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a row of young carobs and acacias, which, when full grown, will much improve the approach. The citadel, thrown into relief by the black wall of the Mokattam mountains, which rise behind it, forms a prominent object in the centre of this immense city. This entrance to the city presents a most animated scene, and such as can be beheld only in the greatest thoroughfare of the east : long files of camels; whole hareems of hermetically veiled women, seated cross-legged on their donkeys, and attended by their sable guardians ; Turkish nobles on their magnificent horses, preceded by their pipe-bearers, and followed by a tribe of servants; Arab Sheykhs; men of all the different nations of Europe, travellers like ourselves, or settlers in the land; each in his different avocation, and mingling with the ragged dirty Felláh, and the well-clad soldier, pass and repass in endless variety, or throng tumultuously to the narrow gates that lead to the interior. Immediately outside the town, we were shown the house in which Kleber was assassinated. Passing a few narrow streets, we presently arrived at the Esbekeyah, a handsome Square, formed, it is said, in the shape of Napoleon's hat, and surrounded by a canal into which the Nile is admitted during the overflow. The raised walks are ornamented with some handsome trees, which, when they have arrived at their perfect growth, will form a cool and really beautiful promenade. The streets are wider and much better than those of Alexandria or Algiers; and the lattice-work which covers all the windows is light, elegant, and tasteful. Some fine specimens of Saracenic architecture present themselves in the different gates and mosques; but the brown stone of which they are formed gives them a very sombre hue, to relieve which, Arab taste has painted them with red stripes and spots.
We passed the palace of Abbas Básha, one of the younger sons of Mohammad Alee, and who is much more popular than Ibrahim, who is said to be more feared than loved. We found the chief English hotel so full that we could not procure accommodation, so we proceeded to the French, the Hotel de Jardin, kept by an Englishman, Mr. Manson. As our stay in Cairo must necessarily be short, we proceeded at once to view the lions - literally, as it happened. Five lionesses and a lion were confined near the entrance of the citadel, not in cages, but heavily
chained, seated on a bench that ran along the room; and their Arab keeper seemed quite familiar with them, handling and caressing them all with impunity.
The view from the top of the citadel is certainly most splendid, and here it was that we first felt that we were in the land of Egypt, for from its summit we first beheld those mysterious monuments of the past—the pyramids. Those of Geza, the nearest and largest, although nine miles distant, appeared to be not more than half a mile; beyond them, the immense desert mingled with the horizon, and those of Sakara and Dashoor rose in the distance, the Nile winding by their feet; behind us, the dark Mokattam rocks; and beneath us Cairo, the hum and bustle of its thousand tongues ascending through the still air. Outside the city, on the one side, is a plain of whitened modern sepulchres, animated by the many bands of mourning friends, bearing to their last home the remains of the hundreds who die daily in this vast city. On the other hand rise up the tombs of the Memlook sooltans, crowned by the fret-work domes of their splendid mosques and slender minarets. These are surrounded by the desert, and near to them was situated the encampment of the Mekka pilgrimage, where above three thousand tents glittered in the sunshine, and upwards of 20,000 persons of all ages and sexes were congregated before their final departure for the tomb of the prophet. A row of plain granite columns, still standing, crowns the summit of the citadel; all that now remains of Saladin's lordly hall. After the manner of most eastern princes, Mohammad Alee was erecting a mosque, which promised to be one of great splendour. The inside was completely lined with highly-polished marble, of a description found near this, being of a greyish white colour, beautifully marked with transparent veins of brown, resembling Derbyshire spar. It looks exceedingly well at a distance, but, on a close inspection, it is found to be very porous, scarcely six inches of it being without a hole, but in working it is filled up with composition. It is worked with astonishing neatness, and some of the ornaments were beautifully cut by a number of Arab boys, over whom a soldier was keeping guard. Beside this edifice is erected a splendid fountain for the ablutions of the pious Mooslims, of a bluishgrey Italian marble, the ornaments and reliefs of which are not inferior to any I ever saw.
The next object we were conducted to was Joseph's well-not the Joseph of Scripture, but the celebrated Sooltán Saladin. The soldier at the gate was very unwilling to admit us without the talismanic buckshese or present; and snatching the key from the old sibyl who performs the part of cicerone, shouldered his musket, made it rattle with a slap, and stood boldly in the doorway. So formidable à front by the soldier of any other nation might have deterred persons from proceeding farther; and rather than accede to his lawless demand, we were about to apply for admission to a superior officer, when one of our company who had resided long in Egypt, and knew what an Egyptian soldier was, seizing the man by the shoulder, proceeded to administer a rebuke a posteriori, which so frightened the fellow that, laying down the musket in great trepidation, he instantly produced the required' key! This well is cut through a solid rock, 270 feet in depth, of a greyish fossil limestone, similar to that at the pyramids, but differing in the shells it contains from the Mokattam rocks behind it. The shaft of this well is of considerable width, and externally the natural wall of rock is hewn out into a large winding descent, with apertures cut to admit light and a view of the well; and about midway down there is an extensive chamber and a landing-place, where a pair of bullocks work a Persian wheel that raises the water thus far, from whence it is again conducted to the top by a similar contrivance. At this landing-place is shown the tomb of one of the servants of Saladin. Although rudely constructed, the whole is a noble work, and quite capable of supplying the citadel with good water in case of an attack.
In our walks through the citadel we were conducted to the palace of the great master of Egypt; a noble lofty hall opening to a splendid marble staircase; and from the gallery to which it conducted we were led into the presence-chamber, a large and well-proportioned apartment, fitted up with great taste, and partaking of the European as well as the Arabic style. It was perfectly devoid of what we would call furniture ; a deewan, or low seat, raised about two feet from the floor, and covered with wellstuffed cushions,. ran round three sides of the room, at each corner of which was placed a velvet and gold cushion, and an embroidered carpet--that for the Básha on the right hand side of the entrance being of the most elegant and costly workmanship. In an arched recess, at the lower end, were two slender
Corinthian pillars, formed of the same marble of which the mosque is being built; a superb Persian carpet, and light blue silk window-curtains completed the furniture. The roof was domed, and above the cornice were painted in good perspective, views of all the different seats and palaces of Mohammad Alée. These, although not very well executed, gave an air of taste and lightness to the room. Adjoining it is a small closet for holding private conferences; and where, no doubt, the sharp piercing eye of the Basha so often endeavours to read the mind of the wily diplomate. Beside it is the entrance to the hareém, where some of the viceregal family still reside. I thick crimson curtain hung before the forbidden entrance, behind which some of our party attempted to look; and, although a massive door was all they could see, it so frightened the attendant, that he, in a most beseeching tone cried out—"Oh Allah forbid, Allah forbid."
Within the walls of the enclosure there is an old tower of the Blenheim style of architecture, where the telegraph is worked that communicates with Alexandria.
We next visited the arms factory, where there were 1500 men at work, some of whom appeared most admirable artisans. I could not but wish them a better employment, but I anticipated the day when the same hands would be turned towards the more useful art of erecting steam engines to increase the irrigation of the Nile, or some similar object of permanent and national benefit to the country. Some of the arms made here would not disgrace Birmingham. Each department of gun-making is separate, and there is also a most extensive cannon foundry. Most of the guns of Mohammad Alée are brass, of which he is particularly proud. Over the door of the boring department is this inscription—"Vive Mohammad Alée, patron de les arts !” Originally the overseers of each of these works, denominated instructors, were foreigners, but wherever it was possible they have been superseded by native hands. This and the other arms factories in Cairo are capable of sending out 4000 muskets a month.
Our way out of the citadel lay through a place that will be ever memorable in Egypt, and is generally one of the first inquired for by the traveller- the spot where the murder of the Memlooks took place. It is a long narrow entrance, with high battlements on either side, the upper gate leading to the palace of the Basha, and the lower opening into the space that surrounds the mosque of
MASSACRE OF THE MEMLOOKS.
Sooltan Hassan. Here, on the high festival held on the occasion of his son Toussoon's becoming a Básha they were invited, and when the procession of 500 was ranged in this narrow pass, both gates were closed, and the troops, who were concealed behind the breast-wall, rose up and poured down a fire of musketry, that in a few minutes annihilated the dynasty of six hundred years. There were no means of escaping, or of attacking their destroyers—one instance alone occurred—a Memlook Bey, amidst the shower of balls that poured around him, perceived a narrow staircase leading to the rampart, up which in a moment of despair he forced his horse, which actually clambered up the passage; and fighting his way through the soldiers on the wall, leaped him over the parapet of the turret on the right side of the gate, and, strange to say, although the horse was crushed to pieces, the man escaped unhurt. He fled for refuge to the adjoining mosque, and is still alive in Cairo, his life being granted him by the Basha, whom it is said he particularly resembles in appearance. What a scene must not this narrow space have presented with the bodies of five hundred men, arrayed in all the gorgeous trappings with which they delighted to deck themselves, mingled with the carcases of their splendidly caparisoned horses ; motionless in death, but still retaining the expression of proud defiance, mortal fear, or wild despair, in which they severally met their cruel and unavoidable fate.
This act of Mohammad Alée's has been often discussed, and doing so now would be to review his whole life, policy, and government of Egypt. Certain it is that he could have taken no step towards the improvement of the country during the existence of those ruthless tyrants, whose bodies became as it were steppingstones to his present greatness.
The mosque of Sooltan Hassan is one of the best worth visiting in Cairo ; it was formerly inaccessible to Christians, or required a special order from high authority, and that, as a very great favour to be allowed to enter it, but our large party did not experience the slightest difficulty in gaining admission. It is an old building of great height and extent, but like most public edifices in this crowded city, it is difficult to obtain a proper view of it. The porch and doorway are of great size and beauty, but at present much dilapidated. The ornamental work of the roof hangs like so many stalactites, in the most extraordinary manner; the court is more remarkable for its extent than beauty, and is paved with