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paratively cold climate. The town is, to all appearance, very miserable; the houses low, flat-roofed, and running in parterres that rise above the water. The highest point of the peninsula is surmounted by a picturesque old castle, built by the Knights of St. John after their expulsion from Rhodes.
I was taken to visit a new church built by the Greeks since the battle of Navarino. This engagement, though it may have been regarded as an “untoward event” by some statesmen, and has been considered as contrary to the laws of nations by a certain class of diplomatists, was an action that the outraged laws of God and humanity loudly demanded. It led, undoubtedly, to the establishment of the independence of Greece, and has done much towards improving the condition of the Greek people every where, and making them more respected by the Turks, even at this distance from their motherland. The roof of this church, which was just finished, is supported by some of the splendid rosecoloured granite pillars brought from the ruins of Patera ; and although I regretted their removal here, as causing a great and wasteful spoliation of the ancient edifices to which they belonged, yet I could not help asking myself, who had as good a right to these remains as the descendants of the men by whom they were erected. The building is fitted up with considerable taste, and is not devoid of architectural beauty. It shows that there is an increase of wealth as well as a revival of the arts among the Greeks, and also discovers a degree of toleration on the part of their Turkish lords. The population of this island is estimated at eight thousand, who are all engaged in trade; they are mostly Greeks, there being only about ten or fifteen Turkish families in the place. The island itself produces absolutely nothing, and the most trifling necessaries of life are received from the opposite coast, but owing to its fine harbour, its trade is yearly increasing. It then possessed a navy of seventy vessels, which were in good trim; and several new ones were on the stocks. Each inhabitant has an interest in the welfare of the place, and the sailors have a share in the vessel they navigate as well as in the cargo. The trade is principally in wood, cut on the neighbouring coast of Vathy and Sevedo, made into charcoal, and transported to Alexandria ; and also in sponges. Some vessels are in the carrying trade of this part of the Mediterranean; and here we found the pilgrim's flag hoisted on several barks which were laden with
cargos of devotees hastening towards the Holy City. Several of the Greek vessels were under the Russian flag! The island pays at present a tribute of about £400 a year to the Basha of Rhodes.
The people seem to be an industrious, persevering race; the women and children were pretty well clad, and had a healthy appearance—another fact confirmatory of the opinion that islands are far more favourable to the promotion of health than conti. tents. The inhabitants are never attacked with the fever that yearly ravages the opposite shores; and though their communication with infected places is very extensive, plague has seldom appeared in the island. A British consular agent resides here, though but few English vessels ever touch the island.
We left Kastelorizo on the 6th; and being favoured with a fair wind, we made the eastern point of the island of Cyprus next day, and continued coasting along its undulating shores, under stunsails, till the evening. The weather had improved, and now all was sunshine. Some parts of the scenery here are very beautiful ; the ground is pleasingly diversified with hill and dale; and in other places the headlands present a white, chalky appearance, not unlike Dover Cliffs; from between which we obtained occasional glimpses of the distant Mount Olympus. We “brought up” in an open roadstead off the town of Limasol, which is situated upon a low bank of sand, with a surfy beach before it. It has little calculated to interest the visitor, except the minarets of its mosques, that rise into lofty spires covered with tin, and which have a pleasing effect when burnished by the beams of the setting sun. A large plain stretches to the east of the town, and behind it is a range of barren hills, which are by no means picturesque. A quarantine of three days was imposed upon us here, on account of our having touched at Macri ; and this rendered our situation very uncomfortable, as there was a heavy swell in the sea, caused by the gale that we encountered off Kalamaki, which had not yet quite subsided. The principal trade of this place is wine, of the fame of which we had heard much ; and to procure some of it was one of our reasons for visiting the island. The accounts generally given of this wine are either very much exaggerated, or those who have given these coloured statements must have acquired a vitiated taste that few Englishmen would desire to possess. Mix honey, vinegar, and tar with brandy and water, to the taste of a Cyprian, and you have this much esteemed beverage of
UNHEALTHINESS OF CYPRUS.
the Levant; and if you wish to prepare it for Greece, add a certain quantity of resin ; or for Spain or Portugal, put in the same quantity of anise-seed. Strength and sweetness are the qualities looked for; and the tarish flavour which it possessed, I found to arise from its being kept in large unglazed earthen jars, which, to prevent filtration, are coated on the outside with tar. There are two kinds of this wine, red and white. It is carried from the country into the port in skins, as at Madeira ; but of its mode of preparation the merchants engaged in the trade are totally ignorant, and they generally dispose of it as soon as possible.
We found Limasol to be but a poor place. Its streets are, however, broader than those of most oriental towns. An old castle at the entrance mounts a couple of long brass Venetian guns of the date of 1543. The population is mixed, and consists of Greeks and Mohammadans, who have all (particularly the women) a wan and sickly look, that at once discovers the influence of malaria. There is no place upon, or in the vicinity of, the coast of Asia Minor where fever is so prevalent as this. It continues the entire three months of summer, and we were told that those who may have suffered from it previously are still liable to its repeated attacks. With some it remains, though in a more modified form, during the whole year, so that the place can never be said to be entirely free from its influence; and when I visited the consul, both his wife and child were just recovering from a fit of agne. On my recommending to some of the inhabitants to seek a higher elevation during the time in which the fever is most prevalent, they smiled, shook their heads, and said that they were perfectly aware of the propriety of following my advice, but that they had been accustomed to it from their youth, and, as it seldom caused death, they were unwilling to lose the chance trade, of which they might be deprived by a summer's residence in the mountains. None, eren of the better classes, remove from the place, preferring to suffer this intermittent from year to year, to a removal to a more healthful situation during its continuance. The men seemed a slothful race, and the women, as far as we could observe, bore no resemblance to their great progenitrix.
On the 9th we left Cyprus, and sailed for Syrin.
Beyrout-Quarantine-Rise of the Sea-Silk manufactory-Proceed to Jaffa Lebanon-A Storm
-Tyre-Appearance of the Place --Inhabitants--Present condition of Tsour--Comparison of its Ancient Grandeur and Merchandise-Questions proposed for Inquiry-Position of the Peninsula, Water Tower--Whence its Supply - Remarkable Rock-The AqueductMarshuk-Its Cistern and Water Works-Å Threshing Instrument-Discovery of Ancient Tombs-Their Position--Historic Sketch of the Several Cities of Tyre-Its Earliest Mention - Chronology of Sir I. Newton ---Palæ Tyrus--Its Antiquity--Siege of Shalmannzer-Destruction by Nebuchadnezzar-Building of Insular Tyre-Besleged by Alexander--Prophetic Fulfilment-Its History up to the Introduction of Christianity - From that to the Crusades-Probable Site of Palæ Tyre-Opinion of the Count de Bertou-Derivation of the word Tyre-Definition of Pale-Position of Ancient Cities-Sepulchres-- Aqueducts-- The Modern Town--Its Population-Remains of the Insular City--Rise of the Sea--Harbours-Submerged RuinsDiscovery of the Dye-pots-Fountains of Solomon - Departure from Tyre---Caipha-Proceed to Jaffa,
March 10th.- We arrived at Beyrout, as we understood that vessels would not receive pratique at Jaffa, for which place we were bound. The authorities here finding that we had come from Cyprus, informed us that we could not land on any part of Syria without performing fourteen days' quarantine; but having the privileges usually granted to vessels of war, it was reduced to nine, including our passage, the day of arrival, and that on which the quarantine expired.
The establishment of quarantine laws and regulations is one of the recent reforms effected by the Basha of Egypt throughout his dominions, and has been already attended with the most salutary results. At Alexandria a board of health, chietly composed of the Europeon consuls and medical men, has been some time in operation, and it regulates the amount of quarantine to be performed by vessels in all the other ports under the government of the Basha ; but at the same time I have reason to believe that it is often made an excuse for gratifying a political hatred, as the different governors at these ports will often inflict a longer quaran
tine on ships coming from any port belonging to the Sooltan, even if no disease existed in those places, than on the vessels of any other country. It is, however, on the whole a wise precaution, and the reason assigned in our case I considered a fair one :—that although there may not have been any disease at Cyprus, yet that vessels arriving there from Constantinople, which is seldom without plague, are not placed under sufficient quarantine. We were permitted to proceed toward Jaffa on our parole that we would not touch any of the natives till the expiration of our time a treaty we were fully as willing to observe as the governor of Beyrout could possibly desire.
Beyrout is a lovely spot, and is now become a place of considerable importance, being the principal seaport of Syria. Our position afforded us a very splendid prospect of Mount Lebanon and the snow-clad heights of Ante-Lebanon, rearing their heads above it in majestic grandeur. The town is embosomed in gardens which were then bursting forth in all the bloom of early spring. Several old castles, remnants of the Crusaders, stand at the landing place; one of them, opposite the Lazaretto, is now completely washed by the sea, and though a dark and gloomy tower it has a pleasing effect. An examination of the ground around this building will show that it once stood upon the mainland; thus affording another proof of the rise of this part of the Mediterranean ; or, if the land has sunk (as some have asserted) it must have been very gradual indeed ; as had it been produced by an earthquake or a sudden submersion of the ground, some traces of its effects would be visible on the doors and windows of this edifice. The greater part of the landing-place is a pile of granite and marble columns, formed into wharfs; and which were probably the remains of the ancient Beritus. Behind these the town rises in terraces, through which peep vines and orange trees; and the surrounding plain is a continuous grove of olives and mulberies, studded with the villas of several of the wealthy residents.
Beyrout offers many inducements to the travelling invalid, or to families desiring to visit Syria ; and would, I doubt not, form a pleasant and healthy winter residence for such persons. Its climate is moderate and subject to less change than either Algiers or Alexandria ; and the vicinity of mountains affords the means of varying the temperature. There are many European residents here; and there is constant and direct communication with