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verfities, and to confer academical degrees. The Diet, which is composed of the emperor, and of the immediate states of the empire, have power to levy taxes, give laws, make war, and conclude treaties of peace, by which the whole enpire is bound. The states of the empire which are differently constituted and governed, considered in their separate capacity, enjoy sovereign power in their respective dominions, limited only by the above mentioned laws.

Religion ] Since the year 1555, the Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, and the Calvinist, generally called the Reformed Religion, have been the established religions of Germany. The first prevails in the south of Germany, the Lutheran in the north, and 'the reformed near the Rhine.

Capital.] Vienna, on the Danube is the capital of Austria, and of the whole German empire ; and is the residence of the Emperor.

Improvements.] The Germans can boast of a greater number of useful discoveries and inventions of arts and sciences than any other European nation. They have the honor of inventing the art of printing, about the year 1450.

History, Sc.] Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, king of France, was the founder of the German empire, in 800. Leopald II. the pret fent emperor, was elected upon the death of his brother Joseph II.

The German empire, when considered as one single power or state, with the emperor at his head, is of no great political consequence in Europe ; because, from the inequality, and weak connection of its parts, and the different nature of their government, from the insignificancy of its ill composed army, and above all from the different views and interests of its matters, it is next to impossible its force should be united, compact and uniform.

THE NETHERLANDS, OR FLANDERS.

Miles Length 200

Between {499 and 52° North Latitude

20 and 70 East Longitude.

Boundaries.] B fouth and Welt, by France and the English Sea.

OUNDED ; Divifions.] This country is divided into ten provinces, named,

Provinces.
Brabant, belonging to the Dutch and Austrians,

Anemon} fubje&to the house of Austria

Chief Towns. S Breda, Brussels. Antwerp.

Limburg,

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Proiunces

Chief Town. Limburgb, belonging to the Dutch and Austrians,

Limburg. Luxemburg, Austrian and French,

Luxemburg Namur, middle parts belonging to Austria,

Namur Hainault, Austrian and French,

Mons. Cambrefis, subject to France,

Cambray, Artois, subject to France,

Arras

Ghent,
Flanders, {be

belonging to the Dutch, Austrians and
French

Oftend. Inhabitants and religion.) The Netherlands are inhabited by about 1,500,000 fouls. The Roman Catholic is the established religion ; but Protestants and Jews are not molested.

Manufa&tures.] Their principal manufactures are, fine lawns, cambricks, lace and tapestry, with which they carry on a very advantageous traffic, especially with England, from whence it is computed, they receive a balance of half a million annually in time of peace.

Chief towns.[ BRUSSELS is the chief town of Brabant and the capi. tal of Flanders. Here the best camblets are made, and most of the fine laces which are worn in every part of the world.

Antwerp, once the emporium of the European continent, is now reduced to be a tapestry and thread-lace shop. One of the first exploits of the Dutch, foon after they shook off the Spanish yoke, was to ruin at once the commerce of Antwerp, by sinking vessels loaded with stone in the mouth of the river Scheldt : thus fhutting up the entrance of that river to ships of burden. This was the more cruel, as the people of Antwerp had been their friends and fellow-sufferers in the cause of liberty.

Hiftory.] Flanders, originally the country of the ancient Belga, was conquered by Julius Cæsar forty-seven years before Christ ; paffed into the hands of France A. D. 412 ; and was governed by its earls, subject to that crown from 864 to 1360. By marriage it then came into the house of Austria ; but was yielded to Spain in 1556.-Shook off the Spanish yoke 1572, and in the year 1725, by the treaty of Vienna, was annexed to the German empire:

HOLLAND, OR THE UNITED PROVINCES.

Sq. Mil.

1801 Between.

10,000

Miles. Length

51° 20' and 53° 30' N. Lat Breadth 145 S

12° 7° East Longitud. OUNDED east, by Germany ;

; man Ocean. Containing 113 towns, 1400 yillages.

Divided

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Country of Drenthe, under the protection of the United Provinces.
Lands of the Generality, commonly called Dutch Brabant.

Wealth and Commerce.] The seven United Provinces afford a striking
proof, that unwearied and persevering industry is capable of conquering
every disadvantage of climate and situation. The air and water are
bad; the soil naturally produces scarcely any thing but turf; and the pos-
session of this foil, poor as it is, is disputed by the ocean, which, rising
considerably above the level of the land, can only be prevented by strong
and expensive dykes, from overflowing a spot which seems to be stolen
from its natural domains. Notwithstanding these difficulties, which
might seem insurmountable to a less industrious people, the persevering
labours of the patient Dutchmen have rendered this small, and seemingly
insignificant territory, one of the richest spots in Europe, both with ref-
pect to population and property. In other countries which are poffefied
of a variety of natural productions, we are not surprised to find manufac-
tures employed in multiplying the riches which the bounty of the soil
bestows. But to see, in a country like Holland, large woollen manu-
factures, where there are scarely any flocks ; numberless artists employed
in metals, where there is no mine ; thousands of saw-mills, where there
is scarcely any forest; an immense quantity of corn exported from a
country where there is not agriculture enough to support one half of its
inhabitants, must strike every observer with admiration. Among the
most valuable productions of this country may be reckoned their excel.
lent cattle. They export large quantities of madder, a vegetable much
used in dying. Their fisheries yield a clear profit of many millions of
Aorins. The trade of Holland extends to almost every part of the
world, to the exclusion, in some branches, of all their European como
petitors.

Capital.] AMSTERDAM, which is built on piles of wood, and is one of the most commercial cities in the world. It has more than one half the trade of Holland ; and, in this celebrated centre of an immense commerce, a bank is established of that fpecies, called a Giro bank, of very great wealth and greater credit.

Government.] Since the great confederation of Utrecht, made in the year 1579, the Seven United Provinces may be looked on as one political body, united for the preservation of the whole, of which each single province is governed by its own laws, and exercises most of the rights of a sovereign state. In consequence of the union, the Seven Provinces guarantee each others rights, they make war and peace, they levy taxes, &c. in their joint capacity ; but as to internal government, each province is independent of the other provinces, and of the supreme power of the republic. The provinces rank in the order they are mentioned. They {end deputies, chosen out of the provincial states, to the general assembly,

called

called the States General, which is invested with the supreme legislative power of the confederation. Each province may send

as many members as it pleafes, but it has only one voice in the assembly of the states. de cording to the latest regulations, that afsembly is composed of 58 deputies. At the head of this republican government, is the Prince Stadtholder or Governor, who exercises a very considerable part of the executive power of the state.

Religion.] The Calvanist or Reformed Religion is established in Holland: but others are tolerated.

None but Calvinists can hold any employment of trust or profit. The church is governed by presbyteries and fynods. Of the latter there are nine for single provinces, and one national fynod, subject, however, to the controul of the States General. The French and Walloon Calvinists have fynods of their own. In the seven provinces are 1579 ministers of the established church, 20 of the Walloon church, 800 Roman Chatholic, 53 Lutheran, 43 Arminian, and 312 Baptist ministers. In the East Indies there are 46, and in the West Indies 9 ministers of the established church.

Hfiory.] These provinces were originally an assemblage of several lordships, dependant upon the kings of Spain; from whose yoke they withdrew themselves during the reign of Philip II. in the year 1579, under the conduct of the Prince of Orange, and formed the republic now called the Seven United provinces, of Holland, that being the most remarkable province. The office of stadtholder, or captain-general of the United Provinces, was made hereditary in the Prince of Orange's family, not excepting females, 1747

POLAND AND

LITHUANIA.

Miles.
Length 700} Between {160 and 340 East Longitude.

-469 and 57° North Latitude. Boundaries.

EFORE the extraordinary partition of this country by

the king of Pruffia, aided by the emperor and empress queen, and the emprefs of Russia, which event happened since the year 1771, the kingdom of Poland, with the dutchy of Lithuania annexed, was bounded north, by Livonia, Muscovy, and the Baltic; eaft, by Muscovy, fouth, by Hungary, Turkey, and Little Tartary; west, by Germany, Containing 230 towns.

In Poland, are villages 2,377, convents of nuns 86, noblemen's estates 22,032, abbeys 37, convents of monks 579, houses in general 1,674,328, peasants 1,243,000, Jews 500,000.

Divisions.] The kingdom of Poland contains 155 towns, and is divided into, 1. Great Poland, which is subdivided into 12 districts, called Woidwodships. 2. Little Poland three woidwodships. 3. Polachia,

three

three counties, 4. Chelm, remaining part of Red Russia. 5. Podolia and Bratzaw. 6. Kow. 7. Volhynia. 8. The great dutchy of Lithuania, which includes White Ruffia, Black Rullia, Polesia, and the dutchy of Szamaite.

Wealth and Commerce.] Poland is one of the weakest states in Europe, owing to the oppression of the trades people in the towns, and the slavery of the peasantry. If the skill of the natives in agriculture, bore any proportion to the fertility of the soil, Poland might be one of the richest countries in the world; for though a large part of it lies uncultivated, it exports no inconsiderable quantity of corn. Want of industry and of freedom, are the chief reasons that the balance of trade is so much against Poland. The exports are corn, hemp, flax, horses, cattle, (about 100,000 oxen every year) peltry, timber, metals, manna, wax, honey. &c. the value of them in the year 1777, amounted to riearly 30 millions of dollars. The imports, consisting chiefly in wine, cloth, filk, hardware, gold, silver, East and West India goods, were supposed to amount to no less than 47 millions of dollars.

Government.] Since the late revolution, the government of Poland is aristocratical. Its nominal head is an elective king, so limited, that in public acts he is often called only the first order of the republic. On being elected he is obliged immediately to sign the Paxa Conventa of Poland. The sovereign power is vested in the hands of the three orders of the state, the king, the senate and the nobility.

Religion.] The established religion is the Roman Catholic, Protestants, to whom the name of diffidents is now confined, are tolerated. The power of the pope

and of the priests is very great.. Capital.] WARSAW, situated on the river Vistula, in the center of Po

Por land, containing 50,000 inhabitants.

History.] Poland was anciently the country of the Vandals, who emi. grated from it to invade the Roman empire. It was erected into a dutchy, of which Lechus was the first duke, A. D. 694. In his time the use of gold and silver was unknown to his subjects, their commerce being carried on only by exchange of goods. It became a kingdom in the year 1000; Otho III. emperor of Germany, conferring the title of king on Boleslaus I. Red Russia was added to this kingdom by Boleslaus II. who married the heiress of that country, A. D. 1059. Dismembered by the emperor of Germany, the empress of Russia, and the king of Prussia, who, by a partition treaty, seized the most valuable territories, 1772.

P R U S S I

I Α.

TH

"HE countries belonging to this monarchy, are scattered, and with.

out any natural connection. The kingdom of Prussia is bounded aorth, by part of Samogitia ; fouth, by Poland Proper and Masovia, caft, by part of Lithuania; west, by Polish Pruffia and the Baltic; 160

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