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from the outer court, and that these columns were once above the surface.*

Walls constructed of stones of such magnitude as those I have described, surrounding the western enclosure of the mosque, in the east wall of the city, and in the tower, tell us that they belong to an era more than nineteen centuries old. No antiquary will, I think, be able to point out any such architecture since the Christian era. Parallels are only to be found amidst such structures as Baalbec, the magnificent theatre at Telmessus, the treasury of Atreus, the walls of the Piræus at Athens, the Cothon at Joppa, or the pyramids and gigantic temples of Upper Egypt and Abyssinia. Stones of this description were used in Jerusalem from the earliest time—“hewn stones,” “stones of great size,” ten and twenty cubits in length, both in the building of the temple and the city wall. And Josephus not only informs us of the general strength of the walls, but of this in particular, which was so strong, and the stones of such magnitude, that the Romans were unable to throw it down ; and Titus himself on entering the city expressed his wonder and admiration at the extreme thickness of these walls. Again, on the east side, the very peculiar nature of the ground, and the steepness of the ravine that falls from it, together with the existence of the valley of Jehoshaphat, doubtless contributed to render it secure; and consequently the battering rams and engines of the besiegers could not without great difficulty have been applied to it—though I much doubt if such instruments could have taken effect on walls of such solidity. And I believe I am correct in stating, that unless in the late attack by Ibrahim Basha, cannon were never used against Jerusalem. Thus then we see that there was a physical impossibility of this wall being demolished at that time.

Now Josephus informs us, that as soon as the army had no more people to slay, Cæsar gave orders that they should demolish the entire city and temple, but leave a certain portion of the wall, together with the towers of Phasaelus, Hippicus, and Mariamne.


* These subterranean remains have been further described by Mr. Bonomi. See Dr. Edward Hogg's Visit to Alexandria and Damascus. They were also visited by Mr. Catherwood, who furnished Dr. Robinson with a plan of them.-“ Biblical Researches,” vol. i. p. 448.



“ This wall was spared, in order to afford a camp for such as were to lie in garrison ; as were the towers also spared in order to demonstrate to posterity what kind of city it was, and how well fortified, which the Roman valour had subdued : but for all the rest of the wall, it was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that dug it up to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that came thither to believe it had ever been inhabited.”*

A palpable mistake occurs in the text of the historian here, in making the portion left standing by the Romans the western wall; for that, upon his own showing, was destroyed long before, not having the same natural defences as this; and the principal attacks of Titus were on the north and north-western walls. Thus we have the concurrent testimonies of the appearance and architecture of the existing wall; the written account of Josephus ; the traditions of the Jews, (and we know not only to what lengths they carry these, but that there were always Jews in the place, who would hand them down through successive generations ;) besides the prophecy of the word of God. And wherefore would the Psalmist have foretold of the servants taking "pleasure in her stones," if none such existed? What scenes has it not witnessed-what has it not yet to behold!

There is a very remarkable appearance observable in those parts of the ground around Jerusalem on which the ancient city stood; and when the place is viewed from the Mount of Olives, or any adjacent elevation, it is possible by it to trace out the probable extent of the ancient city. This is a peculiar blackness of the ground, perfectly different from the natural reddish yellow colour of the neighbouring fields. I have observed the sites of other cities composed of this kind of soil ; but here a great quantity of the remains of tesselated pavement, with bits of white and yellow marble, are mixed through it.

Eusebius states the circumference of ancient Jerusalem to have been twenty-seven stadia, and Josephus thirty-three. The circuit of the walls in the accompanying map is but thirty-one stadia, or three miles and seven-eighths. Should apology be required for this disagreement with the Jewish historian, I can only answer,

* Josephus' Wars of the Jews, b. vii. chap. 1.

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The modern to half miles in cat as belonging

that such was the line marked out to me on by a close examination of the ground.

The modern town occupies not quite two-thirds of the ancient, and is two and a half miles in circumference.* Its eastern wall is that which I already described as belonging to the ancient city ; and contains the Bab es-Subat. The southern proceeds from Ophel, over the summit of Mount Sion, where it turns to the north, and joins the castle of David, the ancient Hippicus. In this we find the modern gate of Sion, or, as it is called by the Mohammadans, the Bab en-Neby Daud, the gate of the prophet David. From this, the western wall is very irregular, and completely devoid of any of the natural ravines that fence the city in other parts ; it is probably that built by the Emperor Ælianus Adrianus, hence called Ælia Capitolina ; in it, he laboured to confound and obliterate the ancient topography, and hence perhaps its present irregular form. It includes Calvary, and at the western angle a part of the elevation of Goath; it then slopes downward to the Damascus gate, where it becomes the northern boundary, and proceeding along the brow of Acra, it joins the eastern wall at the place that is assigned to the tower of Hananeel. In it, are the gates leading to Jaffa and Damascus, the former called in the Arabic Bab el-Kulil, from its being the way to Hebron also, and the latter the gate of the pilgrims, Bal el-Amud. William of Tyre tells us that the walls erected by Adrian were so placed, “that the scene of our Lord's passion and resurrection, which had before been without the walls was now included within their circuit.” It is also stated by the same celebrated historian, that “the Golgotha, and the place where the cross was discovered, as well as the place where the body was anointed, were formerly small oratories without the church.” These walls, renewed by the Saracens and Crusaders, are still in good preservation, and for the greater part of their circuit are from forty to sixty feet high.

* The last measurement, that taken by Dr. Robinson, makes it 4326 yards; but he says it was done “ without regarding the short angles and smaller zig-zags;" under these circumstances our measurements nearly correspond.



Promise of a New city-The Labours of Mr. Fry-.Prophecies--Lines of the Prophetic City

Tower of Hananeel-The Eastern Wall-The Northern Boundary-Goath-The Southern and Western Walls-The Prophet Ezekiel--His vision The City-like Temple-Its Measurements--Its Supposed Symbolical Meaning-Reference to Solomon's Temple-The Eastern Gate-Its Architecture-Traditions. Its station in the Millennial City-Remarkable Predictions concerning it-Mohammadan Traditions of Jerusalem-The Manuscript of JalalAddin-Prophecy of Mahadi. Expected Return of MessiahDr. Clarke's Topography-His alleged Discoveries--Position of Mount Sion-Objections of Mr. Buckingham-Their Fallacy -His Map-Refutation of Clarke's Objections-Sepulchres of David-Proofs from the Book of Joshua-Clarke's Knowledge of the Holy City-Authority of the Apostles-Calvary-Vulgar Errors-Golgotha-Identity of the Holy Sepulchre--Opinions of Dr. RobinsonGrotto of Jeremiah--The Royal Sepulchres-Tombs of the Judges--Their Manner of Construction--The Valley of Jehoshaphat-Tomb of the Virgin--Gethsemane-Mount of Olives

Sepulchres of the Patriarchs--Siloam--Valley of Hinnom-The Aceldama-Discoveries of the Author-The races of Mankind-Opinion of Dr. Prichard.

In the foregoing description I have endeavoured to trace the situation and precise locality of the several cities of Jerusalem that have been ; from that of Salem, occupying Mount Acra alone; then Mount Sion added ; afterwards Moriah, taken in for the site of the temple; Bezetha included in later times, as the population grew more numerous, and finally, the walls of the present city. But there is still a topography of Jerusalem to be considered, without which any treatise upon that subject would be incomplete.

We are informed by the inspired writers, in language such as cannot possibly be mistaken, that at the restoration of Israel Jerusalem shall be safely inhabitedand men shall dwell in it, and there shall be no more utter destruction of it.(Zech. xiv. 11.) See also chapter ii., and this cheering promise is again and again repeated in other prophecies. But the inspired writers go further, and not only inform us of the rebuilding of the city,

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according to a precise plan, but they lay down the position of its walls and gates with such accuracy as to preclude the possibility of error or mistake; so that he who takes the Scriptures in his hand and goes over the ground may, even now, measure every cubit of the space it is hereafter to occupy. Mr. Fry, in his highly interesting and learned work upon the “Second Advent,” has already taken up this subject, and the few errors that he has fallen into, are those merely arising from the defective maps which he consulted, and from his not having visited the places he describes. The quadrangular space marked by the Yellow coloured line in the map defines the ground to be occupied by the future city.

In the prophecy of Jeremiah, we find the first description of the topography of this city. “Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that the city shall be built to the Lord, from the tower of Hananeel unto the gate of the corner. And the measuringline shall yet go over against it upon the hill Gareb, and shall compass about to Goath. And the whole valley of the dead bodies, and of the ashes, and all the fields unto the brook Kedron, unto the corner of the Horse-gate toward the east, shall be holy unto the Lord; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more for ever.”—(Jer. ch. xxxi. v. 38–40.) Here the prophet makes use of the different land-marks of the ancient city, which can be easily recognized, and which (although the ground may be raised up, and altered in appearance, as it is said in another prophecy, that it shall be) must remain to point out the circuit of its walls, such as they existed in that city, which I have already laid down. Their sites can now be distinguished, and every Jew in Jerusalem is perfectly well acquainted with many of them.

The prophet Zechariah thus describes the future city. “It shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin's gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hananeel unto the King's wine-presses.”—(Zech. xiv. 10.) Let us now see how this description corresponds with the topography of the ancient city. The tower of Hananeel, which is introduced as a conspicuous point, was situated between the tower of Meah, and the Fish-gate, in the north-east angle of the wall. From it, the line runs southward to the corner of the Horse-gate, at the south-east angle of Moriah, and in the outer enclosure of the temple ; but it goes still farther, and encloses a

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