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THE varieties among
the human race, says Dr. Percival, enuine rated by Linnæus, and Buffon, are six. The first is found under the polar regions, and comprehends the Laplanders, the Esqimaux Indians, the Samoeid Tartars, the inhabitants of Nova Zembla, the Borandians, the Greenlanders, and the people of Kamschatka. The visage of men, in thefe countries, is large and broad; the nose flat and short : the eyes of a yellowish brown, inclining to blackness; the cheek bones extremely high; the mouth large; the lips thick; and turning outwards; the voice thin and squeaking; and the skin a dark
The people are short in stature, the generality being about four feet high, and the tallest not more than five. Ignorance, stupidity, and superstition are the mental characteristics of the inhabitants of these rigorous climates. For here
Doze the gross race. Nor sprightly jest nor song,
Beyond the kindred bears that stalk without. The Tartar race, comprehending the Chinese, and the Japanese, forms the second variety in the human species. Their countenances are broad and wrinkled, even in youth; their noses short and flat; their
little, sunk in the fockets, and several inches asunder; their cheek bones are high ; their teeth of a large size, and separate from each other ; their complexions are olive, and their hair black. These nations, in general, have no religion, no settled notions of morality, and no decency of behaviour. They are chiefly robbers ; their wealth consists in horses, and their skill in the management of them.
The third variety of mankind is that of the southern Afiatics, or the inhabitants of India. These are of a Nender shape, have long, straight, black hair, and generally Roman noses. These people are flothful, lux, urious, submissive, cowardly and effeminate.
-The parent Sun himself
This rage partakes, and burns with horrid fire. The negroes of Africa constitute the fourth striking variety in the human species : But they differ widely from each other; those of Guinea, for instance, are extremely ugly, and have an insupportably offensive fcent; while those of Mofainbique are reckoned beautiful, and are untainted with any disagreeable smell. The negroes are, in general, of a
black colour; and the downy foftness of hair which grows upon the skin, gives a smoothness to it, resembling that of velvet. The hair of their heads is woolly, short and black; but their beards often turn grey, and sometimes white. Their noses are flat and short, their lips thick and tumid, and their teeth of an ivory whiteness,
The intelle tual and inoral powers of these wretched people are un. cultivated ; and they are subject to the most barbarous despotism. The favage tyrants who rule over them, make war upon each other for bu. man plunder! and the wretched victims, bartered for ipiritous liquors, are torn from their families, their friends, and their native land, and consigned for life to misery, toil and bondage. But how am I shocked to inform you, that this infernal commerce is carried on by the humane, the polished, the chriftian inhabitants of Europe ; nay even by Englishmen, whose ancestors have bled in the cause of liberty, and whose breasts still glow with the same generous flame! I cannot give you a more striking proof of the ideas of horror which the captive negroes entertain of the state of servitude they are to undergo, than by relating the following incident from Dr. Goldsmith,
"A Guinea captain was, by distress of weather, driven into a certain harbour, witḥ a lading of sickly Naves, who took every opportunity to throw themselves over-board, when brought upon deck for the benefit of fresh air. The captain perceiving, among others, a female lave attempting to drown herself, pitched upon her as a proper example for the rest. As he fuppofed that they did not know the terrors attending death, he ordered the woman to be tied with a rope under the arm-pits, and let down into the water. When the poor creature was thus plunged in, and about half way down, she was heard to give a terrible fhrick, which at first was ascribed to her fears of drowning, Lut soon after, the water appeared red around her, she was drawn up, and it was found that a shark, which had followed the ship, had bitten her off from the middle.'
The native inhabitants of America make a fifth race of men. They are of a copper colour, have black, thick, straight hair, flat noses, high cbeek bones, and fmall eyes. They paint the body and face of various colours, and eradicate the hair of thcir beards and other parts, as a deformity. Their limbs are not so large and robust as those of the Europeans. They endure hunger, thirst, and pain with aftonishing firmness and patience; and though cruel to their enemies, they are kind and just to each other.
The Europeans inay be considered as the last variety of the human kind. They enjoy singular advantages from the fairness of their complexions. The face of the African Black, or of the olive-coloured Asiatic, is a very imperfect index of the mind, and preserves the fame fettled fhade in joy and sorrow, confidence and shame, anger and despair, fickness and health. The English are faid to be of the fairest of the Enropeans; and we may therefore presume; that their countenances best express the variations of the passions and vicissitudes of disease. But the intellectual and moral characteristics of the different nations, which compose this quarter of the globe, areof inuch importance to be known. These, however, become gradually less difcernible, as fashion, learning, and commerce prewal more univerfally'
Α Ρ Ρ Ε Ν D Ι Χ.
Ν Ο Τ Ε Ι. TH
HE following note will correct what was said, page 87, in respect
to the state of our commerce with France.
A distinction must be made between the arret of 1785 and that of 1787. The first grants privileges in certain cafes to all neatrals, the fecond is entirely in favour of the Americans. But both are for their ada vantage. Whenever they shall enjoy a permanent and solid government, on whose measures fome reliance may be given, then it may be expected that the king of France will give effect to the disposition which his majesty has constantly harboured towards the United States. But Bo regulation can be solid which is not founded on reciprocal advantage. To obtain, a nation should be able to grant. That has not been the case with the United States towards France. They have not ever been able to make good the treaty of commerce on which their first conne&tion with France is grounded. Many grievances exist against the United States, where the few French navigators have been liable to many inconveniences from the fickleness and imperfection of the laws of individual states. Justice must be the first basis on which industry may repose. France will always grant more than she may receive, but her fubje&ts must find in the United States, protecting and solid laws. That will certainly be the effect of a wise and a general government. It may then be pronounced that the æra of the new constitution will also be the æra of a renewal of a lasting and useful connection between two nations, who have no motive for rival. ship, and who have many natural reasons to Le Arongly connected besides. what sentiment may inspire.'
NOTE II. The following Extract from the Journals of Mr. ELKANAH WATSON; a gentleman who has travelled extensively both in Europe and America, merits a place in a book of this kind; and wouk i have been inferted in the body of the work, had the journals been timely received.
• When the extent of America is considerécl, boldly fronting the old world-blessed with every climate--capable of e rery prođution--abounding with the beft harbours and rivers on the globe, and already overspread with three millions of souls, mostly descendents of Englishmen-inherit. ing all their ancient enthusiasm for liberty, and enterprising almost to a fault--what may be expected from such a people in such a country The partial hand of nature has laid off America upon a much larger fcale
of the world. Hills in Ameri ca are mountains in Europenbrooks are rivers, and ponds are lwelled i nto lakes. In short the map of the world cannot exhibit a country unit ing fo many natural ade vantages, so pleasingly diversified, and that offers such abundant and easy resources to agriculture and commerce.
In contemplating future America, the mind is lost in the din of citiesin harbours and rivers clouded with fails—and in the immensity of her population. Admitting her present population to be three millions, and calculating her progressive increase to continue doubling once in twenty years, as has hitherto been the case, at the end of one hundred will be ninety-fix millions of fouls in United America; which is twothirds as many as there are at present in all Europe. And when we consider the probable acquisition of people, by foreign emigrations, and that the interior and unsettled parts of America are amply fufficient to provide for this number; the presumption is strong, that this estimation will not differ materially from the event.
Europe is already aware of the rising importance of America, and begins to look forward with anxiety.to her West India Islands, which are the natural legacy of this continent, and will doubtlefs be claimed as such when America fhall have arrived at an age which will enable her to maintain her right.
The northern and southern states differ widely in their customs, climate, produce, and in the general face of the country. The middle states preserve à medium in all these respects; they are neither fo level and hot as the ftates south; nor fo hilly and cold as those north and east. The inhabitants of the north are hardy, industrious, frugal, and in general well in, formed; those of the louth are more effeminate, indolent, and imperious. The fisheries and commerce are the finews of the north; tobacco, rice, and indigo, of the fouth. The northern states are commodiously situated. for trade and manufactures; the southern, to furnish provisions and raw materials; and the probability is, that the southern states will one day be fupplied with northern manufactures instead of European, and make their remittances in provisions and raw materials.'
NO TE III, The following observations on the subje&t of the probable revenue that would result to the United States from the import and excise, were communicated by a gentleman who, from his situation in public life, from the attention he has paid to the sources of public revenue in this country, and from the pains he has taken to collect the facts on which the following estimate is founded, is capable of giving as accurate information on the subject as the nature of the case will admit.
. From the want of accurate documents of former collections under the state regulations, it is not possible to determine with precision, the amount of the revenue which may he relied on from these sources, under the new form of government.--I am, however, clearly of opinion, from several returns I have seen of the former import and excise, duties, in fome prin. cipal importing states, that after the regulations adopted by Congress, have had their complete operation, the produce of these duties, without encouraging contraband, or other frauds on the revenue, may be estimated at 2,000,000 dollars. This sum, it is true, will at present fall short of what is necessary to defray the expences of the civil government, and to discharge the interest of the foreign and domestic debt.-But by the aids of a national bank properly organized, it will be easy and perfectly safe to borrow in anticipation, such sums as may be deficient, annually for those purposes, pledging the above revenue (which will conftantily en.
crease rapidly with the population of the country) as a fund of reimbursement. This is practised in other countries, under similar circumstances, in support of public credit, and may undoubtedly be done in this,-more especially, as the Capital of the domestic debt will be constantly decreasing by a judicious disposal of lands in the Western Territory, and means may bé devised of inducing the domestic creditors to agree to a reduction of The present rate of interest. With respect to direct taxes, I am of opinion, that in times of
peace, little, if any, recourse need be had to them :-It is, however, absolutely necessary that the general government should be invested with the
power of levying them, because in times of war, or the calamities to which all nations are subjected, the sources of import and excise may
be so diminished as not to be adequate to the means of national defence and every government ought undoubtedly to have the means of preserving itself.
I know it has been said, that on such great occasions, requisitions may be relied on; but past experience proves the fallacy of this observation; for if during a war, whole object was to rescue the whole body of the peopie, from the most ignominious lavery, the earnest and repeated recommendations of Congress, could not draw forth from the states any contributions of money in the least degree proportionate to the public exigencies, what could be expected on future occasions ? Nothing else than fubje&ting the citizens of the states molt contigious to the scene of action to a ruinous depredation of property ; whilst those in the distant states would not only be perfe&tly free of any burthen, but dispute, when the danger was over, the justice of reimbursement.--To such acts of violation of private rights, it is well known that the citizens of New York, Jersey and Pennsylvania, were peculiarly subjected, during the late war ; and if they are wise, they will never again expose themselves to the fame hazard.' Number of Representatives according to the return of the Census now made from the several States, if the ratio of representation established be of No. of Representatives forlif 1 forlif 1 forlif 1 for from
30000133000 34000 40000
8 8 6
8 Georgia And allowing South-Carolina, which state has made no return, upon a fuppofition 5 members, in every case, the total number of members in each case would then be Total
104 IOO 82
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