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OUNDED north, by the Black Sea and Circassia; cast, by Persia

south, by Arabia and the Levant Sea ; west, by the Archipelago, the Hellespont, and Propontis ; length 1000 miles, breadth 800.

The air is naturally delightful, serene, and salubrious, yet the inhabitants are frequently visited with the plague. The soil is calculated to produce all the necessaries, agreeables, and even luxuries of life. The Grand Seignior is absolute sovereign of the Turkish empire, who appoints Balhaws or Beglerbegs to govern the several provinces.-Mahometanism is the established religion of the Turkish dominions. The Turks; when young, are well made and robust. Their eyes and hair are black. The women look old at 30.--Turkey in Asia contains many large provinces, particularly Syria, Judea, or Palestine, Phenicia, &c. which are subject to the Turks. In Palestine, or the Holy Land, and the countries adjacent, were Babylon, Damascus, Nineveh, Tyre, Sidon, Samaria, Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Jerusalem the capital, which was taken, pillaged, burnt, and entirely razed to the ground by Titus, the Roman general, under Domitian, in the year 70, and is now a very inconsiderable place, and only famous for what it has been ; for there Jesus Christ preached the Christian religion, and was crucified by the Jews upon Mount Calvary. Ephesus is in the lesser Asia, famous for the tem ple of Diana, which Erostratus burnt, in order to immortalize his memory. Near Jerusalem is the lake Asphaltites, or the Dead Sea, being the place where Sodom and Gomorrah ftood. In Mesopotamia, between the Euphrates and the Tigris, is supposed to have been the Garden of Eden. There are now no remains of the tower of Babel, or the city of Babylon, nor is the place where they stood exactly known. Owls now dwell there, and wild beasts and dragons in their pleasant places (Isaiah xiii. 20, c.) Nineveh too, once the capital of the Assyrian empire, is now knowo only by its ruins.


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H E Japan Inands forming an empire governed by a most despotic

king, lie about 150 miles east of China. The soil and produce tion of these islands are much the same as those of China. The Japanese are the groffest idolaters, and irreconcileable to Christianity. They are of a yellow conrplexion, narrow eyes, short noses, black hair. A fameness of dress prevails through the whole empire, from the emperor to the veasant. The firii compliment offered to a stranger in their houses, is a difh of ea, and a pipe of tobacco. Obedience to parents, and respect to logerios, characterize the nation. Their penal laws are very fevere, bus


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punishment is seldom inflicted. The inhabitants have made great progress in commerce and agriculture.

Formosa is a fine island east of China, abounding in all the necessaries of life.

The Philipines, 1100 in number, lying 200 miles south-east of China, belonging to Spain, are fruitful in all the necessaries of life, and beautiful to the eye. They are, however, sub ect to earthquakes, thunder, and lightning, venomous beasts, and noxious herbs, whose poison kills instantaneously. They are subject to the Spanish government. The Sultan of Mindanao is a Mahometan.

Borneo, 8co miles long, and 700 broad, is thought to be the largest island in the world. It lies on the equator, and is famous for being the native country of the Quran Outang, which, of all irrational animals, resembles a man the most.

Sumatra, west of Borneo produces so much gold that it is thought to be the Ophir mentioned in the Scriptures.

Ceylon belongs to the Dutch, and is said to be by nature the richest and finest island in the world. The natives call it, with some shew of reason, the terrestrial paradise. They are a sober inoffensive people ; but idolaters. This island is noted for the cinnamon iree.


FRICA is situated south of Europe, and surrounded on all

fides by the sea, except a narrow neck of land about 60 miles over, called the Isthmus of Suez, which joins it to Asia at the north end of the Red Sea. Africa is about 4300 miles in length, and 3500 in breadth and lies chiefly in the torrid zone, the equator running through the middle of it. Here once dwelt the queen of Sheba, who, on paying a visit to the magnificent king Solomon, stood amazed at his wisdom and the glory of his court. Here we find a race of people quite black, supposed Lo be descendants of Ham. Africa will be considered under the 7 following divisions : 1 Egypt,

5 Guinea, 2 Barbary,

6 Ethiopia, 3 Zaara or the Desert,

7 The African Islands. 4 Negroland,

Boundaries. B


OUNDED east, B

Suez ; west, by Barca ; north, by the Mediterranean ; fouth, by Nubia and Abyssinia ; 600 miles in length, and 350 in breadth, including the Deserts.

Capital.] Grand Cairo, one of the most populous cities in the world, and a place


great trade and riches.

Air, Soil and Productions.] The air of Egypt is for the most part hot and unwholesome ; but the soil is exceedingly fruitful, occafioned by the annual overflowing of the Nile, which leaves a fattening slime behind it. Those parts not overflowed by the Nile are uncultivated, sandy' and barren. Egypt produces corn, rice, sugar, flax, linen, salt, fal ammoniac, balsam, and various sorts of fruits and drugs.

Religion and Government,] Egypt is governed by a Bashaw fent from Constantinople, being a province of the Turkish empire. The Turks and Arabs are Mahometans. Mahometanism is the established religion of Egypt ; but there are many Christians called Copts, and the Jews are very numerous.

Egypt is famous for its pyrami is, those ftupenduous works of folly. The Egyp:ians were the only people who were acquainted with the art op embalming or preserving dead bodies from putrefaction, Here is the river Nile celebrated for its fertilizing inundations, and for the subtle von racious crockodiles which inhabit its shores. This was the theatre of those remarkable transactions, which makes up the beautiful and affecte ing history of Joseph. Here Pharoah exhibited scenes of cruelty, tyranny, and oppresion towards the Ifraelites, in the course of their 400 years bondage to the Egyptians. Here too Mofes was born, and was preserved in the little ark, among the flags on the banks of the Nile. Here, through the instrumentality of this great man, the Egyptians were afflicted with many grievous plagues, which induced them at last to kit Ifracl go. Here Mofes, with his rod, divided the Red fea, and Israel pailed it on dry land ; which the Egyptians attempting to do, were overwhelmed by the returning of the waters. To this scene, fuc-. ceeded the Ifraelites memorable 40 years march through the deserts of Arabia, before they reached the land of Canaan.

Β ́ Α A R BA R Y,

east, by Egypt ; north, by the Mediterranean , west, by the Atlantic Ocean ; lenth 2300 miles, breadth 700.

Air, Soil and Productions.] The states, under the Roman empire, were juitly denominated the garden of the world. The air is temperate and generally healthful. The soil is rich, producing plenty of corn, fruits and pasture. But some parts are fandy and barren, and others are overrun with woods and mountains.

Character.] The Moors, who are the original inhabitants of Carbary, dwell ciefly in Morrocco, and are said to be a covetous, inhospitable, treacherous people. The Arabs, who are difperfed all over this country, follow their common trade of roübing travellers,

The women of Tunis are exceffively handsome, and very delicate. They improve the beauty of their eyes, by the use of the powder of lead-ore, fuppofed to be the fame pigment that Jezebel made ufe of (II Kings ix. 30.) to paint her face ; the words in the origical signifying that the set off her eyes with the powder of lead-ore.

Religion and Government.] Mahometanism, in its worst form, prevails throughout the states of Barbary. The emperor of Morocco is an arbitrary prince. Algiers is governed by a Prince, called the Dey, elected by the army. The fovereign of Tunis and Tripoli, called Beys, are not só independent as the former. Thefe three states may be looked upon as republics of soldiers under the protection of the Grand Seignior. Algiers belongs to the Spaniards, and is a nest of pirates. On this coalt stood the famous city of Carthage, which was destroyed by the Romans. Among the great men Africa has produced, are Tertullian, Cyprian, Julius Africanus, Arnobius, Lactantius and St. Austin, all bishops of the church. The warriors of note are Hamilcar, Haanibal; and Afdrubaté Among the poets are, Terence and Apuleius.


IT has Barbary north; Egypt and Nubia east; Negraland and Guinea fouth; and the Atlantic welt; 2500 miles long, and 500

broad. The air of this country is very hot, but wholesome to the natives. The foil is generally sandy and barren, insomuch that the caravans crossfing this country, to and from Negroland, are often reduced to great extremities. The inhabitants of this country are wild and ignorant, They have a number of petty princes, but for the moft part, have few figns of any government at all. The Mahometan religion is profeffed throughout the country.


THIS country lies fouth

of Zaara ; 2300 miles long, and 700 broad. The air is very hot, but wholesome. The soil is fertile, especially near the river Niger, which runs through the country from east to west, and overflows at a certain time of the year like the Nile. The commodities of this country are gold, Naves, elephants-teeth, bees-wax, and some drugs. There is a well here, whose water is as sweet as ordinary sugar. The Negroes are an uncivilized, ignorant, crafty, robust people. Their colour is deep black, their hair short, like wool, Aat noses, thick lips, and white, even teeth. The Negroes are governed by a number of absolute princes. The inhabitants are mostly pagans and idolaters.

Guinea lies south of Negroland, 1800 miles long, 600 broad. The foil is preferable to that of Negroland. The inhabitants are more courteous and sensible; in other respects the difference is immaterial. The greater part of the poor Negroes in the West-Indies and the southern ftates, were brought fron these two countries.



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NDER the general name of Ethiopia is included all the remaining

part of Africa ; containing an extent of 3600 miles from north to south, and 200 from east to west. The air of this country is gene. rally excessive hot, and the soil barren, though on the banks of the rivers it is fertile, and produces rice, citrons, lemons, sugar canes, &c. The Ethiopians are an ignorant, uncivilized, superstitious people. Their government is absolute, lodged in the hands of a great number of princes, the small ones are tributary to the greater. The Mahometan and Pagan religions prevail in Ethiopia.

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T the mouth of the Red Sea; is the island that sailors now call So

crata, famous for its aloes, which are esteemed the best in the world Sailing down, southward, we come to the island Madagascar, or Lawrence, abounding in cattle and corn, and most of the necessaries of life,

sufficient merchandize to induce Europeans to settle colonies ; it has several petty savage kings of its own, both Arabs and Negroes, who making war on each other, fell their prisoners for llaves to the Shipping which call here, taking clothes, utensils and other neceffaries in

Near it are the four Comorra isles, whose petty kings are tributary to the Portugeuse; and near these lies the French island Bourbon; and a little higher Maurice, so called by the Dutch, who first touched here in 1598. It is now in the poffeffion of the French.

Quitting the eastern world and the Indies, and pafling round the Cape of Good Hope, into the wide Atlantic ocean, the firft itland is the smail, but pleafant St. Helena, at which place all the English East-India ships stop to get water and fresh provisions in their way home. Near this are the Guinea islands, St. Matthew, St. Thomas and others; not far from the coast under the Equino&ial line, belonging to the Portuguese. These were fo named by the failors, who first found them on St. Helen's, St. Thomas and St. Mathews' festivals.

Thence northward, are the Cepe Verd islands, so called froin their verdure. They now belong to the Portuguese, who are furniihed from thence with salt and goats skins.

Further north are the pleasant Canaries, belonging to the Spaniards, from whence first came Canary wine, and the beautiful finging birds, called Canary birds. The ancients called then the Fortunate ldles, and placed there the Elysian fields. They are ten or twelve in number, the chief are Teneriffe, Gomera, Ferro, and Great Canary. The fertile islands of Madeira lie still higher north, and famous for the best stomachic wine. They belong to the Portuguese

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