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brown than the body. Its tail is composed of four or five feathers, which are three times as long as its body, and which are beautifully shaded with green and purple. It carries this fine length of plumage in the fame manner as the peacock does his, but it is not knowo whether like him it ever raises it to an erect position.

The WHETSAW is of the cuckow kind, being, like that, a solitary bird, and scarcely ever seen. In the summer months it is heard in the groves, where it makes a noise like the filing of a faw, from which circumstance it' has received its name.

The HUMMING-BIRD is the smalleft of all the feathered inhabitants of
the air. Its plumage furpasses description. On its head is a small tuft of
jetty black ; its breast is red ; its belly white ; its back, wings and tail of
the finest pale green : small specks of gold are scattered over it with inex-
pressible grace: and to crown the whole, an almost imperceptible down
softens the feveral colours, and produces the most pleasing shades.
Of the Snakes which infest the United States, are the following, viz.
The Rattle Snake

Corn do.
Small Rattle Snake.

Hognofc do.
Yellow Rattle Snake

House do.
Water Viper

Green do.
Black Viper

Wampum do.
Brown Viper

Glass do.
Copper-bellied Snake

Bead do.
Blueish-green Snake Wallor-House Adder
Black Snake

Striped or Gartner Snake
Ribbon do.

Water Snake
Spotted Ribbon do.

Hifling do.
Chain do.

Thorn-tail'd do.
Joint do.

Speckled do.
Green-spotted doc

Ring do.
Coachwhip do.

Two-headed do.

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The THORN-TAIL SNAKE is of a middle fize, and of a very renomous nature. It receives its name from a thorn, like a dart, in its tail, with which it ipflicts its wounds.

The Joint SNAKB is a great curiofity. Its skin is as hard as parchment, and as smooth as glass. It is beautifully ftreaked with black and white. It is fo ftiff, and has fo few joints, and those fo unyielding, that it can hardły bend itself into the form of a hoop. When it is struck, it breaks like a pipe item ; and you may, with a whip, break it from the tail to the bowels into pieces not an inch long, and not produce the least tingture of blood. It is not venomous.

The Two-HEADED Snake. Whether this be a distinct species of snakes intended to propagate its kind, or whether it be a monstrous production, is uncertain. The only ones I have known or heard of in this country, are, one taken near Champlain in 1762, and one preserved in the Museum of Yale College, in New-Haven.

The snakes are not fo numerous nor so venomous in the northern as, in the southern states. In the latter, however, the inhabitants are furnished

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with a much greater variety of plants and herbs, which afford immediate relief to perfons bitten by these venomous creatures. It is an observation worthy of perpetual and grateful remembrance, that wherever venomous animals are found, the God of nature has kindly provided sufficient antidotes against their poison.

Of the astonishing variety of Insects found in America, we will
The Glow Worm
Sheep Tick

Earth Worm Louse

Leg or Guinea do. Wood Louse

Naked Snail Forty Legs, or Centipes Bee
Shell Snail

Humble Bee
Tobacco Worm Adder Bolt

Black Wasp
Wood Worm Cicada, or Locust

Yellow Wasp
Silk Worm

Wall Louse, or Bug Cock Roche

Sow Bug

Sand Fly


Fire-Fly, or Bug Spider
To these may be added the insect, which of late years has proved fo
destructive to the wheat in many parts of the middle and New-England
States, commonly, but erroneously, called the Hellian Fly.

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Horn Bug

The Alligator is a species of the crocodil, and in appearance one of the ugliest creatures in the world. They are amphibious, and live in and about creeks, swamps, and ponds of ftagnant water. They are very fond of the flesh of dogs and hogs, which they voraciously devour when they have opportunity. They are also very fond of fish, and devour valt quantities of them. When tired with fishing, they leave the water to balk themselves in the sun, and then appear more like logs of half rotten wood thrown ashore by the current, than living creatures ; but upon perceiving any vessel or person near them, they immediately throw themselves into the water. Some are of so monstrous a size as to exceed five yards in length. During the time they lie balking on the shore, they keep their huge mouths wide open till filled with musketoes, fies, and other insects, when they suddenly shut their jaws and swallow their prey.

The alligator is an oviparous creature. The female makes a large hole in the fand near the brink of a river, and there deposits her eggs, which are as white as those of a hen, but much larger and more folid. rally lays about an hundred, continuing in the same place till they are all deposited, which is a day or two. She then covers them with the sand, and the better to conceal them, rolls herself not only over her precious depofitum, but to a considerable distance. After this precaution, she returns to the water, and tarries until natural instinct informs her that it is time to deliver her young from their confinement; she then goes to the spot, attended by the male, and tearing up the sand, begins to break the eggs; but so carefully that scarce a single one is injured, and a whole swarm of little alligators is seen crawling about. The female then takes them on


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her neck and back, in order to remove them into the water; but the watchful birds of prey make use of this opportunity to deprive her of some, and even the male alligator, who indeed comes for no other end, devours what he can, till the female has reached the water with a few remaining; for all those which either fall from her back, or do not swim, she herself eats ; so that of such a formidable brood, happily not more than four or five escape.

These alligators are the great destroyers of the fish in the rivers and creeks, it being their most safe and general food, nor are they wanting in address to satisfy their delires. Eight or ten, as it were by compact, draw up at the mouth of a river or creek, where they lie with their mouths open, whilst others go a considerable distance the river, and chase the fish downward, by which means none of any bigness escape them. The alligators being unable to eat under water, on seizing a fish, raise their heads above the surface, and by degrees draw the fish from their jaws, and chew it for deglutition.

Before the setting in of winter, it is said, not without evidence to support the affertion, that they swallow a large number of pine knots, and then creep into their dens, in the bank of some creek or pond, where they lie in a torpid state through the winter without any other fuftenance than the pine knots.

The GUANA, the GREEN LIZARD of Carolina, the BLUE-TAILED LIZARD, and the Lion LIZARD are found in the southern states, and are thought to be species of the fame genus, with the crocodile and alligator.

In the little brooks, and swamps in the back parts of North Carolina, is caught a small amphibious lobster, in the head of which is found the eye ftone.

Population, Characer, &c.] From the best accounts that can at present be obtained, there are, within the limits of the United States, three millions, eighty three thousand, and six hundred souls. This number which is rapidly increasing both by emigrations from Europe, and by natural population, is composed of people of almost all nations, languages, characters and religions. The greater part, however, are descended from the English ; and, for the sake of distinction, are called Anglo-Americans.

The natural genius of Americans, not through prejudice we would charitably suppose, but through want of information, has fuffered in the defcriptions of some ingenious and eloquent European writers.

The Count de Buffon has endeavoured to support the theory, · That on this side the Atlantic, there is a tendency in nature to belittle her productions. This new and unsupported theory, has been applied, by the Abbe Raynal, to the race of whites transplanted from Europe. Mr. Jefferson has confuted this theory; and by the ingenuity and abilities which he has shewn in doing it, has exhibited an instance of its false. hood*


* Although the Abbe, in a later edition of his works, has witbdrawn his censure from that part of America inhabited by Federo-Americans ; yet he has left it in its full force on the other parts, where it is equally inapplicable, if we


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The affertion of the Abbe Raynal, that “ America has not yet produced one good poet, one able mathamatician, one man of genius in a fingle art or a single science *,' produced the following reply from Mr. Jefferson.

• When we shall have existed as a people as long as the Greeks did before they produced a Homer, the Romans a Virgil, the French a Racine and Voltaire, the English a Shakspeare and Milton, should this reproach be still true, we will enquire from what unfriendly causes it has proceeded, that the other coutries of Europe, and quarters of the earth, shall not have inscribed any name in the roll of poets. In war we have produced a WASHINGTON,

whose memory will be adored while liberty shall have votaries. whose name will triumph over time, and will in future ages

arfume its just station among the most celebrated worthies of the world, when that wretched philofophy shall be forgotton which would arrange him

among the degeneracies of nature. In physics we have produced a FRANKLIN, than whom no one of the present age has made more important discoveries, nor has enriched philofophy with more, or more ingenious solutions of the phenomena of nature. We have supposed Mr. RITTENHOUSE second to no astronomer living : that in genius he must be the first, because he is self-taught. As an artist he has exhibited as great proofs of mechanical genius as the world has ever produced. He has not indeed made a world ; but he has by imitation approached nearer its Maker than any man who has lived from the creation to this day. As in philosophy and war so in government, in oratory, in painting, in the plastic art, we might shew that America, though but a child of yesterday, has already given hopeful proofs of genius, as well of the nobler kinds, which aroufe the belt feellings of man, which call him into action, which substantiate his freedom, and conduct him to happiness, as of the subordinate, which serve to amuse him only. We therefore fuppofe, that this reproach is as unjuft as it is unkind, and that, of the geniuses which adorn the present age. America contributes its full share. For comparing it with those countries, where genius is most cultivated, where are the most excellent models for art, and scaffoldings for the attainment of science, as France and England for instance, we calculate thus. The United States contain three millions of inhabitants; France twenty millions; and the British illands ten. We produce a Washington, a Franklin, a Rittenhouse. France then should have half a dozen in each of these lines, and GreatBritain half that number, equally eminent. It may be true, that France has--we are but just becoming acquainted with her, and our acquaintance fo far gives us high ideas of the genius of her inhabitants. It would be injuring too many of them to name particularly a Voltaire, a Buffon, the constellation of Encyclopedists, the Abhe Raynal himself, &c. &c. We therefore have reason to believe she can produce her full quota of genius.


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consider the accumulated pressure of Navery, fuperftition and ignorance, under which the inhabitants are held. Whenever they shall be able to throw of their Joackles, and act themselves, they will doubtless Ibew that they are like the rest of ihe world.

* Hift. Philof. P. 92. ed. Meaftrich, 1774.

The present war having so long cut off all communication with GreatBritain, we are not able to make a fair estimate of the ftate of science in that country.'

The Literature of the United States is very fourishing. Their progress in the art of war, in the science of government, in philosophy and astronomy, in poetry, and the various liberal arts and sciences, has, for so young a country, been astonishing. Colleges are instituted in all the ftates north of North-Carolina, excepting Delaware ; and liberal provision is making for their establishment in the others, These colleges are generally well furnished with libraries, apparatus, instructors and students.

The two late important revolutions in America, which have been {carcely exceeded since the memory of man, I mean that of the declaration and establifhment of independence, and that of the adoption of a new form of government without bloodshed, have called to historic fame many noble and distinguished characters, who might otherwise have slept in oblivion.

But while we exhibit the fair side of the character of Federo-Americans, we would not be thought blind to their faults.

A European writer has juftly obferved, that if there be an object truly ridiculous in nature, it is an American patriot, figning resolutions of independency with the one hand, and with the other brandishing a whip over his affrighted slaves.'

Much has been written of late to shew the injustice and iniquity of enflaving the Africans ; so much as to render it unnecessary here to fay any thing on that part of the subject. We cannot, however, forbear introducing a few observations respecting the influence of Navery upon policy, morals and manners. From repeated and accurate calculations, it has been found, that the expence of maintaining a Slave, especially if we include the purchase-money, is greater than that of maintaining a free man; and the labour of the free man, influenced by the powerful motive of gain, is at least twice as profitable to the employer as that of the slave. Belides, slavery is the bane of induftry. It renders labour, among the whites, not only unfalhonable, but disreputable. Industry is the offspring of necessity rather than of choice. Slavery precludes this necesity ; and indolence, which strikes at the root of all focial and political happiness, is the unhappy consequence.

Thefe observations, without adding any thing upon the injustice of the practice, shew that slavery is impolitic. Its influence on manners and morals is equally pernicious. The negro wenches in many, perhaps I may say in most instance, are nurses to their mistresses children. The Infant babe, as soon as it is born, is delivered to its black nurse, and perhaps fel. dom or never taftes a drop of its mother's milk. The children, by being brought up, and constantly associating with the negroes, too often imbibe their low ideass

, and vitiated manners and morals; and contract a negroijl kind of accent and dialect, which they often carry with them through life. A mischief common, in a greater or less degree, in all the fouthern states, at which humanity and decency blash, is the criminal intercourse between the whites and blacks.

• The enjoyment of a negro or mulatto woman,' says a traveller of observation, • is spoken of as quite a common thing No reluctance, delicacy, or shame, appear about the


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