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The Danes have settlements at Coromandel in Asia, on the coast of Guinea and other places in Africa, and in Greenland in America. Greenland is divided into East and West Greenland, a very extenfive country, but thinly inhabited. Crantz reckons only 957 stated, and 7000 wandering inhabitants in West Greenland. The Danes are the only nation who have settlements in West Greenland ; where, under their protection, the Moravian brethern have missionaries, and very useful establishments.

Wealth and Commerce.] If the cold and barren kingdom of Norway did not require large supplies of corn from Denmark, the latter could export a considerable quantity of it. Sleswick, Jutland, Seeland, and Leland, are very rich corn countries, and abound in black catttle. The ehief produce of Norway is wood, timber, and a great variety of peltry. The mines of Norway are very valuable, as well as its fisheries. Only one fourteenth part of it is fit for agriculture. The balance of trade is in favour of Norway, and against Denmark. The whole of the ex

of Denmark and Holstein amounted, in 1768, to 1,382,68 i rixdollars; the imports to 1,976,800. The exports of Norway, to 1,711,369, and the imports to 1,238,284 dollars. Manufactures do not thrive in Denmark.

Religion.] The same as in Sweden.

Government.] Denmark is an hereditary kingdom, and governed in an absolute manner; but the Danish kings are legal sovereigns, and perhaps the only legal sovereigns in the world; for the senators, nobility clergy, and commons divested themselves of their right as well as power, in the year 1661, and made a formal surrender of their liberties to the then king Frederick III.

History. ] Denmark, the ancient kingdom of the Goths, was littleknown till the year 714, when Gormo was king. Christian VII. is the present fovereign ; he visited England in 1768. His queen, the youngest lifter of George III. king of Great Britain, was suddenly seized, confined in a castle as a state prisoner, and afterwards banished the kingdom. The Counts Struensee and Brandt (the first prime minister and the queen's physician ) were seized at the same time, January 1772, and beheaded the same

year. Bartholinus, celebrated for his knowledge of anatomy, and Tycho Brahe, the famous astronomer, were natives of this countrya

GREAT

GREAT BRITAIN AND

IRELAND.

Lies between 49° and 58° 50' North Latitude, and 2° East and 6°

20' West Longitude.

Divifons.

Sq. Mil. Population. Capital. Inbab.

ENGLAND and Wales 54,112 7,000,000 LONDON, 800,000

I 2

800,000 Scotland,

25,600 1,300,000 Edinburgh, 80,000 Ireland,

21,216 2,161,514 Dublin, 160,000 Counties.

Counties. England is divided into 40 Scotland 31 and 2 stewardships. Wales

Ireland 32 in 4 provinces. The English poffefs the fortress of Gibraltar, and valuable settlements in Asia, Africa, and America

Wealth and Commerce ] The two divisions of Great-Britain EngJand and Scotland, differ widely with respect to their natural fertility, and to the wealth of their inhabitants. South Britain, or England, abounds with all the useful productions of those countries in Europe, which are in parrallel latitudes, wine, filk, and some wild animals excepted. Agriculture, gardening, the cultivation of all those plants which are most useful for feeding cattle, and breeding horses and sheep, are carried on in England to an astonishing height. Of about 42,000,000 acres, which England contains only 8,500,000 produce corn; the rest is either covered with wood, or laid out in meadows, gardens, parks, &c. and a considerable part is ftill waste land. Yet out of crops obtained from the fifth part of the lands, there have been exported, during the space of five years, from 1745 to 1750, quantities of corn to the value of £:7,600,000 sterling. The nett produce of the Englih corn-land is estimated at £.9,000,000 sterling. The rents of pasture-ground, meadows, &c. at £.7,000,000. The number of people engaged in, and maintained by farming, is supposed to be 2,800,000. England abounds it excellent cattle and sheep. In the beginning of the present century, there were supposed to be 12 millions of theep, and their number has since been increasog. In the years 1769, 1770 and 1771, the value of the woollens exported from England, including those of Yorkshire, amounted to £:3,500,000 sterling.

Copper, tin, lead and iron are found in great abundance in Great-Britain, where there is made every year 50-60,000 tons of pig-iron, and 20-30,000 tons of bar-iron.

England possesses a great treasure in her inexhaustible coal-mines, which are worked chiefly in the northern counties, whence the coal is conveyed by fea, and by inland canals, to every part of the kingdom. The mines of Northumberland alone, send every year upwards of 600,006

chaldrons of coals to London, and 1500 vessels are employed in carry ing them along the eastern coast of England.

Sotland's natural productions are greatly inferior to those of England, both with respect to plenty and variety. It produces chiefly, fax, hemp, coals, fome iron and much lead. The trade of this country con. lifts chiefly in linen, thread and coals ; they have lately begun to manufacture cloth, carpets, sugar, &c. *

Ireland is, in most of its provinces, not inferior ip fertility to England, but

very far behind it in point of civilization and industry. This inferiority must be partly attributed to the idleness, ignorance, and oppression of its inhabitants ; and partly to the commercial jealoufy of the British legislation, from which Ireland has at length been emancipated. The chief articles of its produce are cattle, sheep, hogs and flax ; large quantities of excellent salted pork, beef and butter, are annually exported.

The Irish wool is very fine The principal manufacture of Ireland is that of linen, which, at present, is a very valuable article of exporta tion, Fifteen hundred persons are employed in the filk manufactures at Dublin.

With the increase of liberty and industry, this kingdom will soon rise to the commercial consequence to which it is entitled by its fertility and situation. The total of the exports from Ireland to Great Britain, in 1779

and 1780, at an average, was £2,300,000. The balance is greatly in fa.. vour of Ireland.

The manufactures of England are confessedly, with very few exceptions, superior to those of other eüuntries. For this superiority they are nearly equally indebted to national character, to the situation of their country, and to their excellent constitution.

The English government, favourable to liberty, and to every exertion of genius, has provided, by wife and equitable laws, for the secure enjoyment of property acquired by ingenuity and labour, and has removed oblacles to fadustry, by prohibiting the importation of such articles from abroad which could be manufactured at home t.

Scotland, from the time of its (a) union with England in 1707, has been gradually rising in wealth, commerce and agriculture.

For ore of the best books relating to Ireland, we cannot refrain from referring our readers to a vclume in 8vo. of Historical Tracts, by Sir John Davies, Aitorney General, and speaker of the House af Commons in Ireland. Consisting of, ift. A Discove y of the true Cause why Ireland was never brought under Obedience to the crown of Eriglund. 2d. A Letter to the Earl of Sclisbury on the State of Ireland in 1607. 3. A Letter to the Earl of Salisbury in 1610, giving an Account of the Flantations in Ulster. &#h: A Speech to the Lord Deguty in 1613, tracing the ancient Conftitution of Ireland. To u hich is prefixed, A new Life of the Author, fiom au. ihentic Documents. By George Chalmers, Esq.

I See A Collection of Treaties between Great Britain and other Powers. By George Chalmers. Esq.

(a) For this great national event, fee, The Hiftory of the Union between England and Scotland, by DanielDe Foe; with An Introduction to a similar Union with Ireland, By Jo L.De Lolme.

The British islands, among other advantages for navigation, have coasts, the sea line of which, including both Great-Britain and Ireland, extends nearly 3,800 miles, whereas the sea.coast of France has but 1000 miles. The commerce of Great-Britain is immense, and increafing. In the years 1783 and 1784, the ships cleared outwards, amount ing to 950,000 tons, exceeded the number of tons of the ships employed in 1760 (24 years before) by upwards of 400,000 tons. The value of the cargoes exported in 1784, amounted to upwards of £15,000,000 ; and the nett cultoms paid for them into the Exchequer were upwards of £-3,000,000 sterling; and even this fum was exceeded the following year, 1785, by upwards of 6.1,000,000 sterling.-The balance of trade in favour of England is estimated at £13,000,000. The inland trade is valued at £.42,000,000 sterling.–The fisheries of Great Bria tain are namerous and very productive. The privileged trading companies, of which the East India Company, chartered in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, is the principal, carry on the most important foreign commerce.

The Bank of England was incorporated in 1694. This company, by the san&tion of parliament, deals in bills of exchange it buys and sells bullion, and manages government annuities paid at its office,' Its credit is the most extenlive of any in Europe. It is one of the principal creditors of the nation, and the value of the shares in its stock runs very high.

Government.] The government of Great-Britain may be called a limited monarchy. It is a happy combination of a monarchi: I and popular government. The king has only the executive power ; the legislative is shared by him and the parliament, or more properly by the people. The crown is hereditary ; both male and female descendants are capable of succession. The king mult profess the

Protestant religion. Religion.] The estabilhed religion in that part of Great-Britain, called England, is the Episcopal Church of England, of which the king, without any spiritual power, is the head. The revenues of the Church of England are supposed to be about £3,000,000 sterling. All other denominations of christians, called Disfenters, and jews, are tolerated.

Four-fifths of the people of Ireland are Roman Catholics, and are consequently excluded from all places of trust and profit. Their clergy are numerous.—The Scotch are Presbyterians, and are strictly Calvinilts in doctrine and form of ecclesiastical government. The other most considerable religious sects in England are Unitarians, Babtists, Quakers (60,000 ) Methodists, Roman Catholics (60000) -12,000 families of Jews--and French and German Lutherans and Calvinists.

Hiftory.] Britain was first inhabited by a tribe of Gauls. Fifty-two years before the birth of Christ, Julius Cæfar subjected them to the Roman empire. The Romans remained malters of Britain 500 years, till they were called home in defence of their native country against the invasions of the Goths and Vandals. The Piets, Scots and Saxons then took poffeffion of the island. In 1066, William duke of Normandy obtained a complete victory over Harold king of England, which is called the Norman conquest. Magna Charta was signed by John 1216. This is called the bulwark of English liberty. In 1485, the houses of York and Lancaster were unitedin Henry VII. after a longand bloody contest. The usurpation of Cromwell took place in 1647. The revolution so

W

lled on account of James the second's abdicating the throne, to hom William and Mary succeeded) happened 1688. Queen Anne succeeded William and Mary in 1702, in whom ended the Protestant line of Charles I. and George the first of the house of Hanover, asceuded the throne in 1714, and the succession has been regular in this line: George the Third is the present king.

ISLANDS, SEAS, MOUNTAINS, &c.

OF EUROPE.

TI

HE principal islands of Europe, are Great Britain and Ireland in

the north. In the Medi'errancan fea, are, Yvica, Majorca, and Minorca, subject to Spain. Corsica, subject to the French. Sardinia is subject to its own king; and Sicily is governed by a viceroy under the king of Naples, to whom the island belongs. The islands of the Baltic, the Adriatic and Ionian leas are not worthy of notice.

The principal feas, gulphs, and bays in Europe, are the Adriatic Sea, between Italy and Turkey; the Baltic Sea, between Denmark, Polani', and Sweden ; the Bay of Biscay, between France and Spain, the Engliil Channel, between England and France; the Euxine or Black Sca, betic

cen Europe and Afia; the German Ocean, between Germany and Britain ; and the Mediterranean Sea, between Europe and Africa.

The chief mountains in Europe, are the Alps, between France and Italy; the Apennine Hiljs in Italy; the Pyrencan Hills, that divide France from Spain ; the Carpathian Mountains, in the south of Poland; the Peak in Derbyshire ; the Plinlimmon in Wales : besides the terrible Volcanos, or Burning Mountains, of Vesuvius and Stromboli, in Na. ples; Etna, in Sicily, and Ecla, in the cold island of Iceland.

A S I A.

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HIS immense tract of country, stretches into all climates, from

the frozen wilds of Siberia, where the hardy inhabitants, clothed in fur, are drawn in fedges over the foow; to the fultry regions of India and Siani, where, feated on the huge elephants, the people shelter themfelves from the scorching fun by the spreading umbrella.

This is the principal quarter of the globe; for in Asia the All Wise Creator planted the garden of Eden, in which Adam and Eve' were formed, from whom the whole human race have derived their existence. Alia became again the nursery of the world after the deluge, whence the decendants of Noah disper led their various colonies into all the other parts

of

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