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ing ; and, when you are ask'd this question next. Izm. There's another: Why may not that te fay, a grave-maker;, the houses that he mikes, the scull of a lawyer? Where be his quiddits :w, lart 'till door sday. Go, get thee to Yough.in, and his quillets, bis cases, his tenures, and his tricks: ictch me a Itoup of liquor. [Exit 2 Clown. why does he suffer this rude kuave now to knock He digs, and sings '.

him about the sconce 5 with a dirty shovel, and will

not tell him of his action of battery? Hum! This In youth wben I did love, did love,

fellow might be in's time a great buyer of Jard), Merbought, it was very jourel,

with his statutes, his recognizances, his file has To contrary, 0, the time, fo, ah, my belove

double vouchers, his recoveries : Is this the fine O, mbought there was nothing mcel.

of his fines, and the recovery of his recoveries, w 17.im. Has this fellow no feeling of his business: Irave his fine pate full of fine dirt ? will his vcuchhe fings at grave-making.

ers vouch him 10 more of his purchases, and douHor. Cultom hath made it in him a property ble ones too, than the length and breadth of a par of eatinefs.

of indentures? The very conveyances of his leds Hurm. 'Tis e'en fo: the hand of little employ- will hardly lie in this box; and mut the inheritur ment hath the daintier sense.

himself have no more? ha? Clown fings.

Hor. Not a jot more, my lord. Due age, with his fealırg Reps,

Ham. Is not parciment made of sheep-skins? Hath clawd me in bis céutih,

Hor. Ay, my lord, and of calves-ikins too.

Ham. They are theep, and calves, which eek And bathjhipped me inti tbe lund, As if I bud never been juch.

out allurance in that. I will speak to this fellow:

Whose grave's this, firrah? Ham. That scull had a tongue in it, and could Clown. Mine, fur.sing once : How the knave jowisit to the ground, as if it were Cain's jaw-bone, that did the first 0, a pit of clay for io be made murder ! This might be the pate of a politician, For fuco iz guejt is meet. which this als now o'er-reaches; one that would circumvent God, might it not?

Hum. I think it be thine indeed ; for thoa ly 'it Hm. It might, my lord.

in't. Ham. Or of a courtier ; which could say, 'Good Clown. You lie out on't, fir, and thertfore it is morrow, sweet lord! How doit thou, good lors not yours: for my part, I do not lie in't, yet it This might be my lord fuch-a-one, that prais'd my is mine. lord such-a-one's horse, when he meant to beg it : Ham. Thou doft lie in't, to he in't, and far it is might it not?

thine: 'tis for the dead, not for the quick; thereHor. Ay, my lord.

fore thou ly’ft. Haw. Why, e'en so: and now my lady worm's 2: Clown. 'Tis a quick lye, fir; 'twill away again, chapless, and knock'd about the nuazzard with a from me to you. sexton's spade : llero's fine resolution, an we had Han. What man dost thou dig it for ? the trick to sect. Did thefe bones coit no more

Crvn. For no man, fir. the breeding, but to play at loggats 3 with them? Him. What woman, then ? mine ache to think on't.

Chwn. For none neither.

Ham. Who is to be buried in't ?
Clown sings.

Clorun. One that was a woman, fir; but, reft 4k-ax, did a d, đ ,

her fcul, The's dead. Fo-ard a flowany jest:

llam. How absolute the knave is! we must O, a gif clay for to be made

peak by the card ), or equivocation will undo us. Foi jucibugil is miet.

By the lord, Horatio, these three years I love

1 The three stanzas, fung here by the grave-digger, are extracted, with a slight variation, from a little poean, called The vgid Leer renounieth love, writen by Hen:y Howard, carl of Surrei, who founited in the reign of hing Henry VIII. and who was beheaded in 1947, on a trained accrs. tion of treason. The cntirc long is publiihed by Dr. Percy, in the fiuttiolume of his arityksen Antiert Erglish Pretry: 21.c. The Icull that was my lord Sub-a-one's, is now my lids If use's. 3 Dr. Jolifun fays, this is a play, in which pins are set up to be beaten down with a bowl. We have been informied, however, ihat the reverse is rue : that the bowl is the mark, and the pins are pitched at it; and that the game is well known in the reighbourhood of Norwich. Mr. Sitevens observes, that “this is a game plawed in several parts of England even at this time.

- A itake is fixed into the ground; thole who play throw longuts at it, ana he that is nearest the ftake wins:I have seen it played in different counties at their iheep-fhearing fests, where the winner was entitled to a black fleece, which he afterwards prelented to the farmer's maid to ipin for the purple of making a petticoat, and on condition that the knelt down on tie fieccc to be killed by aiite ruflicks urduit." 41.c. subulues. Si.e the head. 0 A quibble is intended. Deeds, u nich are usually written on parchment, are called the common arurancis of the kingdom. 7'1te card is the paper on which he different points of the compals were deicubcat. To do anything like cara, is, to do it with mue cheruution.


taken note of it; the age is grown fo picked", that your fathes of merriment, that were wont to set the toe of the peasant comes so near the heel of the the table on a roar ? Not one now, to mock your courtier, he galls his kibe.--How long haft thou own grinning? quite chap-fallen? Now get you been a grave-maker?

to my lady's chamber, and tell her, let her paint Clown. Of all the days i' the year, I came to't an inch thick, to this favour the mult come ; that day that our last king Hamlet overcame For- make her laugh at that.—Pr’ythee, Horatio, tell tinbras.

me one thing., Ham. How long is that since ?

Hor. What's that, my lord ? Clown. Connot you tell that? every fool can Ham. Dost thou think, Alexander look'd o' tell that : It was that very day that young Hamlet this fashion i' the earth? was burn; he that is mad, and fcrie into England. Hor. E'en fo.

Ham. Ay, marry, why was he sent into En Ham. And smelt fo? pah! gland ?

Hor. E'en so, my lord. Clown, Why, because he was mad : he shall Hum. To what base Wes we may return, Horecover his wits there; or, if he do not, 'tis no ratio ! Why may not imagination trace the noble great matter there.

duft of Alexander, till he find it stopping a bungHam. Why?

hole ? Cloun. 'Twill not be seen in him there ; there Hor. It were to consider too curiously to confider the men are as mad as he.

fo, Hamn. How came be mad?

Ham. No, 'faith, not a jot; but to follow him Gwn. Very strangely, they say.

thither with modetty enough, and likelihood to 1.1m. How Itrangely?

lead it: As thus; Alexander died, Alexander Clown. 'Fuli, e'en with losing his wits. was buried, Alexander returneth to dust; the dust Ham. Upon what ground?

is earth; of earth we make loam ; And why of Clown. Why, lrere in Denmark: I have been that loam, whereto he was converted, might they sexton here, man, and boy, thirty years. not stop a beer-barrel?

Ihans. How long will a man lie i' the earth ere Imperial Cæsar, dead, and turn’d to clay, he rot?

Might stop a hole to keep the wind away : Clrin. 'Faith, if he be not rotten before lie die, O, that that earth, vhich kept the world in awe, (as we have many pocky corses now-a-days, that Should patch a wall to expel the winter's flaw2! will fcarce hold the laying in) he will last you But soft ! but soft, aside ;-Here comes the king. some eight year, or nine year : a tanner will last Enter King, Queen, Luertes, the corpse of Ophelia, you nine year.

with Lords and Pricfts attending. llam. Why he more than another?

The queen, the courtiers : Who is this they follow?
Clown. Why, fir, his hide is so tann'd with And with such maimed rites 3! This doth betoken,
his trade, that he will keep out water a great The corfe, they follow, did with desperate hand
while ; and your water is a fore decaver of your Fordo + its own life. 'Twas of some estate 5:
whorefon dead body. Here's a scull now has | Couch we a while, and mark.
lain you i'the earth three and twenty years.

Luer. What ceremony else?
Him. Whole was it?

Hon. That is Laertes,
Clown. A whoreson mad fellow's it was; A very noble youth: Mark.
Whose do you think it was?

Loer. What ceremony else?
Ham. Nay, I know not.

Prief. Her obsequies have been as far enlarg d Clown. A pestilence on him for a mad rogue ! As we have warranty : Her death was doubtful ; he pour'd a flaggon of Rhenith on my head once. And, but that great command o'ersways the order, This fame scull, fir, was Yorick's scull, the king's She should in ground untundlify'd have lodg'd jetter.

'Till the last trumpet ; for charitable prayers, her: Hlm. This ?

Shards, flints, and pebbles, should be thrown on Cloun. E'en that.

Yet here she is allow'd her virgin crants o, Ham. Als, poor Yorick !-I knew him, Ho- Her maiden Itrewments, and the bringing home ratio ; a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent, Of bell and burial 7, fancy: he hath bore me on his back a thousand Laer. Muit there no more be done? times ; and now, how abhorr'd in my imagination Prief. No more be done ; it is! my gorge rifes at it. Here hung those lips, We should profane the service of the dead, that I have kif'd I know not how oft. Where To fing a requiems, and fuch rett to her be your gibes now ? your gambols ? your songs # | As to peace-puted fouls.

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I so smart, fo fraza: says Hanmer, very properly; but there was, Dr. Johnson thinks, about that time, a fockea this, that is, a jhoe with a long pointed toe, in fuihinn, to which the allusion seems likewile to be made. Erery man now is smart; and every man now is a m.in cf filminn. 2 Winter's

3 i. c, inperfect obsequies. * To fordo, is to undo, to destroy. si.e. some person ol high rank. Grunts is the German word for garlands, and it was probably retained by us from the Saxons. To carry oulands before the bier of a maiden, and to hang them over her grave, is itill the precise in rural parishes. 7 Burial, here, sgonfies interment in confecrated ground. Requrem is a mass performed in Popish churches for the rest of the foul of a person decealed.


8 A

Laer. Lay her i' the carth ;

Ham. I lov'd Ophelia ; forty thousand broth
And from her fair and unpolluted Aeth

Could not with all their quantity of love
May violets spring !-I tell thee, churlish priest, Make up my fum.What wile thoru do for her?
A ministring angel thall my filter be,

King. O, he is mad, Laertes.
Wlien thou lieft howling,

Quecr. For love of God, forbear him.
Ham. What, the fair Ophelia !

Ham. Shew me what thou'lt do :
Leon. Sweets to the fueet : Farewel ! Woo't weep? woo't fighe ? woo't faft? woo't
(Scattering flowers.

tear thyfelf?
I hop'd, thou should have been my Hamlet's wife; Woo't drink up Erill? eat a crocodile ?
I thought thy bride-bed to have deck'u, iweet maid, I'll dot. Duit thou come here to whine
And not have trew'd thy grave.

To out-face me with leaping in her grave?
Laer. O, treble woe

Be buried quick with her, and so will I :
Full ten times treble on that cursed head,

And, if thou prate of mountains, let them throw
Whose wicked deed thy most ingenious fense Millions of acres on us ; 'uill our ground,
Depriv'd thee of !--Hold off the earth a while, Singeing his pate againft the burning zone,
Till I have caught her once more in mine arms : Make Ofta like a wart! Nay, an thou'lt mous,

[Laertes leaps into the grave. I'll rant as well as thou.
Now pile your dut upon the quick and dead;

Queer. This is mere madness :
'Till of this fat a mountain you have made, And thus a while the fit will work on him :
To o'er-top old Pelion, or the skyith head Anon, as patient as the female dove,
Of blue Olympus.

When that her golden couplets are disclos'd,
Ham. [advincino? What is he, whose grief His filence will fit drooping.
Bears such an emphasis? whose phrase of sorrow Ham. Hear you, sir;
Conjures the wandring stars, and makes them stand What is the reason that you use me thus?
Like wonder-wounded hearers? this is 1, I lov'd you ever : But it is no matter ;

[Hamlet leaps into tbe grave. Let Hercules himself do what he may,
Hamlet the Dane.

The cat will mew, and dog will have his day. Lair. The devil take thy soul ! (Grappling with him.

King. I pray thee, good Horatio, wait upon Ham. Thou pray'st not well.


[Exi: llx. I prythee take thy fingers from my throat ; Strengthen your patience in our last night's ipeech; For though I am not splenetive and rath,

[To Lecito Yet have I in me fomething dangerous,

We'll put the matter to the present puih.-
Which let thy wisdom fear: Hold off thy hand. Good Gertrude, fet some watch over your íon.--
King. Pluck them asunder.

This grave shall have a living monument :
Queen. Hamlet, Hamlet !

An hour of quiet Thortly thall we see ;
All. Gentlemen,-

'Till then in patience our proceeding be. [Excani,
Hor. Good my lord, be quict.
[The attendants


Ham. Why, I will figlit with him upon this

A Hall in tbe Palace.

Enter Hamlet and Heratio.
Until my eye-lids will no longer wag.

Ham. So much for this, fir: now Thall you see
Queen. O my fon! what theme?

the other ;

1 Mr. Theobald comments on this passage thus: “ This word has through all the editions been diftinguished by Italick characters, as if it were the proper name of some river; and so, I dare say, all the cditors have from time to time understood it to be. But then this must be fome river in Detimark; and there is none there so called ; nor is there any near it in name, that I know of, but she , from which the province of Overyfsel derives its title in the German Flanders. Besides, Hamlet is not proposing any impoflibilities to Laertes, as the drinking up a river would be : but he rather seems to mean, wilt thou resolve to do things the most shocking and distasteful to human nature ? and, behold, I am as resolute. The poet wrote: Ililt drink up Eisel ? eat a crocodile? i. e. wilt thou Swallow down large draughts of vinegar ? The proposition, indeed, is not very grand: but the doing it might be as diftalte ful and unfavory, as eating the fleíh of a crocodile." On this comment Mr. Steevens remarks as follows: “ Hamlet certainly meant (for he says he will rant) to dare Laertes to attempt any thing, however difficult or unnatural; and night safely promise to fol. low the example his antagonist was to set, in draining the channel of a river, or trying his teeth oa an animal whofe fcales are supposed to be impenetrable. Had Shakspeare meant to make Hamlet sav---llilt thou drink vinegar? he probably would not have used the term drink up; which means totally to exhauft; neither is that challenge very magnificent, which only provokes an adversary ta hazard a fit of the heart-burn or the cholic. The commentator's Ypel would serve Hamlet's turn or mine. In an old Latin account of Denmark and the neighbouring provinces I find the names of leveral rivers little differing from Ejl, or Elpll, in spelling or pronunciation. Such are the ffa, the Ori!, and some others.” 2 Mr.Steevens says, to disclose was anciently used for to hatch. To exclude is the riche nicalterin at prefent. During three days after the pigeun has harched her couplets (for she laws no more than two eggs), she never quits her neit, except for a few moments in quest of a little food for her fell; as all her young require in that carly late, is to be kept warm, an office which ihe never cotruits to the male.


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teach us,

You do remember all the circumstance ? Devis'd a new commillion; wrote it fair :
Hor. Remember it, my lord !

I once did hold it, as our statists 6 do,
Ham. Sir, in my heart there was a kind of A bareness to write fair, and labour'd much

How to forget that learning; but, fir, now That would not let me seep ; methought, I lay It did me yeoman's service i : Wilt thou know Worse than the mutines in the bilboes... Rafhly, The effect of what I wrote ? And prais'd be rathness for it-Let us know, Hor. Ay, good my lord. Our indiscretion sometime serves us well,

Ham. An earnest conjuration from the king, When our deer plots do fail : and that thould As England was his faithful tributary ;

As love between theni like the palm might flourish, There's a divinity that shapes our ends,

As peace should still her wheaten gariand wear, Rough-hew them how we will 2.

And Itand a comma 8 'tween their amities; Hor. That is most certain.

And many such-like as's of great charge,Ham. Up from my cabin,

That on the view and knowing of these contents, My sea-gown scarfd about me, in the dark Without debatement further, more, or less, Grop'd I to find out them : Tiad my desire; He should the bearers put to sudden death, Finger'd their packet; and, in fine, withdrew Not Thriving time allow'd!. To mine own room again : making so bold, Hor. How was this seal'd ? My fears forgetting manners, to unseal

Ham. Why, even in that was heaven ordinant; Their grand commithion ; where I found, Horatio, I had my father's signet in my purse, A royal knavery ; an exact command,-- Which was the model of that Danish seal : Larded with many several sorts of reasons, Folded the writ up in form of the other ; Importing Denmark's health, and England's too, Subscrib'd it; gave 't the impresiion; plac'd it safely; With, ho! such bugs 3 and goblins in my life, - The changeling 9 never known: Now, the nexe That, on the supervize, no leifure bated 4, No, not to stay the grinding of the axe,

Was our se.1-fight ; and what to this was sequent My head fhould be truck off.

Thou know it already. Hor. Is't poflible?

Hor. So Guilienstern and Rosencrantz go to't. Hurm. Here's the commillion ; read it at more Ham. Why, man, they did make love to this leifure

employment; But wilt thou hear now how I did proceed ? They are not near my conscience; their defeat Hor. Ay, 'beseech you.

Doth by their own insinuation 10 grow
Ham, s Being thus benetted round with villanies,|'Tis dangerous, when the baier nature comes
Ere I could make a prologue to my brains, Between the pass and fell incensal points
They had begun the play ;--I sat me down; TOf mighty opposites.


i Mutines, the French word for feditious or disobedient fellows in an army or fleet. Bilboes, the Sip's prifon. Mr. Sicevens adds, that "the bilboes is a bar of iron with fetters annexed to it, by which mutinous or disorderly sailors were anciently linked together. The word is derived froun Bizoa, a place in Spain where instruments of steel were fabricai«d in the utmoit perfection. To urderitand Shakipeare's allulion completely, it should be known, that as there tetters connect the legs of the offenders very close together, their attempts to relt must be as fruitless as those of Hamler, in whose mind there was a kind of fishing that would not let him sleep. Every inotion of one must difturb his partner in continemeni. 2 Dr. Johnson comments on this passage thus : “Hamlet delivering an account of his etcape, begins with saying, That he rally --and then is carried into a reflection upon the weaknets of human wildom. I ralhly-praised be raihness for ic- Let us not think these events calual; but let us know, that is, tu ke notice and remember, that we sometimes succeed by ina diferetion, when we fail by deep plots, and inter the perpetual superintendance and agency of the Direia nity. The observation is jult, and will be allowed by every human being who thull reflect on the course of his own life.” 3 A bug was no less a terrific being than a goilin. We call it at present a bugbear. 4 Bated, for allowed. To abate fignifics to deduct ; this deduction, when applied to the perion in whose favour it is made, is called an allowance. Hence our author takes the liberty of vling bared for allou ed. s Dr. Johnton explains the following lines thus : “ Hamlet is telling how luckily every thing fell out; he groped out their commilion in the dark without waking thein ; he found himself doomed to immediate deltruction. Something was to be done for his preservation. An expedient occurred, not produced by the comparison of one method with another, or by a regular deduction of consequences, but before he could make a prologue to his brains, they had begun the play. Bciore he could fummon his faculties, and propole to hunte'f what should be done, a complete scheme of action presented itself to him. His mind operated before he had excited it." OA patist is a farefinan. 7 j. e. did me eminent service. 8 Dr. Johnion explains this expression thus : “ The comme is the note of connection and continuity of sentences; the period is the note of abruption and disjunction. Shakspeare had it perhaps in his mind to write, That unleis England complied with the mandate, war jhould put a period 10 their amty; he altered his inode of diction, and thought that, in an oppolite sense, le might put, that Peace should stard a comma between their emisi, " This (he adds is not an easy ft le; but is it not the stile of Shaktpeare!" 9. charit», sihid which the tannies are fuppaled to leave in the room of that which they teal. 10 internetin, jor corruptly oburudiujibenulelves into his fervice.

upon ?

Hlor. Why, what a king is this!

great wager on your head : Sir, this is the matter, Ham. Does it not, think thee, stand me now Ham. I beseech you, remember —

[Hawki moves bin to put sa bis bai. Ile that hath kill'd my king, and whor'd my mother; Ojr. Nay, good my lord; for my eale, in gori Popt in between the election and my hopes ; faith.—Sir, here is newly come to court, Laertes : Thrown out his angle for my proper life, believe me, an absolute gentleman, full of mott And with such cozenage ; is 't not perfect conscience, excellent differences 5, of very soft foxiety, anú great To quit' bim with this arm ; and is ’t 1100 to be thewing : Indeed, to speak feelingly of him, he is damn'd,

the card or calendar of gentry 0; for you shall find To let this canker of our nature come

in him the continent of what part a gentleman In further evil?

[England, would fee 7. Hor. It must be shortly known to him from Ham. 8 Sir, his definement suffers no perdition in What is the illue of the business there.

you ;--though, I know, to divide him inveniunIlam. It will be short: the interim is mine; ally, would dizzy the arithmetic of memory; and And a man's life's no more than to say, one. yet but raw neither, in respect of his quick ial?. But I am very forry, good Horatio,

But, in the verity of extolment, I take him to be That to Laertes I forgot myself;

a foul of great article ; and his infusion of such For, by the image of my caure, I see

dearth and rareness, as, to make true diction of The portraiture of his : I'll count his favours 2 : him, his semblable is his mirrour; and, wo eile But, sure, the bravery of his grief did put me would trace him, his umbrage, nothing more. Into a towering pattion.

Ofr. Your lordship speaks mott infallibly of him. Hor. Peace ; who comes here?

Ham. The concernancy, fir ? why do we wrap Enter Ojrick.

the genileman in our more rawer breath ? Ofr. Your lordship is right welcome back to Ofr. Sir. Denmark.

Hor. Is 't not possible to understand in another Ham. I humbly thank you, fir.Doft know congue? You will do 't, fir, really. this water-fly 3 ?

Ham. What imports the nomination of this Hor. No, my good lord.

gentleman ? Ham. Thy state is the more gracious: for 'tis a Ofr. Of Laertes ? vice to know him : He hath much land, and fer Hor. His purse is empty already; all 's goldea tile : let a beast be lord of hearts, and his crib finall words are spent. stand at the king's mess : 'Tis a chough 4; but, as Ham. Of him, sir. I say, spacious in the posseflion of dirt.

Ofr. I know, you are not ignorantOfr. Sweet lord, if your lordship were at lei Hrm. I would, you did, sir; yet, in faith, if you sure, should impart a thing to you from lois did, it would not much approve me : Weli, fir. majesty.

Ofr. You are not ignorant of what excellence Ham. I will receive it, sir, with all diligence of Laertes is. spirit : Put your bonnet to his right use ; 'tis for Han. I dare not confess that, left I should com. the head.

pare with bim in excellence; but, to know a man Ofr. I thank your lordthip, 'tis very hot. well, were to know himself.

Ham. No, believe me, 'tis very cold; the wind Ofr. I mean, fir, for his weapon ; but in the is northerly.

imputation laid on him by them, in his meed 15 Ofr. It is indifferent cold, my lord, indeed. he's unfellow'd. Hum. But yet, methinks, it is very sulery and

Ham. What's his weapon ? hot ; or my complexion

Ofr. Rapier and dagger. Ofr. Exceedingly, my lord; it is very sultry, Ham. That 's two of his weapons : but, well. as 'twere,--I cannot tell how. My lord, his ma Ofr. The king, fir, hath wirer'd with him fix jesty bade me fignify to you, that he has laid a' Barbary horses: against the which he has impon'd!,


Ti.e. to requite him ; to pay him his duc. 2 Or, I will make account of them, i.e. reckon upon them, value them.

3 A water-fly fkips up and down upon the suriace of the water, without any apparent purpose or reason, and is thence the proper emblem of a busy trifler. 4 A kind of jack daw. 5 i. c. full of diftinguishing excellencies. 6 j.e. the general preceptor of cicgance; the card by which a gentleman is to direct his course; the calendar by which he is to choose his time, that what he does may be both excellent and seasonable. 7 i. e. You shall find his containing and comprising every quality which a gentleman would defire to contemplate for imitation. 8 Dr. Warburton says, this is deligned as a specimen and ridicule of the court-jargon amongit the precieux of that time. The fense in English is, “Sir, he sufiers nothing in your account of him, though tv enumerate his good qualities particularly wou d be endlets; yet when we had done our best, it would ftill come short of him. However, in ftri&tness of truth, he is a great genius, and of a character lo rarely to be met with, that to find any thing like him we must look into his mirrour, and his innitators will appear no more than his shadows. 9 Raw signifies unripe, immature, thence unfer zei, isperfect, unskilful. The beit account of him would be imperfelt, in respect of his quick fail. The phrase quick fail was, I juppole, a proverbial term for afturity of mind, 10 To arbruct, is to recommend to approbation. nj. c. in his excellence. 12 Dr. Johnson conjectures chat amapored is pledged, impawned, fo spelt to ridicule the aficctation of uttering English words with Freuch pronunciativa.

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