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travellers cannot but observe the air of content and satisfaction which appears in the countenances of the inhabitants. A taste for literature is prevalent amongst them, from the highest to the lowest rank. These are the happy consequences of a mild republican government.
Religion.] The established religions are calvinism and popery; though in some doćtrinal points, they differ much from Calvin. Their sentiments on religious toleration are much less liberal, than upon civil goWernment.
Government.] Switzerland comprehends thirteen cantons, that is, so many different republics, all united in one confederacy, for their mutual preservation. The government is partly aristocratical, and partly democratical. Every canton is absolute in its own jurisdićtion But whether the government be aristocratical, democratical or mixed, a general spirit of liberty pervades and ačtuates the whole, constitutions. The real interests of the people appear to be attended to, and they enjoy a degree of happiness, not to be expected in despotic governments.
History..] The old inhabitants of this country were called Helvetii ; they were defeated by Julius Caesar; 57 years before Christ, and the territory remained subječt to the Romans, till it was conquered by the Alcmans, German emigrants, A. D. 395 ; who were expelled by Clovis, king of France, in 496. It underwent another revolution in 888, being made part of the kingdom of Burgundy. In Io92, it was given
by the last king of Burgundy, to Conrad II. emperor of Gerslany;
from which time it was held as part of the empire, till the year 1307, when a very fingular revolt delivered the Swiss cantons from the German yoke. Grisler, governor of these provinces for the emperor Albert, having ordered one William Tell, an illustrious Swiss patriot, under pain of death, to shoot at an apple, placed on the head of one of his children, he had the dexterity, though the distance was very considerable, to strike it off without hitting the child. The tyrant perceiving that he had another arrow under his cloak, asked him for what purpose ; to which he boldly replied, ‘To have shot you to the heart, if I’d had the misfortune to kill my son. The enraged governor ordered him to be hanged, but his fellow citizens, animated by his fortitude and patriotism, flew to arms, attacked and vanquished Grisler, who was shot dead by Tell, and the independency of the several states of this country, now called the Thirteen Cantons, under a republican form of government, took place immediately ; which was made perpetual by a league among themselves, in the year 1315; and confirmed by a treaty with the other powers of Europe 1649. Seven of these cantons are Roman catholics, and six protestants.
Boundaries Bo north, by the German Ocean, Denmark, - and the Baltic ; east, by Poland and Hungary; south by Switzerland and the Alps, which divide it from Italy; west, by the dominions of France and the Low Countries, from which it is separated by the Rhine, Moselle, and the Mease. Divisions.] The German empire is divided into ten circles, viz.
Circles. Population. Circles. Population. Upper Saxony 3,700,Coo Burgundy 1,880,000 Lower Saxony 2, too, Ooo Franconia 1,000,ooo Westphalia 2,300,ooo Swabia 1,800,ooo Upper Rhine I,000,000 Bavaria 1,600,000 Lower Rhine J; I do,000 Austria, 4, 82,000
The kingdom of Bohemia, divided into 16 circles 2,266,ooo
The Marquisate of Moravia, in 5 circles, I, I 37,000 The Marquisate of Lusatia, (belonging to the eleētor of
Silesia (belonging to the Roman empire) 1,800,000
Produáions and Commerce..] From the advantageous situation and the great extent of Germany ; from the various appearance of the soil, the number of its mountains, forests and large rivers, we should be led to expect what we actually find, a great variety and plenty of useful produćtions. The northern, and chiefly the north-eastern parts, furnish many sorts of peltry, as skins of foxes, bears, wolves, squirrels, lynxes, wild-cats, boars, &c. The southern parts produce excellent wines and fruits ; and the middle provinces great plenty of corn, cattle and minerals. Salt is found in Cermany in greater abundance and purity than in most other countries.
If the Germans are inferior to the English in the manufactures of cloth, hardware, and in the articles of luxury, it must be accounted for from the political situation of their country: The great number of princes, the variety of the forms of government, the different interests and mutual jealousies of the petty states, operate as checks on the commerce and prosperity of the whole ; and the difficulty of obtaining their concurrence in measures of general utility, is frequently the cause, why there are so few canals and good roads, to fascilitate travelling and inland trade.
Government.] The German empire, which till the year 843, was connečted with France, now forms a state by itself, or may be connected as a combination of 300 sovereignties, independent of each other, but composing one political body under an elective head, called the Emperor of Germany, or the Roman Emperor. All other sovereigns allow him the first rank among the European monarchs. Eight princes of the empire, called Ele&tors, have the right of electing the Emperor. The electors are divided into ecclesiastical and temporal.