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and when we consider that, in all probability, on this spot was gained that wonderful triumph which the prophet Elijah, by the power of God, achieved over the priests of Baal and their idolatry, it adds considerably to the interest of the scene, (1 Kings, xviii.) The proximity of the spot to the sea at once answers the objections of the sceptic as to where the water was procured in that season of drought to pour on the sacrifice and in the trench.
The mountain itself is bare, and nearly destitute of vegetation. On the sloping ground that ascends from the town towards the east, are numerous sepulchres carved out of the solid rock, of the very simplest form, consisting merely of a square domed-roof chamber, having an arched door, which occupies one of the sides, with ledges or troughs for the bodies on each of the three remaining ones. They appeared to be the most recently constructed of any of the tombs of this description that I have seen, and were tenanted with numbers of poor people, who, for lack of better, made them their dwellings. These Troglodytes seemed to partake of the air of their habitations, and were a miserable, filthy, and degraded-looking race. In the vicinity of this place are some very splendid carob, or locust trees (ceratonia siliqua). I saw the husks or legumes of these trees scattered on the ground about the tombs, where some cattle had been eating them; and they at once recalled to my mind the parable of the prodigal son, who “ would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat.” (Luke xv. 16.) The expressed juice, and also the pulp of the fruit, is much used in the east. As this tree is sometimes called the locust tree, and St. John's bread, some persons have supposed that from it the food of the Baptist was obtained. Now, in opposition to this opinion, I can only state that locusts fried with honey is a favourite dish with the Arabs about the Jordan even to this day. A long sandy beach stretches away from the town, in a curved direction to the north. On this a very heavy surf breaks, rolling in great quantities of shells, and numerous marine animals.* The river Kishon, which is here fordable, empties itself into the sea at this place; but it is so shallow at
* I picked up some good specimens of the murex trunculous, or dye shell, which seem to be common here. It is remarkable that one of the old names of Caipha is Porphureon, which Pococke says it received on account of the fish being found upon the coast which furnishes the Tyrian dye.
its mouth that it was with considerable difficulty we forced our boat over the bar. Before reaching the sea, the stream winds through a swampy, and, in some places, a sandy valley; and on either side its banks are fringed with shrubs and underwood which not unfrequently almost meet over the centre of the stream.
The day after our arrival we set out upon a shooting party to the valley of the Kishon, accompanied by two of the Italian residents at Caipha. The plain, which is covered with rank sedge, and low underwood, interspersed with deep and natural drains, and studded with hillocks, has very much the appearance of some of the moors in our own country. The game was very abundant; quails were in great numbers ; and we also got some red-legged partridges. Here, for the first time, I saw that beautiful bird the Francolin.* On returning to the mouth of the Kishon, where the boat awaited us, we passed the black tentst of some Bedawees, in the midst of the sand-hills that surround the coast toward Acre. The females of the tribe were churning goats' milk in a very primitive manner, by shaking it or swinging it in a goat's skin slung between two upright posts.
We weighed anchor that evening, passed the handsome and picturesque Castle Pellegrino, and shortly after the ruins of Cæsarea. Of these enough still remain to tell us of its former magnificence. Some tall pillars and a handsome tower are situated at the water's edge; the latter rearing its weather-beaten face in defiance of the storms of nineteen centuries, and the angry waves that foam against its base. The crimson light of a stormy sun-set was reflected from its walls, and gave it a bold and most imposing appearance ; but the sea dashed with such fury against the rocks as to prevent our landing ; so we continued on to Jaffa, where we arrived during the night.
* Francolinus Vulgarus.--This beautiful bird is about the size of a grouse, which it resembles very much in shape. The cock bird we shot here was fourteen inches long; bill black; upper part of head grey, lower part of head and back of neck black; a white oval spot over each ear; a brownish red collar round the neck; crop jet black, spotted with white; wings black, quill feathers, the colour of a wood-cock's; under wings and insertion of tail, small alternate bars of black and white; thighs, bands of brown and red; legs red, like partridges; very good eating, something like grouse.
+ Black, like the tents of Kedar.- Song of Solomon, i. 5.
Jaffa-Lazarettos-Convents-The ancient IIarbour-Gardens about Jaffa-Plain of Sharon
Its verdure-Recollections on passing through it-Its atmosphere-Villages--RamlahPilgrims-Convent of St. Nicodemus.The Martyr's Tower-Trade of the town- Monks Proceed to Jerusalem-Goats-Hill country of Judea--Sterility of Palestine-Beth-horonVillage of Jeremiah- The Terebinthine Vale-The Battle-field of Goliath-An AllegoryFirst view of the Holy City--The Latin Convent- The Hospicium-Father Benjamin Visit to the Superior-His inquiries-Church of the Holy Sepulchre--Its outer courtMohammadan Guards—Anointing stone-Calvary--The place of the Cross-Altars-Emotion of the Pilgrims.The Holy Sepulchre-Its Pavilion-Description of the Tomb-Stations and holy places--Pillar of scourging-Singing-Louis Philip-Disgraceful conduct of the FriarsRecollections of the Crusades-Peter the Hermit- Exciting scenes in the church of the SepulchreSensations produced by the place-The Holy Fire-Its late fatal result-Death of three hundred pilgrims-A midnight scene in Jerusalem-An Armenian Bishop-The identity of the sacred places.
Jaffa, March, 1838.- We are now upon the borders of the Promised Land, eager to investigate its interesting localities; and, with the Scriptures as our guide, to enter upon it with all the fervour and devotion of pilgrims. After a night of the most fearful rolling, owing to a heavy ground swell, we awoke but little refreshed, and landed at an early hour. We were conducted to the English consul, who was exceedingly civil and attentive to us; and he, with Signior Campanelli, procured mules, horses, and guides for our immediate departure for Jerusalem.
The town of Jaffa, or Yafa, stands on a hill that rises abruptly from the sea, from which, at some distance, it has a very picturesque appearance; but, on closer inspection, the streets are found to be dirty and narrow. The quarantine establishment
lately founded here under Signior Campanelli, is clean and well regulated; separate divisions, with a chapel attached to each, are allotted to the pilgrims of the several nations who visit this place, of whom the Greeks form the majority.
This Lazaretto is a new speculation got up by the convents at Jaffa, for before its erection, all the pilgrims were obliged to land at Beyrout to perform quarantine, and to proceed from thence by land to Jerusalem. The convents having represented this to Ibrahim Basha, and petitioned for leave to form an establishment here, they obtained permission to erect it. There are three convents in this place, Greek, Armenian, and Frank or Latin. We visited the latter, belonging to the Franciscans, and found its superior courteous and attentive. The monks are natives of Spain, and are supported principally by presents from Europe, as there is not now a sufficient number of Roman Catholic pilgrims visiting Jerusalem to support it and the other convents in the Holy Land. The chapel belonging to the convent is a neat little building, with some good Spanish paintings; from the roof and spacious terraces, we obtained a magnificent view of the port and harbour beneath, which was then crowded with numbers of Greek vessels freighted with pilgrims, having the five-crossed flag displayed by the Crusaders of old, flying at the main. This flag, which is white, with five red crosses, said to be emblematic of our Saviour's wounds, is the principal one to be met with at this time of the year in the upper portion of the Levant, and is held under a warrant from the bishop of Jerusalem.
In visiting the places here hallowed or desecrated by tradition, we were shown, among others, the hole into which Napoleon threw some of the bodies of the unfortunate Turks whom he had massacred. It is a deep well, evidently of great antiquity, the upper portion consisting of a round collar of white marble, the inner edge worn into grooves by the friction of the ropes, similar to those found in Greece and Pompeii.
As Jaffa was no inconsiderable post during the days of holy warfare, it was well fortified, and several of the castles, works, and walls erected by the Crusaders, nearly similar in construction to those at Rhodes, yet remain. The ancient harbour of this great sea-port of Judea is still traceable, and the rocks which formed the pier, rise high out of the sea, which breaks upon them with tremendous violence. This pier was evidently an ar
tificial construction, and although no mortar was used in the building of it, yet the joinings have become filled up, and the whole forms a continuous mass, resembling that at Rhodes and Tyre, though it is much smaller than the latter. The ships of Solomon, at least those trading on the Mediterranean, could not, therefore, have been very large or numerous, or they would not have found accommodation in this harbour. As Jaffa was the only seaport of Judea, it may account in some measure for the small marine of the Israelites, who depended for their supplies more on their adventurous Tyrian neighbours than on any navy of their own. In common, however, with all the cothons of that era, it is now filled up with sand, so as only to allow an entrance to the small coasting craft. Trade was rather brisk at the time of our visit, and the place seemed thriving. The imports were mostly pilgrims, and corn for the Basha's army; and the exports chiefly fruits from the neighbouring gardens. There is a good bazaar, and the gate on the land side is remarkably handsome, and beside it stands a noble Turkish fountain, formed of various coloured marbles, pouring forth jets of the purest water. It furnishes a good specimen of the gate of an eastern town, having within it the seat of judgment, as well as the receipt of custom, and was guarded by a strong military force, who formed a pleasing group as they surrounded its marble deewan.
Our party, which consisted of ten persons, all armed and accoutred, made a very formidable cavalcade as we left the town at about twelve o'clock at noon. For nearly two miles after leaving the town our road lay through the richest and most beautiful gardens of orange and lemon trees, then covered with fruit and flowers; and tall waving cypresses, corals, sycamores, and fragrant mimosas; intersected with enormous nopals or prickly pears, with the scammony in flower, twining through their invulnerable armour. These productions, as well as the exceeding beauty of the scene, and the balmy freshness of the atmosphere, have obtained for this verdant spot the appellation of the gardens of the Eastern Hesperides. The inhabitants of Jaffa, who, though mostly Christians, are dressed in the eastern costume, have bowers and summer-houses in these gardens; and as we passed, we observed them enjoying their sherbet seated in the cool shades of those lovely retreats. On the broad sandy track that winds through this fertile spot we passed numbers of