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Bra: Thou art a villain.

How did'nt thou know 'twas the }__0, thou deIago. You arema fenator. [Roderigo.

ceiv'it me Bra. This thou shalt answer ; I know thee, Past thought ! -What said the to you ?-Get more Rod. Sir, I will answer any thing. But I be

tapers ;

Raise all my kindred. Are they marry'd, think
If 't be your pleasure, and most wise consent,
(As partly, I find, it is) that your fair daughter, Rod. Truly, I think, they are.
At this odd I even and dull watch o' the night, Bra. O heaven !--how got the out?_0 treason
Transported -with no worse nor better guard,

of the blood !
But with a knave of common hire, a gondalier,Fathers, from hence trust not your daughters' minds
To the gross claips of a lascivious Moor : By what you see them act.--Are there not charms,
If this be known to you, and your allowance, By which the property of youth and maidhood
We then have done you bold and saucy wrongs ;

May be abus'us? Have you not read, Roderigo,
But, if you know not this, my manners tell me,

Of some luch thing?
We have your wrong rebuke. Do not believe, Rod. Yes; fir; I have, indeed.
That from the sense of all civility,

Bra. Call up my brother.—0; 'would you had
I thus would play and trifle with your reverence :

had her ! Your daughter,-if you have not given her leave, Some one way, some another.-Do you know I say again, hath made a gross revolt ;

Where we may apprehend her and the Moor?
Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes,

Rod. think, I can discover him ; if you please
To an extravagant 2 and wheeling tranger, To get good guard, and go along with me.
Of here and every where: Straight fatisfy yourself : Bra. Pray you lead on. At every house I'll
If she be in her chamber, or your house,
Let loose on me the justice of the state

I may command at most :-Get weapons, ho !
For thus deluding you.

And raise lone ipscial viticers of might.--
Bra. Strike on the tinder, ho!

On, good Roxierigo; I'll deferve your pains.
Give me a taper ;-call up all my people:

This accident is not unlike my dream,

Belief of it opprelles me already :-

Anorber Street.
Light, I say! light!
lago. Farewell; for I must leave you :

Enter Orbello, lagy, and Attendants.
It seems not meet, nor wholesome to my place, lago. Though in the trade of war I have lain men,
To be producid (as, if I stay, 1 shall)

Yet do I hold it very stuff ó o' the conscience
Against the Moor : For, I do know, the state,- To do no contriv'd murder; I lack iniquity
However this may gall him with sone check, Sometimes to do me service : Nine or ten times
Cannot with safety cait 3 him; for he's embark'd I had thought to have jerk'd him here under the
With such loud reason to the Cyprus' war,

(Which even now stands in act)that, for their souls, Oth. 'Tis better as it is.
Another of his fathom they have not,

lago. Nay, but he prated,
To lead their business : in which regard,

And spoke such fcurry and provoking terms
Though I do hate him as I do hell pains,

Against your honour,
Yet, for neceility of present life,

That, with the little godliness I have,
I must Mew out a flag and sign of love,

1 did full hard forbear him. But, I pray you, sir,
Which is indeed but fign. That you shall surely Are you faft marry'd? for, be sure of this,--
find him,

That the magnifico 7 is much belov'd;
Lead to the Sagitary the rais'd search ;

And hath, in his effect, a voice potential
And there will I be with himn. So, farewell. As doubles as the duke's : he will divorce you;

[Exis. Or put upon you what restraint and grievance
Enter, below, Brabantio, and Servants. The law (with all his might to enforce it on)
Bra. It is too true an eril: gone she is ; Will give himn cable.
And what's to come of my despised 4 time, Orb. Let him do his spite :
Is nought but bitterness.--Now, Roderigo, My services, which I have done the signiory,
Where didst thou see her? O unhappy girl! Shall out-tongue his complaints. 'Tis yet to know,
With the Moor, say'st thou ?-Who would be as (Which, when I know that bcafting is m honour,

i thall promulgate) I fetch my life and being

i Dr. Johnson observes, that the even of night is midnight, the time when night is divided into ever parts. Mr. Sicevens thinks that odd is here ambiguously used, as it signifies ftrarge, uncouh, or unwonted; and as it is opposed to even, but acknowledges that ibe exprellion is very harsh. travagant is here used in the signification of wandering. 3. That is, dismiss him; reped him. 4 Despised time, is time of no value. Si. e. by which the faculties of a young virgin may be intaluo ated, and made subject to illutions and to false imagination. 6 Stuff of the conjuience is, fubtanie, or cffence, of the conscience. 7 The chief men of Venice arc by a peculiar name called Magni. faci, i. c. magnificoes. 8 Double has here its natural sense. The prendent of every deliberative ailende bly has a double voice. For example: the lord mayor in the court faldermen tas a double voice. Ххх 3


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From men of Tuvai fiegel; and my demerits 2 Bia. Down with him, thief!
May (peak, unbonnelled 3, to as proud a fortune

(Tbey draw a bath fides, As this that I have reach'd : For know, lago, lago. You, Roderigo! come, sir, I am for you. But that I love the gende Defdeniona,

Cib. Keep up your bright words, for the dew I would not my unloured 4 free condition

will ruft them. Pui into circumscription and confine

God signior, you shali more command uith years, For the fea's worth. But, look! what liglits Than with your weapons. come yonder?

bra. O thou foul thief! where haft thou ftow'd Enter Callio, with otberi.

my daughter

Damn'd as thou art, thou hart enchanted her : Ingo. These are the raised father, and his friends; For I'll refer me to all things of feufe, You were beit go in.

If the in chains of magic were not bound, Oub. Not 1: I must be found ;

Whether a maid-fo tender, fair, and happy, My parts, my title, and my perfect foul,

So opposite to marriage, that the thuna'd Shall manifest me rightly. Is it they?

The wealthy curled 10 darlings of our nation, lago. By Janus, I think no.

Would ever have, to incur a general mock, Oib. The servants of the duke, and my lieutenant. Run from her guardage to the footy bosom The gooduets of the night upon you, friends ! Of such a thing as thou ; to fear', not to deligtit. What is the news?

Judge me the world, if 'tis not gross in sense, · Cuf. The duke dues greet you, general ; That thou hast practis'd on her with foul charms ; And he requires your halte, pott-haite appearance, Abus'd her delicate youth with drugs, or minerals, Even on the instant.

That weaken motionl2 ;-I'll hare it disputed on; Orb. What is the matter, think you? "Tis probable, and pulpable to thinking.

Caf. Something from Cyprus, as I may divine ; I therefore apprehend and do attach thee, It is a business of iome heat: the gallics For an abuser of the world, a practiser Have sent a dozen sequent messengers

of arts inbibited and out of warrant ; This very night at one auother's heels;

Lay hold upon him ; if he do relitt,
And many of the contas 5, rais'd, and met, Subdue lim at his peril.
Are at the duke's alreadly: You have been hotly Oıb. Hold your hands,
call'd for ;

Both you of my inclining and the rest:
When, being not at your lodging to be found,

Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it The senate hath lent about three several quetts 6, Without a prompter. Where will you that I ge To search vuu out.

To answer this your charge ? Oth. 'Tis well I am found by you.

Bra. To prison ; 'till fit time I will but ipend a word here in the house,

Of law, and course of direct leifion, And go with you.

[Exit. Call thee to answer. Caf. Ancient, what makes he here?

Oth. What if I do obey ? lago. 'Faith, he to-night hath boarded a land- How may the Juke be theres ith satisfied ; carrack?,

Whose meliengers are here about my side, If it prove lawful prize, he's made for erer.

Upon fonie prefent butiness of the itatc, Cal. I do not understand.

To bring me to him? lego. He's married.

01. 'Tis true, moft worthy fignior, Cal. To who?

The duke's in council; and your noble felf,
Re-enter Opbello

I am fure, is fent for.

Bra. How ! the duke in council !
Iago. Marry, to)--Come, captain, will you go
Oib. Have with you.

In this time of the night !---Bring him away ; Cif. Here comes another troop to seek for you. Or any of my brothers of the itate,

Mine's not an idle cause : the duke himself,
Enior Brabantio, Roderigo, with Ufficers.

Cannot but feel this wrong, as 'twere their own ! lago. It is Brabantio :-general, be advis' " ;

For if such actions may have paliage free, He comes to bad intent.

Bund-flaves, and Pagans, shall our ftateimen be. Orb, Hoia! itand there!

[Exeunt Rod. Signior, it is the Moor.


ii. c. men who have fat upon royal thrones. Demerits here has the same meaning as merits. 3 i. e. without taking the cup off. 4 1. e. free from do nejic cares: a thought natural to an ad

5. Confuls seems to have been cominonly used for counsellors, as before in this play, ó Quells are searches. 7 A car rack is a thip of great bulk, and commonly of great value ; perhaps what we now call a gallcon. 8 This expression denotes readiness. o'i. e. be cautious; be dif 10 Curled is elegantly and oftentatiously drejfed.

ui.c. to terrify.

12 Theobald propoles, and we think justly, to read, 's That weaken notion, instead of mo:ion. i. e. that weaken her apprehenfion, right conception and idea of things, undertanding, judgment, &c.” Hanmer would read, perbaps with equal probability, Thul waken motion;" and it is to be observed, that Morion in a Tubsequent scene of this play is used in the very sente in which Hanmer would employ it ; " But we have reason to cool our raging motions, our carnal itings, our unbitled luits."




S CE N E 111.

Duke. Write from us; wish him, post, pofte A Council-cbamber.

hafte : dispatch.

[Moor Duke and Senators, fitting.

Sen. Here comes Brabantio, and the yaliant

Enter Brabantio, Osbello, lagoRoderigo, ard Duke. There is no composition in these news,

Oficers. That gives them credit.

Duke. Valiant Othello, we must Itraight ems i Sen. Indeed, they are disproportion'd;

ploy you My letters say, a hundred and leven gallies. Against the general enemy Ottoman.com

Duke. And mine, a hundred and forty. I did not see you; welcome, gentle fignior ;[ToBrab. 2 Sen. And mine, two hundred :

We lack'd your counsel and your help co-night. But though they jump not on a just account, Bra. So did I yours : Good your grace, pardon (As in these cases where they aim ? reports

me; 'Tis oft with difference) yet do they all confirm Neither my place, nor aught I heard of business, A Turkish fleet, and bearing up to Cyprus. Hath rais'd me from my bed ; nor doth the gem Duke. Nay, it is possible enough to judgment ;

neral care I do not fo fecure me in the error,

Take hold on me ; for my particular grief But the main article I do approye

Is of so food-gate and o'er-bearing nature,
In fearful sense.

That it englots and swallows other sorrows,
Sailor within.] What ho! what ho! what ho! And yet is still itself.
Enter an Officer, with 'a Sailor.

Duke. Why, what's the matter ?
Offi. A messenger from the gallies.

Bra. My daughter! O, my daughter !
Duke. Now? the business?

Sen. Dead ?
Sail. The Turkish preparation makes for Rhodes; Bra. Ay, to me;
So was I bid report here to the state,

She is abus’d, stoln from me, and corrupted
By signior Angelo.

By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks : Duke. How say you by this change?

For nature so preposterously to err,
I Sen. This cannot be,

Being not deficient, blind, or lame of sense,
By no allay of reason ; 'tis a pageant,

Sans witchcraft could not To keep us in false gaze : When we consider Duke. Whoe'er he be, that, in this foul prow The importancy of Cyprus to the Turk ;

ceeding, And let ourselves again but understand,

Hath thus beguild your daughter of herself, That, as it more concerns the Turk than Rhodes, And you of her, the bloody book of law So may he with more facile question 3 bear it, You shall yourself read in the bitter letter, For that it stands not in such warlike brace 4, After your own sense; yea, though our proper son But altogether lacks the abilities

Stood in your action 6. That Rhodes is dreiled in :--if we make thought Bra. Humbly I thank your grace. of this,

Here is the man, this Moor ; whom now, it seems, We must not think the Turk is so unskilful, Your special mandate, for the state affairs, To leave that latest, which concerns bim first; Hath hither brought. Neglecting an attempt of ease, and gain,

All. We are very sorry for it. To wake, and wage 5, a danger profitless. Duke. What, in your own part, can you say to Duke. Nay, in all confidence, he's not for Rhodes.


[To Othello. Offi. Here is more news.

Bra. Nothing, but this is fo.
Enter a Messenger.

Oib. Moft potent, grave, and reverend signiors, Mes. The Ottomites, reverend and gracious, My very noble and approv'd good masters, Steering with due course toward the ine of Rhodes, That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter, Have there injointed them with an after-feet. It is most true ; true, I have married hier ; 1 Sen. Ay, so I thought :--How many, as you The very head and front of my offending guess ?

Hath this extent, no more. Rude am I in my speech, Mos. Of thirty fail: and now they do re-stem And little bleft with the set phrase of peace ; Their backward course, bearing with frank ap- For fince these arms of mine had seven years pith, pearance

'Till now, fome nine moons wasted, they have us'd Their purposes toward Cyprus. Signior Montano, Their dearest 7 action in the tented field; Your trusty and most valiant servitor,

And little of this great world can I speak, With his free duty, recommends you thas,

More than pertains to feats of broil and battle ; And prays you to believe him.

And therefore little shall I grace my cause, Duke. 'Tis certain then for Cyprus. In speaking for myself: Yet, by your gracious Marcus Lucchele, is not he in town?

patience, i San. He's now in Florence,

(I will a round unvarnish'd cale deliver Composition, for consistency, concordancy, 2 To atm is to conjecture. 3 i. e. more casy en. deavour.

4 j. &. State of defence. To arm was called to brace on the armour. s To wage here, as in

many other places in Shakspeare, signifies to fight, to combat. 6 i. e, were the man cxposed to your charge or accufation. ? That is, dear for which much is paid, whether money or labours Dear action, is action performed at great expence, cither of cale or lafety.

Of X X X 4

Of my whole course of love ; what drugs, what (Wherein 1 spake of most disastrous chances, charms,

Of moving accidents, by food and field ; What conjuration, and what mighty magic, Of hair-breadth scapes i' the imminent deadly breach; (For such proceeding I am charg'd withal) Of being taken by the infolent foe, 1 won his daughter with.

And sold to Navery ; of my redemption thence, Bra. A maiden never bold;

And portance in my travel's history : Of spirit fo ftill and quiet, that her motion Wherein of antres 3 valt, and delarts idle 4, Blush'd at hertelf; And then-in spite of nature, Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch Of years, of country, credit, every thing,-

heaven, To fall in love with what the fear'd to look on ? It was my hint to speak, fach was the process; It is a judgment nuaim'd, and most imperfect, And of the Cannibals that each other eat, That will confess-perfection so could ert The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads Against all rules of nature ; and must be driven Do grow beneath their thoulders s. These things To find out practices of cunning hell,

to hear, Why this should be. therefore vouch again, Would Desdemona seriously incline : That with some mixtures powerful o'er the bloud, But itill the house affairs would draw her thence ; Or with some dram conjur'd to this effect, Which ever as the could with hafte dispatch, He wrought upon her.

Shc'd come again, and with a greedy ear Duke. To vouch this, is no proof;

Devour up my discourse : Which I observing, Without more certain and more orert test', Took once a pliant hour ; and found good means Than these thin habits, and poor likelihoods To draw from her a prayer of earneft heart, Of modeın seeming, do prefer against him. That I would all my pilgrimage dilate, 1 Sen. But, Othello, speak ;

Whereof by parcels the had something heard,
Did you by indirect and forced courses

But not intentively 6: I did consent;
Subdue and poison this young maid's affections ? And often did beguile her of her tears,
Or came it by request, and such fair question When I did speak of some distressful stroke
As foul to soul affordeth?

That my youth suffer'd. My 1tory being done, 0:b. I do beseech you,

She gave me for my pains a world of fighs : Send for the lady, to the Sagittary ?,

She swore,--In faith, 'twas strange, 'twas pailing And let her speak of me before her father :

strange; If you do find me foul in her report,

'Twas pitiful, tivas wondrous pitiful : The trust, the office, I do hold of yon,

She with’d, she had not hearu it; yet she wish'd Not only take away, but let your sentence That heaven had made her such a man : the Even fall upon my life.

thank'd me ; Duke. Fetch Desdemona hi her.

And bade me, if I had a friend that lov'd her,

[Exeunt Two or three. I should but teach bim how to tell my story, Oıb. Ancient, conduct them; you best know And that would woo her. Upon this hint, I spake : the place.

[Exie Iago. She lov'd me for the dangers I had part; And, 'till the come, as truly as to heaven

And I lov'd her, that she did pity them. I do confess the vices of my blood,

This only is the witchcraft I have lis'd; So juftly to your grave ears I'll present

Here comes the lady, let her witness it. How did I thrive in this fair lauly's love,

Enter Drídemona, Ings, and ottendants. And the in mine.

Duke. I think, this tale would win my dauglater Duke. Say it, Othello.

O:b. Her father lov'd me; oft invited me; Good Brabantio, Still question’d me the story of my liie,

Take up this mangled matter at the best :
From year to year, the battles, fieges, fortunes, Men do their broken weapons rather use,
That I have pass’d :

Than their bare hands.
I ran it throughi, even from my boyith days, Bra. I pray you, hear her speak;
To the very moment that he bade me tell it. If the confers, that the was half the wooer,


ii. e. open proofs, external evidence. 9 This means the sign of the fi&titious creature to called, i. e. an aniinal compounded of man and horse, and armed with a bow and quiver. 31. e. caves, dons. Dr. Warburton remarks, that “ Discourses of this nature made the subject of the politest conversations, when voyages into, and discoveries of, the new world were all in vogue. So when the Bastard Faulconbridge, in hing John, describes the behaviour of upftart greatncis, he makes one of the eflential circumstances of it to be this kind of table-talk. The fashion then running altogether in this way, it is no wonder a young lady of quality should be truck with the hiftory of an adventurer." Dr. Johnson adds, that " Whoever ridicules ihis account of the progress of love, thews his ignos rance, not only of history, but of nature and manners. It is no wonder that, in any age, or in any nation, a lady, reclule, timorous, and delicate, should defire to hear of events and scenes which the could never see, and should admire the man who had endured dangers, and performed actions, which, has ever great, were yet ina nilied by her timidity.” 4 1. c. wild, ulilofs, uncultivated. 5. Dr. Johnlyn fays, “Of these men there is an account in the interpolaied travels of Mandeville, a book of that dime. intention and attention were once lynonymous.


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