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4. Severity ; rigour; inclemency.

The house of woe, and dungeon of our igrant, The tyrar.ny o' the open night's too rough

Milten. For nature to endure.


Consider those grand agents and lieutenants TY'RANT. n. s. [suprerros; tyrannus, Lat.

of the devil, by whom he scourges and plagues Rowland contends that this word, with

the world under him, to wit, tyrants; and was

there ever any tyrant who was not also false and the correspondent Greek and Latin, is

perfidious ?

Soutb. derived from tir, Welsh and Erse, land, Thou mean'st to kill a tyrant, not a king. and rhanner, Welsh, to share ; q. d. tir.

Dryden hanner, a sharer, or divider of and among

When tyrant custom had not shackled man, his vassals.]

But free to follow nature was the mode. Tboms. 1. An absolute monarch governing impe- TYRE. n. s. [properly tire.] See TIRE. riously.

I have seen her beset and bedecked all over 9. A cruel, despotick, and severe master ;

with emeralds and pearls, ranged in rows about the tyre of her head.

Hakewill, an oppressor:

Love to a yielding heart is a king, but to a re TY'RO. n. s. [properly tiro, as in the Lat.] sisting is a tyrant.

Sidney. One yet not master of his art; one in his I would not be che villain that thou think'st,

rudiments. For the whole space that 's in the tyrant's grasp,

There stands a structure on a rising hill, And the rich east to boot. Sbakspeare. Dissembling courtesy! how fine this tyrant

Where tyros take their freedom out to kill


Garth, Can tickle where she wounds! Sbakspeare.

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V AC V Has two powers, expressed in modern In the vecancy of a bishop, the guardian of English by two characters, v conso

the spiritualities was summoned to parliament in fant and u vowel, which ought to be

the bishop's room. considered as two letters ; but as they 4. [vacances, Fr.). Time of leisure ; rewere long confounded while the two

laxation; intermission; time unengaged. uses were annexed to one form, the old

If, sometimes, each other's eyes we meet,

Those little vacancies from toil are sweet. Dryd. custom still continues to be followed.

The daily intervals of time and vacancies from U, the vowel, has two sounds; one necessary labour, together with the one day in clear, expressed at other times by eu, as

seven in the christian world, allow sufficient obtuse ; the other close, and approaching


Watts. to the Italian u, or English 00, as obtund. 5. Listlessness; emptiness of thought. V, the consonant, has a sound nearly

When alone, or in company, they sit still with

out doing any thing, I like it worse; for all disapproaching to those of b and f. With positions to idleness or vacancy, even before they 6 it is by the Spaniards and Gascons are habits, are dangerous.

Wotton. always confounded, and in the Runick VACANT. adj. [vacant, Fr. vacans, alphabet is expressed by the same cha

Latin.] racter with f, distinguished only by a 1. Empty; unfilled; void. diacritical point. Its sound in English is Why should the air so impetuously rush into uniform. It is never mute.

the cavity of the receiver, if there were before VACANCY, n. s. [from vacant.]

no vacant room to receive it?

Bogle. 1. Empty space ; vacuity.

A better race to bring into their oacant room. How is 't,

Milton. That thus you bend your eye on vacancy, 2. Free ; unencumbered ; uncrowded. And with th' incorporal air do hold discourse? Religion is the interest of all; but philosophy


of those only that are at leisure, and vacan! 2. Chasm ; space unfilled.

from the affairs of the world.

Mere. The reader finds a wide vacancy, and knows A very little part of our life is so vacant from not how to transport his thoughts to the next

uneasinesses, as to leave us free to the attrac

Locke, particular, for want of some connecting idea.

tion of remoter good.

Watts. 3. Not filled by an incumbent, or pos. 3. [vacance, Fr.) State of a post or employment when it is unsupplied.

Lest the fiend invade vacant possession. Milt. They were content to bribe them with the Others, when they allowed the throne vacant, nomination of some bishops, and disposal of the thought the succession should immediately 80.to revenues of some churches during the vacancies.

the next heir.

Swift. Lesley. 4. Being at leisure ; disengaged.


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They which have the government, seatter the losopher that holds a vacuum : opposed army abroad, and place them in villages to take

to a plenist. their victuals of them, at such vacant times as Those spaces, which the vacuists would have they lie not in camp.

Spenser. to be empty, because they are manifestly devoid Sir John Berkley was the more vecant for of air, the plenists do not prove replenished with that service, by the reduction of Barnstaple. subtle matter.


VACU'ITY. n. s. (vacuitas, from vacuus,
Besides those portions of time which the ne-
cessities of nature and of civil life extorted from

Lat. vacuité, Fr.]
him, there was not a minute of the day which 1. Emptiness; state of being unfilled.
he left vacant.

Fell. Hunger is such a state of vacuity, as to require
The memory relieves the mind in her vacant a fresh supply of aliment,

moments, and prevents any chasms of thought, 2. Space unfilled ; space unoccupied.
by ideas of what is past.

Addison. In filling up vacuities, turuing out shadows and s. Thoughtless ; empty of thought ; not ceremonies, by explicit prescription of substans busy.

tial duties, which those shadows did obscurely The wretched slave,


Hammond, Who with a body fill’d, and vacant mind,

He, that seat soon failing, meets Gets him to rest, cramm'd with distressful

A vast vacuity.

Milton, bread.


Body and space are quite different things, and
The duke bad a pleasant and vacant face, pro-

a vacuity is interspersed among the particles of

matter. ceeding from a singular assurance in his temper.


God, who alone can answer all our longings,
TO VA'CATE. v. a. (vaco, Lat.]

and fill every vacuity of our soul, should entirely
possess our heart,

Rogeri. 1. To annul ; to make void ; to make of

Redeeming still at night these vacuities of the no authority.


Fella That after-act vacating the authority of the 3. Inanity; want of reality. precedent, tells the world that some remorse The soul is seen, like other things, in the mire couched even Strafford's most implacable ene. ror of its effects : but if they 'll run behind the mies.

King Charles,

glass to catch at it, their expectations will meet The necessity of observing the Jewish sab

with vacuity and emptiness. Glangiile bath was vacated by the apostolical institution of VA'Cuous. adj. [vacuus, Lat. vacué, Fr.) the Lord's day.

Nelson, 2. To make vacant ; to quit possession

Empty; unfilled.

Boundless the deep, because I AM who fill of: as, he vacated the throne.

Infinitude : nor vacuous the space. Milton, 3. To defeat ; to put an end to.'

VACUUM. n. s. (Lat.] Space unoccur
He vacates my revenge ;
For, while he trusts me, 't were so base a part

pied by matter. To fawn, and yet betray.


Our enquiries about vacuum, or space and VACA'Tion.n. s. [vacation, Fr. vacatio,

atoms, will shew us some good practical lessons.

Watts, Latin.] 1. Intermission of juridical proceedings, or

T. VADE. v. n. (vado, Lat.] To vanish any other stated employments; recess of to pass away. Spenser. A word useful courts or senates.

in poetry, but not received. Vacation is all that time which passes between

Be ever gloried here thy sovereign name, term and term, at London.


That thou may'st smile on all which thou hast As these clerks want not their full task of la

made; bour during the open term, so there is for them

Whose frown alone can shake this earthly

frame, whereupon to be occupied in the vacation only.


And at whose touch the hills in smoak shall

vade. 2. Leisure ; freedom from trouble or perplexity.

VA'GABOND. adj. [vagabundus, low Lat. Benefit of peace, quiet, and vacation for piety, vagabond, Fr.] have rendered it necessary, in every christian 1. Wandering without any settled habitatommonwealth, by laws to secure propriety.


tion; wanting a home.

Let them pronounce the steep Tarpeian deaths V A'CCARY, n. s. (vacca, Lat.] A cow Vagabond exile : yet I would not buy house ; a cow-pasture.

Bailey. Their mercy at the price of one fair word. VACI'LLANCY. n. s. [vacillans, from va.

Sbakspeare. cillo, Latin; vacillant, Fr.] A state of

A vagabond debror may be cited in whatever wavering; fluctuation ; inconstancy.

place or jurisdiction he is found. Aylife. Not much in use.

2. Wandering ; vagrant.

This common body, I deny that all mutability implies imperfec

Like to a vagabond Aag upon the stream, tion, though some does, as that vacillancy in

Goes to, and back, lacqueying the varying tide, human souls, and such mutacions as are found in corporeal matter.


Their prayers by envious winds VACILLA'TION. n. S. [vacillatio, from Blown vagabond or frustrate,

Milton, vacillo, Lat. vacillation, Fr.] The act VA'GABOND. n. s. [from the adjective. ) or state of reeling or staggering.

1. A vagrant ; a wanderer: commonly in The harscles keep the body uprighc, and pre

a sense of reproach. vent its falling, by readily assisting against every

We call those people wanderers and vagabonds, vacillation.

that have no dwelling place.

VACUA'Tion. n. s. [from vacuus, Lat.]

Reduc'd, like Hannibal, to seek relief
The act of emptying.

From court to court, and wander


and down VA'Cyist, n, s. [from vacuum.

7. A phi-
A vagabond in Afric.





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7. One that wanders illegally, without a TO PAIL. v. a. (avaler le boret, French. settled habitation.

Addison writes it veil, ignorantly.) Vagabond is a person without a home. Wetts.

1. To let fall; to suffer to descend. VAGA'RY. n. s. [from vagus, Lat.) A They stiffy refused to vail their bonnets, which wild freak; a capricious frolick.

is reckoned intolerable contempt by seafarers. They chang'd their minds,

Carew. Flew off, and into strange vagaries fell,

The virgin 'gan her beavoir vale, As they would dance.

Milton. And thank'd him first, and thus began her tale. Would your son engage in some frolic, or take

Fairfer. a vagary, were it noe better he should do it with 2. To let fall in token of respect. than without your knowledge!

Locke. Certain of the Turks gallies, which would not VAGINOPE'n nous. adj. [vagina and vail their topsails, the Venetians fiercely assailec penna, Lat.] Sheath-winged; having

Knolles. the wings covered with hard cases.

Before my princely state let your poor greatVA'gous. adj. [vagus, Lat. vague, Fr.]

ness fall,

And vail your tops to me, the sovereign of you Wandering ; unsettled. Not in use.


Drayton Such as were born and begot of a single wo They had not the ceremony of veiling the man, through a vagous lust, were called Sporii.

bonnet in salutations; for, in medals, they still Ayliffe. have it on their heads.

Addison VAGRANCY, n. s. (from vagrant.) A 3. To fall; to let sink in fear, or for any

state of wandering ; unsettled condition. other interest. VA'GRANT. adj. Wandering ; unsettled;

That furio is Scot vagabond ; unfixed in place.

'Gan vail his stomach and did grace the shame Do not oppose popular mistakes and surmises, Of those that turn'd teir backs. Sbakspeare. or vagrant and fictitious stories.

More. To Vallo v. n. To yield ; to give place; Take good heed what men will think and say; to show respect by yielding. In this That beauteous Emma vagrant courses took, Her father's house and civil life forsook. Prior.

sense, the modern writers have igno- . Her lips no living bard, I weet,

rantly written veil. May say how red, how round, how sweet;

Thy convenience must seil to thy neighbour's Old Homer only could indite

necessity; and thy very necessites must yield Their vagrant grace, and soft delight :

to thy neighbour's extremity. They stand recorded in his book,

VAIN. adj. (vain, French; vanus, Lat.) When Helen sinil'd, and Hebe spoke.

Prior. 1. Fruitless ; ineffectual. VA'GRANT. n. s. (vagant, French.] A

Let no man speak again sturdy beggar; wanderer ; vagabond ; To alter this; for counsel is but vain. Sbalsp man unsettled in habitation, In an ill

Vain is the force of man,

To crush the pillars which the pile sustain. Vagrants and outlaws shall offend thy view,

Dryde Train'd to assault, and disciplin'd to kill. Prior,

2. Empty; unreal; shadowy. You 'll not the progress of your atoms stay,

Before the passage horrid Hydra stands, Nor to collect the vagrants find a way. Blackm. Gorgons, Geryon with his triple frame, To relieve the helpless poor ; to make sturdy

And vain Chimera vo nits empty Aame. Drys. vagrants relieve themselves; to hinder idle hands Unmov'd his eyes, and wet his beard appears; from being mischievous, are things of evident And shedding dain, but seeming real, tears. F. Atterbury.

Dryden. Ye

vagrants of the sky, To right or lett unheeded take your way. Pope. 3. Meanly proud ; proud of petty things: VAGUE. adj. (vague, Fr. vagus, Lat.]

with of before the cause of vanity.

No folly like vain glory; nor any thing more 1. Wandering ; vagrant ; vagabond. ridiculous than a vain man to be still boasting of Gray encouraged his men to set upon the


L'Estrange vague villains, good neither to live peaceably, He war'd a torch aloft, and, madly vain; nor to fight.


Sought godlike worship from á servile train. 2. Unfixed; unsettled; undetermined ;

Dryden. indefinite.

The minstrels play'd on every side; The perception of being, or not being, belongs

Vain of their art, and for the mastery vyd. no more to these vague ideas, signified by the

Dryden. terms, whatsoever and thing, than it does to any

To be vain is ragier a mark of humility than other ideas.

Lacke. pride. Vain men delight in telling what honours

have been done them, what great company they VAIL. n. s. [voile, Fr. This word is now have kept, and the like; by which they plainly

frequently written veil, from velum, Lat. confess, that these honours were more than their and the verb veil, from the verb velo;

due, and such as their friends would not believe, but the old orthography commonly de

if they had not been told: whereas a man truly

proud'thinks the honours below his merit, and rived it, I believe rightly, from the Fr.]

scorns to boast.

Swifto 1. A curtain ; a cover thrown over any Ah friend! to dazzle let the vain design; thing to be concealed.

To raise the thought, and touch the heart, be While they supposed to lie hid in their secret


Pepco sins, they were scattered under a dark vail of Here learn the great unreal wants to feign, forgetfulness.

Wisdom, Unpleasing truths here mortify the 7. A part of female dress, by which the

Savage face and part of the shape is concealed.

Ye vain! desist from your erroneous strife ; 3. Money given to servants. It is com.

Be wise, and quit the false sublime of life :

The true ambition there alone resides, monly used in the plural. See VALE,

Where justice vindicates, and wisdom guides. TO VAIL. V. a. To cover, See Veil.






4. Showy; ostentatious.

of being vain. Pride ; falsehood; empLoad some vain church with old theatrick tiness. state.

Pope. I hate ingratitude more in a man, s. Idle; worthless ; unimportant.

Than lying, vainness, babbling. Both all things vain, and all ivho in vain things VAIR, or V A'Iry. adj. [in heraldry.] Built their fond hopes of glory, or lasting fame, Variegated with coverings of gold, red, Or happiness.


or other colours. He heard a grave philosopher maintain, That all the actions of our life were vuin,

VAIVODE. n. s. [waiwod, a governour, Which with our sense of pleasure not conspir'd. Sclavonian.] A prince of the Dacian

Denbam. provinces. To your vain answer will you have recourse, VĀ LANCE. n. s. [from Valencia, whence And tell 't is ingenite active force. Blackmore.

the use of them came. Skinner.] The 6. False; not true.

fringes of drapery hanging round the 7. In Vain. To no purpose ; to no end ;

- tester and stead of a bed. ineffectually; without effect.

My house He tempts in vain.


Is richly furnished with plate and gold; Providence and nature never did any thing in Valance of Venice, gold in needlework. Sbaksø. vain.

L'Estrange. Thrust the valance of the bed, that it may be Strong Halys stands in vain; weak Phlegys full in sight.

Swift. fiies.

Dryden. T. VA'LANCE. v. a. (from the noun.] To The philosophers of old did in vain enquire, whether summum bonum consisted in riches, bo

decorate with drapery. Not in use. dily delights, virtue, or contemplation. Locke.

Old friend, thy face is valanc'd since I saw If we hope for what we are not likely to pos

thee last; com'st chou to beard me? Sbaksp. sess, we act and think in vain, and make life a VALE. n. s. [val, Fr. vallis, Latin.) greater dream and shadow than it really is. 1. A low ground; a valley ; a place be.

Addison, tween two hills. Vale is a poetical If from this discourse one honest man shall re

word. ceive satisfaction, I shall think that I have not

In ida vale: who knows not Ida vale? written nor lived in vain.


An hundred shepherds woned. Spenser. VAINGLO'Rtous, adj. [vanus and glorio

Met in the vale of Arde. Shakspeare. sus, Lat.] Boasting without perform

Anchises, in a low'ry ca',

Review'd his muster'd race, and took the tale. ances; proud in disproportion to desert.

Dryden. Vsin-glorious man, when fluttering wind does.

In those fair vales by nature form'l to please, blow, In his light wings is lifted up to sky. Spenser.

Where Guadalquiver serpentines with ease.

Harts. Strength to glory aspires Vuin-glorious, and through infainy seeks fame.

2 (From avail, profit; or vale, farewell.

Milton. If from avail, it must be written vail, This his arrogant and vain-glorious expression as Dryden writes. If from vode, which witnesseth.


I think is right, it must be vale.] MoVAINGLO'RY. N. s. [vana gloria, Latin.] ney given to servants. Pride above merit; empty pride ; pride

Since our knights and senator ; account in little things.

To what cheir sordid, begging vsils amount; He had nothing of vain-glory, but yet kept

Judge what a wrctched share the poor attends, state and majesty to the height; being sensible,

Waube whole subsistence on those alms depends. that majesty maketh the people bow, but vain

Drydea. glory boweth to them.


His revenue, besides vales, amounted to thirty Expose every blast of vain-glory, every idle


Swift. thought, to be chastened by the rod of spiritual VALEDICTION. n. s. [valedico, Lat.] 'A discipline.

Taylor, farewell. This extraordinary person, out of his natural A valediction forbidding to weep. Donne. aversion to vain-glory, wrote several pieces VALEDICTORY. adj. [froin valedico, which he did not assume the honour of. Addison. A monarch's sword when mad vain-glory VALENTINE. n. s. A sweetheart chosen

Latin.] Bidding farewell. draws, Not Waller's wreath can hide the nation's scar. on Valentine's day.


Now all nature see n'd in love,

And birds had drawn their valentines. VA'INLY. adv. (from vain.]

VALE'R IAN. n. s. [valeriana, Lat. vale1. Without effect ; to no purpose ; in vain.

rian, French.] A plant. Our cannons' malice vainly shall be spent Against th' invulnerable clouds of heav'n.

VALET. n. s. [valet, Fr.) A waiting Slakspeare.

servant. In weak complaints you vainly waste your

Giving cast-clothes to be worn by valets, has breath;

a very ill effect upon little minds. Addison. They are not tears that can revenge his death. VALETUDINARIAN. adj. '[vale na

Dryden. VALETU'DINARY. naire, Ir. v le %. Proudly ; arrogantly.

tudo, Latin.] Weakly; sickly; infirin Humility teaches us to think neither vainly of health. nor vauntingly of ourselves.

Delany. Physick, by purgingn xious h: mours, preven's 3. Idly ; foolishly.

sickness in the healthy, or reco.rse thereof in Nor vainly hope to be invulnerable. Milton. the valeudinary.

Browr. If Lentulus be ambitious, he shall be vainly Shitting from the w rmer va!' es to the coldtr credulous; presuming his advancement to be de hills, or from the hills , the va es, is a great becreed by the Sybilline oracles.

Grew. nefit to the yaletu dira 19, Tvei: e part of manVAINNESS.D. s. [from vaix.] The state kind.




Some patients have been liable to this sym Vallies are the intervals betwixt mountains. ptom, and reduced by it to a valetudinary and

Woodward. very unequal state of health.

Blackmore, Live with me, and be my love, Cold of winter, by stopping the pores of per

And we will all the pleasure prove spiration, keeps the warmth more within; where That hills and vallies yield. Raleigh. by there is a greater quantity of spirits generate Sweet interchange of hill and valley. Milton. ed in healthful animals, for the case is quite I have been ready to freeze on the top of a otherwise in valetudinary ones.

Cheyne. hill, and in an hour's time after have suffered as Valetudinarians must live where they can great inconvenience from the heat of the valley. command and scold. Srvift.

Brous. VA'LIANCE. n.s. (from valiant; vaillance, VAʼLORous. adj. [from valour.) Brave;

Fr.] Valour; personal puissance; fierce stout; valiant. ness; bravery. Not in use.

The famous warriors of the antique world With stiff force he shook his mortal lance,

Us'd trophies to erect in stately wise, To let hird weet his doughty valiance. Spenser. In which they would the records have enrollid VALIANT. adj. [vaillant, Fr.) Stout;

Of their great deeds and valorous emprise.

Spenser. personally puissant ; brave. We say, a valiant man; a valiant action.

Captain Jamy is a marvellous valorous gentle

Sbakspeart. Only be thou valiant for me, and fight the VA LOROUSLY. adv. (from valorous.) In Lord's battles.

1 Samuel. Hale, a very valiant fencer, undertook to teach

a brave manner. that science in a book, and was laughed at.

VAʼLOUR. n. s. (valeur, Fr. valor, Lat.

Walton. Ainsw.] Personal bravery ; strengths The church of Antioch might meet at that prowess ; puissance ; stoutness. time to celebrate the memory of such a valiant That I may pour the spirit in thine ear, combat and martyr of Christ.

Nelson. And chastise, with the valour of my tongue, VALIANTLY. adv. (from valiant.) All that impedes thee.

$bakspeare. Stoutly; with personal strength; with

Here I contest personal bravery.

As hotly and as nobly with thy love, Farewel, kind lord; fight valiantly to-day:

As ever in ambitious strength'I did Thou art fram'd of the firm cruth of valour.

Contend against thy valour. Sbakspeare. Sbakspeare.

When valour preys on reason, It was the duty of a good soldier valiantly to

It eats the sword it fights with. Sbakspeare. withstand his enemies, and not to be troubled with

An innate valour appeared in him, when be any evil hap.

Knolles. put himself upon the soldier's defence, as he reVA'LIANTNESS.

Howell ceived the mortal stab. n. s. [from valiant.]

For contemplation he, and valour formid; Valour; personal bravery ; puissance ; For softness she, and sweet attractive grace. fierceness; stoutness.

Milton Thy valiantness was mine; thou suck'dst it Such were these giants; men of high renown! from me. Sbokspeare. For, in those days, might only shall be admir'd

, Achimeres having won the top of the walls, by And valour, and heroick virtue, calld. Milte. the valiantness of the defendants was forced to Valour gives awe, and promises protection to retire.

Knolles, those who want heart or strength to defend themShew not thy veliantness in wine. Ecclur. selves. This makes the authority of men among VA’LID. adj. [valide, Fr. validus, Lat.) women; and that of a mascer-buck in a nume. 1. Strong; powerful; efficacious; pre rous herd. valent.

VA'LUABLE. adj. [valable, fr. from Perhaps more valid arms,

value,] Weapons more violent, when next we meet, 1. Precious; being of great price. May serve to better us, and worse our foes. 2. Worthy; deserving regard.


A just account of that valuable person, whose 2. Having intellectual force ; prevalent ; remains lie before us.

F. Atterbury. weighty; conclusive.

The value of several circumstances in story A difference in their sentiments as to particu lessens very much by distance of time; though lar questions, is no valid argument against the some minute circumstances are very valuable. general truth believed by them, but rather a clearer and more solid proof of it. Stephens. VALUATION.,

n. s. [from value.] VALI'DITY. n.

s. [validité, Fr. from 1. The act of setting a value; appraisevalid.)

ment, I. Force to convince ; certainty.

Humility in man consists not in denying any You are persuaded of the validity of that fa gift that is in him, but in a just valuation of its

rather thinking too meanly than too highly. Ray. 'T is expectation makes a blessing dear. Pope. 2. Value set upon any thing. 2. Value. A sense not used.

No reason I, since of your lives you set
To thee and thine

So slight a valuation, should reserve
Remain this ample third of our fair kingdom; My crack'd one to more care.

Sbakspeant, No less in space, validity', and pleasure,

Take out of men's minds false valuations, and Than that conferr'd on Gonerill. Sbakspeare. it would leave the minds of a number of men VaLLA'NCY. n. s. [from valance.] A large poor shrunken things. wig that shades the face.

The writers expressed not the valuation of But you, loud sirs, who through your curls

the denarius, without regard to its present *** look big,

luation. Criticks in plume and white vallancy wig.

VALUA'TOR. N. s. [from value.] An ap:

Dryden. praiser; one who sets upon any thing its VALLEY. 11. s. (vallée, Fr. vallis, Latin.] price. A word which I have found do

A low ground; a hollow between hills. where else.



mous verse,



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