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and blue cloth, and chests of rich apparel, and the persons of men.* At whose fairs were bartered the horses, and horsemen, and mules of the house of Togarmuth,t with the wine of Heblon, and the white wool of Damascus. Where the merchants of Judah and Israel traded with the wheat of Minnith, with honey, and oil, and balm. Where the gold and spices, and all the precious stones of Shebad, and Barmoth, together with the bright iron, cassia, and calamus of Dan and Javan, were exposed in the markets; and the princes of Kedar and Arabia brought rams, and lambs, and goats; and Dedan purchased the precious cloths for chariots, in exchange for ivory and ebony. A city, whose commercial glory “went forth out of the seas,” and did enrich the kings of the earth with its riches and merchandise. -Ezek. chap. xxvii. And whose artificers assisted in raising and

thinks this was the Psudosmaragdus others, that it was coloured glass, illuminated by lamps placed within it.

* Slaves—To this may be referred the denunciation against Tyre, on account of selling the Lord's people, as spoken by Joel and Amos : “ The children of Jerusalem have been sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from your border."-Joel iii. 6. The Tubal, or Tobel, here mentioned as engaged in this traffic, is understood to be a country north of Armenia, peopled by the sons of Japheth, and was then a Greek colony.

+ THE HOUSE OF TOGARMUTH.-We read in the 10th chap. and 3d verse of the Book of Genesis, that Togarmah was the third son of Gomer, who was the eldest of the sons of Japheth, and who is supposed to have peopled Galatia : but Dr. Whiston, the translator of Josephus, who first put forward this opinion, must certainly have erred in calling the Galatians Gauls; for it must refer to the country of those Asiatics to whom St. Paul wrote his Epistle. Josephus, likewise, makes Togarmah, or Thrugramma, the father of the Phrygians, (vol. I. b. i. ch. 6, sec. 1.) Dr. Adam Clarke considers the descendants of Gomer to be the Turcoman tribes; and Calmet and the majority of the learned incline to the opinion that Cappadocia and Armenia were the countries they occupied. From them sprung the Cimbri, or Cimmerians, the most ancient of the Celtic nations, who peopled the greater part of Europe, having spread from their original seat, on the borders of the Euxine Sea. Dr. Wells makes the following judicious remarks upon this geographical subject :

“ The third and last son of Gomer, named by Moses, is Togarmah, whose family was seated in the remaining, and, consequently, in the most easterly part of the nation of Gomer. And this situation of the family of THE HOUSE OF TOGARMUTH.

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adorning the most magnificent temple that ever eye beheld, or hand constructed; a temple worthy of the wisest king, and in which Jehovah condescended to hold personal communication with his creatures. .

And why stand I amidst such wretchedness and desolation ? “Because, that Tyrus hath said against Jerusalem, Aha! she is broken that was the gates of the people ; she is turned unto me; I shall be replenished now she is laid waste. But the Lord of Hosts hath purposed it to stain the pride of all glory, and to bring into contempt the honourable of the earth.”

Although not one jot or tittle of a single prophecy contained in the inspired volume has or could have passed away unfulfilled, yet, the doom pronounced against Tyre has been so strikingly and literally accomplished, that the attention of the learned has

Togarmah is agreeable both to sacred and common writers. For, as to sacred Scripture, Ezekiel thus speaks, chap. xxxviii. v. 6: · Gomer and all his bands ; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands.' And again, ch. xxvii. v. 14: 'They of the house of Togarmah trade in the fairs, (i. e. the fairs of Tyre,) with horses, and horsemen, and mules.' Now, that the situation we assign to Togarmah does, in a manner, lie true north to Judea, is evident to any one that will view the map; and that Cappadocia, by which name a considerable part of the lot of Togarmah was in process of time known to the Greeks, was very well stocked with an excellent breed of horses and mules, and that the inhabitants were esteemed good horsemen, is attested by several heathen writers, (Solinus of Cappad. Dionysius Perieg. v. 973, et seq. Claudin in Ruffin, lib. ii. Strab. lib, xi.) And, for a further confirmation of the truth of the hypothesis, there are to be found footsteps of the very name of Togarmah in some of those names whereby some of the inhabitants of this tract were known to the old writers. Thus Strabo (lib. xii.) tells us, that the Trocmi dwelt in the confines of Pontus and Cappadocia ; and several towns lying on the east of the river Halys, and so in Cappadocia, are assigned to them by Ptolemy. They are by Cicero called Trogmi; and Trocmeni, by Stephanus ; and, in the Council of Chalcedon, they are called Trocmades, or Trogmadesthere being frequent mention made in that Council of Cyriacus, bishop of the Trogmades. All which names plainly appear to be the same originally, and are, in all likelihood, formed from Togarmah, or, (as the word is usually rendered by the Greek writers,) Torgama; for they retain in them all the radical letters of the name of their progenitor, except the terminative one, if that be a radical.”- Wells' Historical Geography of the Old and New Testament, vol. I. pp. 65, 6.

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been more called towards it than to any other place with which we are acquainted. It was a spot I had long and ardently desired to visit—not that I required to become an eye-witness of its state, to convince me of the perfect completion and fulfilment of all the warnings and denunciations uttered against it, but that I hoped to be enabled, by inquiry and examination upon the spot, to arrive at some degree of knowledge as to the precise locality of the original city, and also as to the manufacture of its renowned purple dye, and the real animal from which it was obtained. Historians are undecided as to the exact site of the former; and, although modern naturalists have enumerated several varieties of shells from which a purple colouring matter may be extracted, they are not agreed as to the particular one that was used. And although Pliny and others tell us it was a murex, a buccinum, or a purpura, we were till now unable to determine the shell by the descriptions handed down to us.

In this inquiry, I hope I shall be fortunate enough to set the matter at rest, both by the discovery of the shells used, and of the very pits or mortars in which the dye was manufactured.

With regard to the topography of ancient, or Palæ Tyrus, I may remark, that many learned disquisitions have been written, and many opinions have been expressed; the contradictions in which, are only to be equalled by the conflicting surmises of travellers. The three or four days I spent here examining the ruins may warrant my offering an opinion on this highly interesting topic, so necessary, not only as a commentary on some of the older historians, but as affording us much light in the study of those prophecies in which Tyre is mentioned.

The situation of Tyre, and of the objects mentioned in the following description of the surrounding country, will be clearly understood by the reader, on referring to the accompanying map, and bearing in mind, that the coast runs almost due north and south.*

• While examining this place, I made several plans and sketches, with the intention of constructing a map of the topography of the ancient cities. On my return, however, to this country, I found, that an accurate survey of the coast had been made by A. H. Ormsby, Esq., by order of the Admiralty; and through the kindness of my friends, Captain Beaufort, the hydrographer, and Captain Larcom, R. E., I have been furnished with THE MODERN PENINSULAR Town.

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The present town, or peninsular Tyre, stands to the west of the general line of the coast, and is connected with the shore by an isthmus of sand. Leaving the town, and proceeding eastward, you arrive at two square towers, about one hundred and fifty yards from the gate ; the first of which is built over a well, from which the principal supply of water for the inhabitants is obtained, and to which numerous bands of Arab women, carrying their pitchers on their heads, may be constantly seen passing and repassing. Within is a flight of steps leading to a terrace at the top, from which there is a very extensive view ; and underneath there is a khan for the accommodation of those who do not choose to stop in the town, or who may have arrived late at night. This tower is situated on the isthmus, which is now covered, as I have mentioned, with sea-sand; and the water of the well, which is pure and good, cannot rise here, but is, most probably, conducted by some portions of the aqueduct, which still remain pervious, but hidden beneath the sand and rubbish; and this probability is further strengthened, by the fact of the water becoming in the month of September troubled, and of a reddish colour, synchronously with that at the fountains of Solomon at Ras-el-Ain, or the “Head of the Spring.” The shore presents, on both sides of the peninsula, unequal concavities; that on the southern being the larger and deeper, and running down to the above-named fountains in the south-east, and with a very heavy surf rolling in upon it. Looking inland from this tower, you see a plain of some miles in extent ; its horizon bounded towards the east by the Lebanon range of mountains. On the north stands Sidon; and following with the eye the line of aqueduct, whose broken arches rise at intervals

the chart, upon whose outline I have transferred my own plans, as well as the recent discoveries of Count de Bertou. I may also take this opportunity of expressing to Captain Larcom my obligation for the facilities and information he has afforded me, in prosecuting this and other subjects of scientific research.

Since the first edition of this work appeared, an accurate military survey of Tyre was made by Lieut. Skyring, R. E., who has kindly corrected some slight errors in the map, and also furnished me with some additional notes, which have been inserted in the text.

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above the sand, a most remarkable object arrests the attention:—a solitary mound, of a white appearance, standing above the plain, and crowned by a mosque, a marabut, and one or two old houses, which being whitewashed, glitter in the sun, and attract the eye almost involuntarily. It is visible from all sides, and may be seen from a great distance, owing to the extreme flatness of the plain ; and is instantly remarked by the mariner entering either of the roadsteads of Tyre. “This hill is not fictitious, like those of the desert, but a natural rock, of about 150 feet in circumference, and about 40 or 50 feet in height.” Volney, however, who thus notices this rock, has fallen into a slight error, in stating it to be only a quarter of an hour's walk from the village. It is distant from the water-tower on the isthmus, upwards of a mile and a half. It is called by the natives Marshuk, and from the northern aspect exhibits the appearance of the accompanying engraving.

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The aqueduct, which is the principal object on the plain, and runs towards the present town from the north-east, has several of its magnificent arches stiil perfect; it can be seen at a considerable distance at sea, and the water oozing out at breakages, or filtering through the cement, has encrusted them all over with

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