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came forward, and invoked a blessing on the vessel, and then repeated portions of the Kooran, in the chorus or responses of which the whole Mooslim assemblage joined. Many of the people knelt down, and the whole formed a most imposing ceremony. There was also music; one instrument was something between a fiddle and a mandolin, with three strings, not unlike that used at Malta ; the other a rude attempt at a bagpipe, being nothing more than an inflated dog-skin and a chanter, played after the manner of the Highland pipes. The sound produced by these was most intolerable, but the piper endeavoured to make up for the outrage committed on one sense by an appeal to another, and so kept up a sort of wild Romaic dance all the time, which the people seemed to enjoy very much. After the delays usual on such occasions, the signal was given, the post removed, and the vessel slided rapidly down the inclined plane, amidst the shouting of the people, and the pealing from the batteries. We returned to our breakfast, and bade adieu to Rhodes about twelve o'clock that day.

Owing to baffling winds, we did not reach the opposite coast till sunset, when we beat through the narrow entrance of the harbour of Marmorice. The coast around this opening is truly grand; the mountains, many of which are of a conical figure, rise in bold curves from the water's edge, and all are more or less wooded with pines, heaths, and arbutuses. So narrow is this strait, and so high the rocks that shut out this basin from the open sea, that we were totally unprepared to meet the noble sheet of calm water that met our eye on entering this noble land-locked gulf. The mountains that surround Marmorice are higher, more wooded, and have a greater appearance of vegetation along their sides, than those that skirt the coast. At the northern extremity of the bay is the town, a small place, consisting of a jumble of flat-roofed houses, huddled together without order or regularity, and without streets, unless the dirty lanes that lead from house to house can be so denominated. These dwellings rise in terraces to the towers of an old castle, probably of the time of the Crusaders or Venetians, which crowns the peninsular rock on which the village stands. Mean and inconsiderable as it was, yet in that wild and lonely region, amidst the alpine scenery that surrounded it, and the lake-like sea that washed its base, it reminded us of the small towns of Switzerland and the Tyrol, and

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had rather a pleasing and picturesque effect. We anchored about half a mile to the west of the town; not wishing to hold communication with the natives, or approach closer to the place, in which we had been informed at Rhodes that plague had recently broken out. Our appearance seemed to cause no small bustle and excitement among the inhabitants.

At night, when a light sparkled in every window of the town, it had a pretty effect ; but as soon as it became dusk, the most deafening serenade was set up by hundreds of frogs, in the marshes and shrubby plains in our immediate vicinity; and they kept it up with much spirit during the greater part of the night, interrupted occasionally by the mournful howl or sharp bark of the jackal prowling along the shore. Upon visiting this place next morning, I found that our annoying friends were the tree frogs (rana arborea), numbers of whom swarmed in every bush. They are small, and of such a beautiful light green colour, as to be with difficulty distinguished from the leaves that surround them. The toes of this species are longer, and less webbed than the common kind, and have a small viscous spongiole at each extremity to enable them to climb with the greater facility. The membrane beneath the throat is flaccid and expansible, and swells out to a great extent when the animal utters its peculiar note.

In the morning we rowed to the shore, and landed to the westward of the town, in a lovely valley of great extent, divided into neat enclosures, containing corn fields, some orange groves and vineyards, and intersected by streams of crystal water, the banks carpeted with verdant turf, or shadowed by willows, rhododendrons, and oleanders. The almond tree was clad in the delicate pink mantle of its early blossom ; jays and rollers chatter in the bushes; and as the warm sun called forth the young energies of created nature, we felt for the first time that it was spring. Small black cattle, fat-tailed sheep, and flocks of Syrian goats we met upon the hills, on which the Scotch fir and stone pine grow and attain a considerable size, and are principally used as ship timber ; these, with the brushwood which is employed for fuel, form the trade this small place has with Rhodes and Kastelorizo. Most of the inhabitants have summer-houses in the lovely dells and valleys that occur among the hills, and though but rudely constructed huts, they were most beautifully situated, and shaded by carobs, acacias, and bay trees, some of which were the largest I ever 318

THE TURKS OF ASIA MINOR.

ndsome race of a broad turbans, anders were enga

beheld. Many of these bowers command a prospect, whose equal for mountain, wood and water, forest glade and smiling valley, snowy peaks and grassy knolls, waving pines and enamelled turf, is only to be found among the scenery of Switzerland or the Tyrol. Several of the Turks (principally old men) were enjoying their pipes in the entrances to these retreats, and did not seem altogether insensible to the charms of nature that surrounded them. The inhabitants were all Turks; an athletic, well-made, handsome race of men, who dressed to great advantage, did not wear beards, had broad turbans, and were armed with long guns, daggers, and pistols. Numbers were engaged out of doors cultivating the land, contrary to the general report of travellers, who affirm that the women are employed in such laborious occupations, while their lords and masters are hunting, or enjoying the ease and luxury of the shibook. The females whom we met in our rambles appeared unusually cautious of encountering the unhallowed gaze of a Christian; for not only did they cover up every feature except one eye, but they invariably stopped and turned away their faces until we passed by. As far as we could observe, the people seemed quiet and inoffensive, and totally different from the character given of them at the time of the visit of Sir Sidney Smith's squadron, the sailors of which, it is possible, may have earned for themselves the inhospitable treatment mentioned in the works written about that period. On the evening of the second day we weighed anchor, and took up our station in the south-west angle of the bay, behind the island that forms the western barrier of its entrance.

21st. We had a night of great severity; it froze so hard that there was ice on all the neighbouring fresh water in the morning ; the wind was keen, and blew from the north-east, and, as it passed over the higher range of the snow-clad mountains of Karamania, the cold it carried with it was very annoying. To the west of the island is another valley, still more beautiful than that we visited yesterday, though not quite so extensive or so cultivated. It has a fine pebbled beach, descending almost as perpendicular as that at Madeira. The sides of this valley are formed of precipitous rocks, that lead up the highly wooded mountain side, and gradually narrow into a mere mountain-pass at its upper end. Two streams, abounding with eel and grey mullet, meander through it, among low woods of myrtle and dwarf oak; the former were

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the largest shrubs of this description I ever beheld. Woodcocks were plenty in the copses, but although the lower part of the plain is marshy, snipes are very scarce. Towards the upper end there is a village of about a dozen circular houses, with flat roofs, formed by boughs of fir trees, covered over with clay. Bees seemed the principal stock of the inhabitants of this village, and apiaries abounded every where ; the hives were formed out of the hollowed trunks of palm trees, closed by circular pieces of wood at either end, and altogether resembling small casks; they were placed in rows, one over another, under sheds, some of which contained above twenty hives. The people find a ready market for their honey at Rhodes, from whence it is forwarded to Turkey; it has a peculiarly wild but not unpleasant flavour. The bee is held in great veneration by Mohammadans, and is spoken of in the Kooran as “ a sign unto the people that understand.” The mountain limestone extends all along the north-west side of the bay, with the serpentine appearing in some places at the water's edge. The eastern side of the bay has a reddish volcanic appearance, but from the quantity of brushwood with which the ground is covered, it is difficult to ascertain its geology with accuracy. The hills are difficult of ascent, owing to their exceeding steepness, the closeness of the brambles, and the number of loose stones that are put in motion by the attempt ; but the view from the summit is superb, embracing the numerous bays, creeks, and islands along this varied and beautiful coast, as well as the inland country, which consists of a succession of mountains similar to those surrounding the bay-wild, rugged fells, without a trace of cultivation, but with forests of enormous timber, too massive and too far distant from the coast to be turned to any account by the dwellers in these regions. At an elevation of eight hundred feet I found the splendid erica mediterranea, growing in great luxuriance, and perfectly white with its fragrant blossoms, that perfumed the air with a scent like that of meadow-sweet. It here attains the height of eight or ten feet, and forms a belt along the hills at an elevation of about five hundred feet above the sea level, and altogether presents one of the most magnificent decorations that the vegetable world affords these alpine regions. It swarms with thousands of bees, and seems to be their principal food. I remarked that the bees, having finished their repast upon its flowers, flocked to drink at some of the many rills and miniature

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cascades that trickled through the rocks, before proceeding homeward with their store. The arbutus andrachne, then in full flower, was also plentiful at this elevation. Bears and wolves are reported to inhabit these parts, but it was not our lot to encounter any of them.

Here, and still higher up the mountains, I found numbers of land tortoises (testudo græca), several of which were upwards of eighteen inches in length, and were busily engaged in rooting for their food among the stones and decayed vegetable matter. This the animal does with great adroitness with its horny snout ; but if it wishes to raise a stone that is too heavy for its snout, it withdraws the head, and placing the anterior end of the shell against it, converts itself into a lever, by raising and pressing forward the hind legs; or finding this ineffectual, it converts itself into a battering ram, and knocks at it with great force till it overturns it. I have watched these curious animals for hours, and have been astonished not only at the extraordinary strength but at the instinct displayed by them. The male and female can be at once distinguished by the recurved lip or prominence at the posterior edge of the carapace, which is characteristic of this species, being more marked and turned downwards in the male, as well as by the hacked and broken edge of the anterior part.

Of the ruins of the ancient Physcus, said to be in this neighbourhood, I could find no trace, unless it could have been the following :-Upon a small mound in a thicket near the shore of this valley, I stumbled over the remains of a building, whose foundation is now nearly covered up with shrubs of myrtle and mastic. Here were pieces of broken marble, a fluted doric pilaster, and a portion of a frieze of white marble, on which were still visible three triglyphs, and on the intervening metopes the Greek word EQIKA, the last letter of which occurs just where the stone is broken off. In the neighbourhood of this were some remains of more modern date, probably of the Genoese or Venetians. Of the pillar discovered by Dr. Hume upon the other side of the bay I could gain no tidings ; but in the Turkish burial-ground adjoining, there is the shaft of a white marble column, in length about four feet, used as a head-stone, and alongside of it a rude Tuscan capital, on which, however, there is the cross of St. John ; but this may have been carved on it at a period long subsequent to its original construction. This graveyard, which is situated in a most

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