty-eight stadia in circumference, or nearly a mile every way. *
An object of very great moment leads us to make a further examination of the eastern wall. About midway between St. Stephen's Gate and the south-west corner, are the remains of a most remarkable gate, built up in the wall, and originally opening into the court of the Hareem Shereef, or the outer enclosure of Solomon's temple. This is called by the Mooslims Bab el-Derahei, and is supposed to be the Golden Gate mentioned in the time of our Saviour. The upper part of this gateway consists of a double arch, with part of the capitals and pillars, but all the rest is built up in the wall, and guarded with the greatest care by the Mooslims, not only because it is in the outer wall of the mosque, but because they have a tradition that through this
* Among this class of interpreters is Sir Isaac Newton, who has gone so far as to give a description of Solomon's temple from the very lines and boundaries shown to the prophet when conducted to a city raised up and set upon a very high mountain. This view of the subject appears to us extraordinary, when we consider the great knowledge of prophecy possessed by this eminent and highly gifted philosopher, as seen in his luminous interpretations of the prophecy of Daniel. The plates of this temple figured in his work, will, however, afford most valuable and useful information to all who study this remarkable prophecy. In further proof of the fallacy of the opinion as to its mystical meaning and its applicability to Solomon's and Zerubbabel's temple, I would refer my readers to the preliminary remarks on the fortieth to forty-eighth chapters of Ezekiel by Archbishop, afterwards Primate Newcombe.
very gate the Christians and the Jews are one day to enter in, and retake Jerusalem. The Turks, therefore, regard with a certain degree of jealousy and aversion all Christians whom they see approaching near it; and they would in all probability inflict a severe punishment on the Jew whose temerity might lead him to inspect it too closely. I never approached it but some Mooslim soon appeared, looking upon me with suspicion ; especially as I generally went with a measuring line and a note-book in my hand. It can be plainly distinguished from Mount Olivet; though much mutilated, enough yet remains to show that but little of the Greek or Roman architecture was used in its construction, the capitals of the pillars being surrounded with leaves, rather in the style of the Egyptian, and the architrave being adorned with some of the floral ornaments peculiar to Hebrew architecture, and so well defined in sacred history, in which the pomegranate, the vine, and the lily-work were blended so as to produce the most beautiful effect.
These ornaments are well exhibited in the tombs of the kings, which are of undoubted Hebrew origin, and in other specimens of similar architecture about Jerusalem ; but they are very much defaced on this gate.
The principal cemetery of the Mohammadans is placed beneath