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of which no doubt can exist that they originally stood on dry land. Following the coast eastward, we come to the island of Kakara, of which Captain Beauford states, that it is remarkable that in some places three or four of the lower steps (of houses), and even the foundations of walls, are now beneath the surface of the water. At Jaffa, the ancient Joppa, I have every reason to believe that the ancient cothon has been partly submerged ; and in this state are also part of the ruins of Cæsarea. At Caipha I found the remains of a very antique building, which had been probably a temple, partly covered with water at its base. At Beyrout we see a tower standing in the water; and at Tyre there can be no doubt upon the subject, for there the ruins are seen below the surface. Here I must refer to one of the most remarkable prophecies, not only with regard to Tyre, but mentioned in the whole of Scripture, showing not merely the literal fulfilment of every sentence spoken against it, but accounting for why Tyre is now submerged. Among the many awful predictions of the doom of this city, it is thus stated by Ezekiel, (xxvi. 19, 20,) “For thus saith the Lord God, when I shall make thee a desolate city, like the cities that are not inhabited; when I shall bring up the deep upon thee, and great waters shall cover thee; when I shall bring thee down with them that descend into the pit.” And again, “ They shall bring thee down to the pit.” The former has been fulfilled ; and the latter expression Archbishop Newcome translates, “the lower parts of the earth.” Upwards of fifty years ago this eminent scholar and divine remarked upon this nineteenth verse, that “part of the city towards the port may have stood on ground recovered from the sea ;" observation now proves the actual state of the case. The prophecy is so striking in itself, and shows how wondrously the Great Ruler of the universe works out his own designs, that I shall not offer one word more of comment upon it, except to remark, that had the land sunk, as many suppose, and not that the deep has come up upon it, the ancient arches of the aqueduct would not in all probability have existed this day. Various modern travellers have discovered submerged ruins at Aboukir, and at the Pharos of Alexandria; and, by a curious coincidence, in nearly the same longitude as Kakara on the opposite shore. Thus we have evidence of the whole upper border of the coast of the Mediterranean being submerged, more or less; and from its great extent, I am inclined to attribute it more to the encroach



ment of the sea, than to the sinking of the land. At the same time, I must confess that we want more proof, and more observation, to make any positive assertion on the subject; especially when several eminent authorities hold the contrary opinion. Besides the places that I have mentioned, there are other parts of Asia Minor where the coast is said to have advanced upon the sea, since the time of Strabo, by filling up havens and joining islands to the mainland; but this arises from an entirely different cause, and does not militate against the opinion I have already expressed, for in those places there was a positive and actual addition of new material.*

11th. We visited the cisterns of Solomon, at Ras-el-Ain, which, tradition says, he erected in return for the assistance afforded by king Hiram in building the temple. There are two sets of these cisterns; the first we came to were small, and in ruins, and are evidently of a later date than the second. Their decayed state allowed us to examine the mode in which they were constructed, in order to raise the body of water to the required level. This water now finds its way direct to the sea, turning a mill in its course. No doubt can exist, I think, but that both these and the larger ones are natural springs, which, by being enclosed in those waterproof walls, raised the water to the height necessary for conducting it to the city. To suppose them, as has been asserted, supplied by a river having a higher source in the adjacent mountains, is unreasonable ; for had such been the case, why not conduct it from the highest point at once to the city, instead of bringing it into a valley, where both sets of these cisterns are situated. The larger are about half a mile further on to the south ; the ground which intervenes between them and the lesser ones is highly fertile, and was covered with green corn and

* Mr. Lyell, in his excellent work upon “ The Principles of Geology," quotes Tyre as an instance of the land advancing on the sea, and says that owing to this cause “ the ruins of ancient Tyre are now far inland;" but on examining the map which I exhibited at the meeting of the British Associa. tion in Birmingham, in 1839, while reading a paper upon the physical geography of this part of the country, he stated his willingness to adopt my view of the subject, and to correct the passage in the subsequent editions of his work.

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groves of mulberry' trees-silk still forming å considerable article of commerce here. These fountains are three in number, and are about thirty feet high; they are situated in a small valley, about a quarter of a mile from the sea; and though they are much broken and neglected, yet they retain sufficient magnificence to attest their antiquity and former beauty. The largest is an octagon, and is about a hundred yards nearer to the sea than the others, to which it is joined by some very beautiful arches. A row of steps leads to the top, which is surrounded by a walk eight feet broad. Either it was originally arched over, or the lining is much worn away, as the top projects like a cornice. The aperture is twenty-two yards across, and on fathoming it, I found the depth not more than eleven yards in the centre, and about two at the edges; but its depth has probably been diminished by the rubbish, &c. which from time to time it must have received. Indeed one only wonders how these cisters have at all stood amidst the many desolations that have visited this unhappy country. They are always full, and an immense body of water flows from them, which also turns several mills in its course; as shown in the accompanying map. ,

I measured the thickness of the wall of the smallest fountain, and found it to be twenty-three feet. It was formed in this way: -two walls of hewn stones, each stone from five to six feet long, inclosed a space which was filled up with a cement, consisting of lime, broken stones, and gravel. On the inner wall was a lining of mortar, studded with small stones, similar to that on the fountains of Solomon, near Bethlehem, and to that on the pool of Bethesda at Jerusalem.

The water has been drawn from the aqueduct to supply the mills, and Ibrahim Basha was then erecting a turboosh manufactory nigh to the cisterns. Besides the large quantity of water constantly passing off in the regular stream, it flows over the side of the cistern in one place, and forms a handsome cascade. Stalactites, like those on the arches in the plain, are seen here in immense masses; some Doric capitals have been lately dug up at this place; and an aqueduct of rather modern date runs from it in a southward direction, which was used probably for the purposes of irrigation. The main aqueduct is continued northward to the rock, or citadel of Marshuk, and is supported by arches at one place only. On the morning of our visit to Ras-el


387 Ain, some Arab women were baking their bread in the vicinity, by pouring a thick batter upon the heated pan, a practice referred to in the book of Samuel.

The existence of these fountains prior to the time of Alexander has been called in question by a learned writer ; but no stronger proof is needed of their having been constructed previous to the building of Insular Tyre than that which is furnished by the aqueduct running direct to the rock instead of along the shore, and afterwards turning back towards the island, to which it could have been brought in half the distance, and with much less obstruction, from the irregularities of the ground. Beyond these fountains is an extensive and fertile plain, bounded by the lower range of Lebanon.

In this part of my narrative I may have been wearisome to some of my readers ; but when they consider that of the many cities recorded in history few deserve more attention than Tyre, I trust they will regard the statements I have given as not devoid of interest or unworthy of attention. Were we to take up a map of the world, and trace on it the colonies that have sprung from this “Queen of the Sea,” and follow them in their course through the different collateral branches that again emanated from them, we should be tracing the progress of civilization, the spread of knowledge, and the light of science even into our own country.

15th. We departed from Tyre, and on rounding the headland of Cape Blanco, we obtained a distinct view of the promontory of Mount Carmel, running out into the sea for a considerable distance. The bay of Caipha separates these promontories, and as we sailed through it we had an opportunity of seeing the extensive plain that surrounds its shores. On this plain, and near to the shore, stands the town of Zib, supposed to be the ancient Azib spoken of in Joshua, but now an inconsiderable place, remarkable only for the peculiar appearance of its square mud-built houses, and the number of its tall palm trees, which make it visible even at a great distance at sea. Farther on upon the coast we passed the city of Acre, the ancient Ptolemais; memorable for the many storms and sieges that it has sustained, and the important part that it has occupied in all the wars that have taken place in these countries. It is the strongest and best situated city in Palestine, having, in addition to the natural advantages of its maritime position, walls and fortifications of

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great strength. It is now a place of considerable importance, from the very large garrison which it possesses, and its being the principal stronghold of the Egyptian general. The aqueduct which supplies it with water can be traced for a considerable distance along the plain, and its light arches form a pleasing object in the landscape. As we approached the place, twilight set in, and soon rendered every thing indistinct. Shortly afterwards we anchored about a mile from the little town of Caipha; and next morning landed, by permission of the officer of health, to enjoy a walk on shore.

Caipha is a walled town, situated upon the water's edge on the north-western shore of Mount Carmel. Next to the sea are some high square towers, built by the Crusaders, but of the interior of the place I cannot speak, as we were not permitted to enter within the gates. A British consular agent resides here, and he, as well as several of the Frank merchants, accompanied us in our walk. The population of the place is said to be 3000, and the town itself has, in a commercial point of view, greatly improved of late years. It has at present a tolerably good market, and its exports of grain and cotton are very considerable. The increase of its trade has, I think, arisen from its vicinity to Acre, which, from being so deeply engaged in the wars and military affairs of the country, lost much of its commerce, and by that means Caipha became, as it were, a granary to the army encamped before it ; and the advantages which it then acquired it still continues to possess. To the south of the town is an extensive plain, highly cultivated and well wooded. On its margin, and close by the sea side, are some very remarkable remains, which have not, as far as I am aware, been either investigated or described by any recent traveller. Immediately beside these are also the ruins of an ancient Cyclopean wall, partly standing in the sea, the stones of which are of an almost incredible size. I know of no scriptural city that existed in this locality. May it not have been a temple of Baal, the deity that was anciently worshipped in this part of the country?

The convent that crowns the outer point of Mount Carmel* forms a pleasing object in the scenery here presented to the view;

* Hence the term Carmelite.

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