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the arches, filled up the spaces between these corner ones. Eight slabs of a like form, but somewhat smaller, were placed over these, which they overlapped, their joinings meeting in the centre of the lower ones. Another course was placed above this, and so on till they approached at the top, when one stone closed the aperture. All these stones gradually decreased in size toward the centre. The four lower corner stones, besides resting on the walls, were supported underneath by a portion of the mason-work that projected inward, in the same manner as that found in the modern mosques, at the point from whence the dome springs. Although somewhat different in style and finish, I found a similar form of dome in the pyramid of Sackara, formed by one stone projecting within another; and it has a great similarity to the bee-hive dome of the tomb of Agamemnon at Mycenæ,* where the type is preserved, though it exhibits a different appearance, this being by far the most rich and elegant of that kind. Here we find it in connection with the arch, although it is said to have been of a different era. There were no means of admitting light to the interior of this building, which the learned antiquary from whom I have already quoted considers to have been a sepulchre. That it was such I will not deny; but I am inclined to think it had a religious use also, and was a temple of very ancient date ; temple-tombs being now generally acknowledged to have been among the most ancient places of worship.
This extended inquiry into the character of tombs in general, and the description of those of Telmessus in particular, may, to many of my readers, appear a dry and uninteresting subject ; but have they never beguiled an hour in Westminster Abbey, or St. Paul's, or, alone and unobserved, stolen into the country churchyard at twilight's close, and sat amidst its grassy mounds and modest unpretending grave-stones? If they have not, let them read Gray and Hervey. The antiquary, the historian, the philosopher, and the naturalist, will find in tombs relics of the past
* The similarity in the construction of a rude dome, formed upon the principle of that of Mycenæ, has been pointed out by my esteemed friend, Mr. Petrie, at New Grange, county Meath. Several such forms of domes and arches are also found in both the military and ecclesiastical architecture of this country.
ages, exhibiting obscure customs and mysterious classic allusions, and traces of extinct races of mankind, and ceremonies connected with the religion of the age and country in which such races lived. Similarity of modes of sepulture also affords proof of identity of origin. No effort of man's hand has survived so long as the trophy raised to the King of Terrors ; and our immortal dramatist has truly said, that the gravedigger's houses are the most durable, for “those he builds last till doomsday.” But though ages may have passed away since these monuments were crowned by the garland of the Grecian maid, and though ages have yet to pass before the dust of their inmates is awoke by the cry “Resurge,” there is still a warning voice to all that bids us
“ Pass with melancholy state
By all these solemn heaps of fate,
And time shall be when I shall rest." A castle and fort, whose walls are still in very tolerable preservation, occupy the summit of an eminence, lying about half a mile to the S. E. of the present village. Seen at some distance, it strongly reminded me of the old Moorish castle at Cintra. It consists of an outer wall at some distance down the hill, and a citadel at top, flanked by several square and octagon towers still standing; on the land side the rock is perfectly inaccessible. Two distinct eras are marked in the walls of this place. The lower part, which is of ancient mason-work, and built with enormous stones, was certainly constructed at a much earlier period than the upper part, which is of more recent date, and was probably built by the Venetians or Crusaders; but there is no date or inscription to determine the exact time.
As we neared the shore upon the west, our attention was arrested by a pile that bore a great resemblance to the druidical remains of Stonehenge, but which, on examination, we discovered to be the enormous portals of the prosceneum that fronts the coilon of a theatre, which, though not quite so extensive as some other Grecian edifices of a similar nature, is in point of site and surrounding scenery inferior to none. This theatre was partly built and partly hewn out of the rock, in a sloping hollow of the mountain, which here partakes of an amphitheatrical form. It was
divided by a stone flat or corridor, nine feet in width, into two sets of seats, having thirteen rows in each. The two lower seats have been covered up with earth and brambles within the last thirty years. Each of these seats was twenty-two inches broad and twenty high, and the face was curved so as to form about onehalf of a Norman arch, constructed, in all probability, on the principles of acoustics, so as to render the voice of the actor more audible throughout the coilon. We know that the seats of many other theatres were so constructed, and that vases or hollow vessels (Hxela) were also placed under them to produce this effect.
This edifice is in a state of wonderful preservation, and measures in front of the prosceneum one hundred and thirty-one feet, to which is to be added the breadth of the seats at the widest part. The stage can still be traced, with the scene behind it formed of that cyclopean work before alluded to, the enormous portals of the doors of which excited our highest admiration. In most Greek theatres this scene represented the front of some palace or stately edifice; and in some instances, as at IIerculaneum, a villa, or country seat. In these, the central doorway, only entered by the principal actor, was called basileon by the Greeks, and by the Latins, valva regia ; the smaller one upon the right hand side, being appropriated to the second actor, and that to the left by those who took the minor parts. This basileon measures sixteen feet by seven, and is formed of five stones—two for each post, and one at top, which is ten feet long from end to end. The circumstance of the intervening wall between these doors no longer existing, adds very much to the effect. Two other and still smaller entrances have been enumerated; but I conceive they could not have belonged to the prosceneum, but must have been used as doors to the lower tier of seats, and probably were entered only by the aristocracy. Outside these portals are the remains of a platform, evidently the parascene; and beneath this are seven arched entrances that led into the thymele or pit, that is now filled up with rubbish, and overgrown with bushes and luxuriant vegetation; which, though we may regret for the sake of scientific inquiry, yet rather adds to than subtracts from the romantic and pictorial beauty of the place. The corridor dividing the seats was entered by an arched passage, partly cut through the rock, and corresponding to the peristile, or lobby, and the seats themselves were intersected by rows of steps,