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Sea. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. N person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work eurruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.
A R T I C L E IV. Se&. 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other itate. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effe, thereof.
Sect. 2. The citizens of each itate shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.
A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall ice from justice, and be found in another state, shall on deinand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled be delivered up, to be removed to the late having jurisdiction of the crime,
No person held to service or labour in one ftate, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered np on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.
Sea. 3. New ftates may be admitted by the Congress into this union, but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state ; nor any stare be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular itate.
Sect. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government and shall protect each of them against invafion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.
ARTICLE V. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it neceffary, shall propose amendments to this conftitution ; or, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for propofing amendments, which, in either case, hall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this conititution, when ratified by the legiflatures of three-fourths of the several itatts, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may proposed by the Congress: Provided, that no amendment which
may made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the firft and fourth clauses in the ninth fe&tion of the first articie ; and that no state, without its confent, shall be deprived of its ecual fuffrage in the Senate.
ARTICLE VI. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this conftitution, as under the confederation.
This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every-state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the conftitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.
The senators and representatives before-mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the feveral states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution ; but no religious test fhill ever be required as a qualification to any oilice or public trust under the United States.
ARTICLB VII. The ratification of the conventions of nine ftates, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this conftitution between the states fo ratifying the same. DONE in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the fates present, the
Seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-Seven, and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President.
Atteft. WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
P R E S EN T,
from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Vir.
Congrefs afsembled, and that it is the opinion of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a convention of Delegates, chosen in each state by the people thereof, under the recommendation of its Le islature, for their affent and ratification ; and that each convention afsenting to, and ratifying the fame, should give notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled.
RESOLVED, That it is the opinion of this convention, that as soon as the conventions of nine states shall have ratified this conftitution, the United States in Congress assembled, should fix a day on which Electors should be appointed by the states which shall have ratified the same, and a day on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the President, and the time and place for commencing proceedings under this conftitution. That after luch publication, the Electors should be appointed, and
the senators and representatives elected : That the electors should meet on the day fixed for the election of the President, and should transmit their votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled ; that the fenators and representatives should convene at the time and place assigned ; that the senators should appoint a President of the senate, for the sole purpose of receiving, opening and counting the votes for President ; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, fhould, without delay, proceed to execute this Constitution,
By ihe unanimous order of the Convention,
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President.
In CONVENTION, September 17, 1787.
? E have now the honour to submit to the confideration of the United W
States in Congreis assembled, that constitution which has appeared to us the most advisable. The friends of our country have long seen and desired, that the
power of making war, peace and treaties, that of levying money and regulating commerce, and the corresponding executive and judicial authorities should be fully and effe&tually velted in the general government of the union ; but the impropriety of delegating such an extensive trust to one body of men is evident.-Hence refults the necessity of a different organization.
It is obviously impracticable in the federal government of these states, to fecure all rights of independant fovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all.-Individuals entering into fociety, must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the facrifice muft depend as well on situation and circumstances, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may
be reserved ; and on the present occafion this difficulty was encreased by a difference among the several states as to their situation, extent, habits and particular intereits.
In all our deliberations on this subject, we kept steadily in our view, that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the consolidation of our union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety, perhaps our national exitence. This important confideration, seriously and deeply impreffed on our minds, led each state in the convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude, than might have been otherwise expected; and thus the conftitution, which we now prefent, is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and conceffion which the peculiarity of our political fituation rendered indif
That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every state is not perhaps to be expected : but each will doubtless consider that had her interefts been alone consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurious to others : That it is liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe: That
it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish.
With great respect, we have the honour to be, Sir, Your Excellency's moft obedient, and humble servants,
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President.
By unanimous order of the Convention. His Excellency the President of Congress.
ELEVEN states having already ratified the above conftitution, Congress, agreeably to the seventh article, have taken the proper measures for its organization and ettablishment between the ratifying states.
Society of the Cincinnati.] This fociety has made so much noise both in Europe and America, and has derived such dignity and importance from the characters who compose it, that it is thought proper to insert the inftitution at large, for the information of the uninformed, and for the gratification of the respectable members of the Cincinnati, who wish to have their friendly and charitable intentions fully understood by all classes of their fellow-citizens.
The Institution of the Society of the CINCINNATI, as altered
and amended at their first general meeting at Philadelphia, May, 1784.
• IT having pleased the fupreme governor of the universe to give success to the arms of our country, and to establish the United States free and independent : Therefore, gratefully to commemorate this event to inculcate to the latest ages the duty of laying down in peace, arms affumed for public defence, by forming an institution which recognizes that most important principle,-to continue the mutual friendships which commenced under the pressure of common danger, and effectuate the acts of beneficence, dictated by the spirit of brotherly kindness, towards those officers and their families, who unfortunately may be under the necessity of receiving them; the officers of the American army do hereby constitute themselves into A Society of friends : and, poffefling the highest veneration for the character of that illustrious Roman, Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus, denominate themselves The
THE CINCIN NATI.
Se&t. I. The persons who constitute this society, are all the commissioned and brevet officers of the army and navy of the United States, i who have served three years, and who left the service with reputation, all officers who were in actual service at the conclusion of the war; all the principal staff-officers of the continental army; and the officers who have been deranged by the several resolutions of Congress, upon the different reforms of the army.
Sect. II. “ There are also admitted into this society, the late and pre sent ministers of his most christian majesty to the United States ; all the generals and colonels of regiments and legions of the land forces; all the admirals and captains of the navy, ranking as colonels, who have cooperated with the armies of the United States in their exertions for liberty; and such other persons as have been admitted by the respective state-meetings.
Sea. III. • The fociety shall have a president, vice-president, secretary, and affiftant-secretary.
Sext. IV. • There shall be a meeting of the society, at least once in three years, on the first Monday in May, at such place as the president fhall appoint.
· The said meeting shall consist of the aforesaid officers (whose expences shall be equally borne by the state funds) a representation from each ttate.
· The business of this general meeting shall be,-to regulate the distribution of surplus funds ;-to appoint officers for the ensuing term,and to conform the bye-laws of state meetings to the general objects of the institution.
Sext. V. • The society shall be divided into state-meetings : each meeting shall have a president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer, respectively to be chosen by a majority of votes annually.
Se&. VI. • The itate-meetings shall be on the anniversary of independence. They shall concert such measures as may conduce to the benevolent purposes of the society; and the several state-meetings shall, at suitable periods, make application to their respective legislatures for grants of charters
Sect. VII. " Any member removing from one ftate to another, is to be considered, in all respects, as belonging to the meeting of the state in which be shall actually refide.
Sext. VIII. • The state-meeting shall judge of the qualification of its members, admonish, and (if necessary) expel any one who may conduct himself unworthily.
Sea. IX. •The secretary of each state-meeting shall register the names of the members resident in each state, and transmit a copy thereof to the fecretary of the fociety.
Seat. X. • In order to form funds for the relief of unfortunate members, their widows and orphans, each officer shall deliver to the treasurer of the state-meeting, one month's pay.
Sea. XI. ' No donation shall be received but from the citizens of the United States.
Seči. XII. • The funds of each state-meeting shall be loaned to the ftate, by permission of the legislature, and the interest only, annually to be applied for the purposes of the society; and if, in process of time, difficulties should occur in executing the intentions of this society, the legislatures of the several states shall be entitled to make such equitable dil. position as may be most correspondent with the original design of the contitution.
Sext. XIII. • The subjects of his most Christian majesty, members of this fociety, may hold metings at their pleasure, and form regulations for the police, conformable to the objects of the institution, and to the fpirit of their government.
Seat. XIV. · The society shall have an order; which shall be a bald eagle of gold, bearing on its breast the emblems described in the note,
suspended * The principal figure to be Cincinnatus, three senators presenting him