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members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may
provide.
Each house

may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judginent require fecrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal,

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be fitting.

Sed. 6. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, feluny, and breach of peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the feffion of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the fame; and for any speech or debate in either house, they thall not be questioned in any other place.

No Senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United Sates, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof Thall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any ofice under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.

$28. 7. All bills for raising revenue Mall originate in the house of representatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and the fenate, Thall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the president of the United States ; if he approve he thall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objection at large on their journal, and proceed to re-confider it. If after such re-confideration two-thirds of that house hall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by twothirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of cach house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days, (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being dilapproved by him, fhall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House

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of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Sz&. 8. The Congress shall have power

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises : to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States ;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States :

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the itandard of weights and measures ;

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and cur. rent coin of the United States ;

To establish post offices and post roads ;

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries,

To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court ;

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations.

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that yse shall be for a longer term than two years ;

To provide and maintain a navy ;

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

To provide for the calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, fuppress infurrections, and repel invasions ;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, aud for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by ceffion of particular ftates, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the flate in which the same fall be for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings;- And

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this conftitution in the government of the United States, or in any department, or office thereof.

Sea. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the Iates now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by

the

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the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

The priviledge of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

No bill of attainder or ex poft facto law shall be passed.

No capitation, or other direct tax, shall be laid, unless in proportion to the cenfus or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from

any

state.- No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one ftate over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one ftate, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. No money

shall be drawn from the treasury, bnt in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

No title of the nobility shall be granted by the United States :--And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

Sea. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, aliance, or confederation ; grant letters of marque and reprisals ; coin money ; emit bills of credit ; make any thing but gold, and tilver coin a tender in payment

of debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex poft facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws ; and the net produce of all duties and impofts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into

any agreement or compaci with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II. Se&. 1. The executive power shall be vested in a president of the United States of Ainerica. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the vice-president, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows :

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress : but no fenator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least Thall be an inhabitant of the same ftate with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted

for,

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for, and of the number of votes for each ; which lift they shall fign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the fenate. The president of the fenate shall, in the prefence of the fenate and houfe of representatives, open all the certificates and all the votes shall be then counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of the electors appointed ; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the house of representatives shall immediately chose by ballot one of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the lift, the said house shall in like manner choose the prefident.

But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by ftates, the representations from each state having one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the ftates, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the president, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the vice-president. But if there hould remain two or more who have equal votes, the fenate shall choose from them by ballot a vice-president.

The Congress nay determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the

age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, refignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the faid office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, refignation, or inability, both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a president shall be elected.

The president Thall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation :

“ I do folemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preferve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States.”

Sect. 2. The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy

of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United. States ; he may require the opinion in writing, of the principle officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

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He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirts of the senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the Congress may by law veft the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the fenate, by granting cominiffions which shall expire at the end of their next fcílion.

Se&t. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambalfadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

Sect. 4. The president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

ARTICLE III. Sea. 1. The Judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Sed. 2. The Judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this conftitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls ; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United States shall be a arty; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different ftates, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public minifters and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction, In all the other cases before-mentioned, the supreme court Thall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crime shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

Sca.

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