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travellers cannot but observe the air of content and satisfaction which appears in the countenances of the inhabitants. A taste for literature is prevalent amongst them, from the highest to the lowest rank. These are the happy consequences of a mild republican government.

Religion.] The established religions are calvinism and popery; though in some doctrinal points, they differ much from Calvin. Their fentiments on religious toleration are much less liberal, than upon civil government.

Government.] Switzerland comprehends thirteen cantons, that is, so many different republics, all united in one confederacy, for their mutual preservation. The government is partly aristocratical, and partly democratical. Every canton is absolute in its own jurisdiction. But whe. ther the government be aristocratical, democratical or mixed, a general spirit of liberty pervades and actuates the whole, constitutions. The real interests of the people appear to be attended to, and they enjoy a degree of happiness, not to be expected in despotic governments.

History.] The old inhabitants of this country were called Helvetii they were defeated by Julius Cæsar; 57 years before Christ, and the territory remained subject to the Romans, till it was conquered by the Alemans, German emigrants, A. D. 395 ; who were expelled by Clovis, king of France, in 496. It underwent another revolution in 888, being made part of the kingdom of Burgundy. In 1032, it was given by the last king of Burgundy, to Conrad II. emperor of Germany; from which time it was held as part of the empire, till the year 1307, when a very singular revolt delivered the Swiss cantons from the German yoke. Griller, governor of these provinces for the emperor Albert, having ordered one William Tell, an illustrious Swiss patriot, under pain of death, to Ahoot at an apple, placed on the head of one of his children, he had the dexterity, though the distance was very confiderable, to strike it off without hitting the child. The tyrant perceiving that he had another arrow under his cloak, asked him for what purpose to which he boldly replied, • To have shot you to the heart, if I'd had the misfortune to kill my son. The enraged governor ordered him to be hanged, but his fellow citizens, animated by his fortitude and patriotism, flew to arms, attacked and vanquished Griser, who was shot dead by Tell, and the independency of the several states of this country, now called the Thirteen Cantons, under a republican form of government, took place immediately ; which was made perpetual by a league among themselves, in the year 1315 ; and confirmed by a treaty with the other powers of Europe 1649. Seven of these cantons are Roman catholics, and fix protestants.

TURKEY

TURKE Y in Europe.

Miles,
Length roon?
Breadth 900s

Between {37 and 40 * Evald Longitude.

OUNDED north, by tis, Hellefpont and Archipelagosouth, by the Mediterranean Sca; west, by the same fea, and the Venetian and Austrian territories.

Soil, Air and Productions. ] Nature has been lavish of her blellings upon the inhabitants of Turkey in those particulars. The soil, though unimproved by the indolence of the Turks, is luxuriant beyond descrip tion. The air is falubrious and friendly to the imagination, unless cor

upted by the neighbouring countries, or through the uncleanliness of its inhabitants. The seasons are here regular and pleasant, and have been celebrated from the remotest times of antiquity. The Turks are invited to frequent bathings, by the purity and wholsomeness of the water, in every part of their dominions. Raw silk, cotton, oil, leather, tobacco, cake-soap, honey, wax, manna, and various fruits and drugs, are produced here in plenty.

Chief Cities.] CONSTANTINOPLE, the capital of this empire, stands on the west side of the Bosphorus, in the provinte of Romania, was rew built by the emperor Constantine in the fourth century, who transferred hither the seat of the Roman government ; upon his death it obtained the name of Conftantinople.

It is of a triangular shape, washed by the sea on two sides, and rising gradually from the shore, in the form of an amphitheatre. The view of it from the harbour is confeffedly the finest in the world, exhibiting a multitude of magnificent mosques or temples, with their domes and miparets, and the seraglio intermixed with gardens and groves of evergreens. The expectations excited by this prospect, however, are disappointed on entering the city, where we find the streets narrow, the houses of the common people low and built of boards, and the palaces of the great men concealed by high walls before them. The city is furrounded by a wall aboat twelve miles in circumference, and the suburbs are very extensive. It contains 1,000,000 fouls, of which 200,000 are Greeks, 40,000 Armenians, and 60,000 Jews.

Mountains.] In Theffaly, besides mount Olympus, which the ancients esteemed one of the highest mountains in the world, are those of Pelion and Offa, mentioned so often by the poets ; between these mountains, lie the ce.ebrated plains of Tempe, represented by the ancients as equal to the Elysian Fields.

Religion.] The eftablished religion in this empire is the Mahometan, of the sect of the Sunnites. All other religions are tolerated on paying a certain capitation. Among the Christians residing in Turkey, those of the orthodox Greeks are the most numerous, and they enjoy, among other privileges, that of being adyanced to dignities and posts of

trust

tralt and profit. The Turkish clergy are numerous, being composed of all the learned in the empire, and are the only teachers of the law, and must be consulted in all important cases.

Government.] The Turkish emperor, who is usually called the Grand Seignior, has an unlimited power over the lives and fortunes of his subjects. But this he exercises chiefly towards his ministers and officers of state. Their laws in general are equitable, if duly executed, but justice is frequently bought and fold.

Charader.] A Turk, or Persian, contemplates his emperor with fear and reverence, as a superior being, to whose pleasure it is his duty to submit, as much as unto the laws of nature and the will of Providence.

History ] The Ottoman empire, or sovereignty of the Turkish empire, was founded at Constantinople by Othman I. upon the total destruction of the empire of the eastern Greeks in the year 1300, who was succeeded by a race of the most warlike princes that are recorded in history. The Turkish throne is hereditary in the family of Osman. The present Ottoman, or Turkish emperor, is Abdelhamet, or Achmet III. w! had been in confinement forty-four years. He succeeded his brother Multapha III. January 21, 1774.

HUNGARY, belonging to the House of Austria.

Miles.

Sq. M.

Breadth 3.00} Between {179 and 23° Eat Longitude.

245° and 49° North Latitude.

{36,060

OUNDED by ; Austria and Moravia. Divided into Upper Hungary, north of the Danube ; and Lower Hungary, south of the Danube.

Population.] See table of Europe.

Air, foil and produce.] The air in the southern parts of Hungary is very unhealthy, owing to stagnated waters in lakes and marshes. The air in the northern parts is more serene and healthy. The soil in some parts is very fertile, and produces almost every kind of fruits. They have a fine breed of moase coloured horses, much esteemed by military officers,

Religion.] The established religion in Hungary is the Roman Catholic, though the greater part of the inhabitants are Protestants or Greeks ; and they now enjoy the full exercise of their religious liberties.

Government.] By the constitution of Hungary, the crown is still held to be elective. This point is not disputed. All that is insisted on is, that the heir of the house of Austria fhall be elected as often as a vacancy happens.

The regalia of Hungary, consisting of the crown and sceptre of St. Stephen, the first king, are deposited in Presburg. These are carefully

secured by seven locks, the keys of which are kept by the same num, ber of Hungarian noblemen. No prince is held by the populace as le gally their sovereign, till he be crowned with the diadem of king Stephen; and they have a notion that the fate of their nation depends upon this crown's remaining in their poffeffion; it has therefore been always removed in times of danger, to places of the greatest safety.

Chief Towns.] Presburgh in Upper Hungary, is the capital of the whole kingdom. It is well built on the Danube, and, like Vienna, has subarbs more magnificent than itself. In this city the states of Hungary hold their assemblies, and in the cathedral church the sovereign is crowned.

History.] This kingdom is the ancient Pannonia. Julius Cæsar was the first Roman that attacked Hungary, and Tiberius subdued it. The Goths afterwards took it ; and in the year 376, it became a prey to the Huns and Lombards. It was annexed to the empire of Germany under Charlemagne, but became an independent kingdom in 920. It was the seat of bloody wars between the Turks and Germans, from 1540 to 1739, when, by the treaty of Belgrade, it was ceded to the latter, and is now annexed to the German empire. Formerly it was an assemblage of different states, and Stephen was the first who assumed the title of king, in the year 997. He was distinguished with the appellation of Saint, because he first introduced chriltianity into this country:

The present fovereign is Leopald II. who succeeded his brother, the late em peror, Joseph II.

G E R M A N Y,

Miles
Length 6001 Between
Breadth 5205

45° 4' and 54° 40' North Latitude,
50 and 190 Eatt Longitude.

north, by the B

Baltic ; east, by Switzerland and the Alps, which divide it from Italy ; west, by the dominions of France and the Low Countries, from which it is separated by the Rhine, Moselle, and the Mease.

Divisions. ] The German empire is divided into ten circles, viz.
Circles.
Population. Circles.

Population. Upper Saxony 3,700,000 Burgundy

1,880,000 Lower Saxony 2,100,000 Franconia

1,000,000 Westphalia 2,300,000 Swabia

1,800,000 Upper Rhine 1,000,000 Bavaria

1,600,000 Lower Rhine

1,100,000
Austria,

Besides

4,182,000

Besides these ten circles there belong also to the German empire,

Population. The kingdom of Bohemia, divided into 16 circles

2,266,000 The Marquisate of Moravia, in 5 circles,

1,137,000 The Marquisate of Lusatia, (belonging to the elector of Saxony)

400,000 Silesia ( belonging to the Roman empire)

1,800,000

Productions and Commerce.] From the advantageous situation and the great extent of Germany ; from the various appearance of the soil, the number of its mountains, forests and large rivers, we should be led to expect what we actually find, a great variety and plenty of useful

productions. The northern, and chiefly the north-eastern parts, furnish many sorts of peltry, as skins of foxes, bears, wolves, squirrels, lynxes, wild-cats, boars, &c.The southern parts produce excellent wines and fruits ; and the middle provinces great plenty of corn, cattle and minerals. Salt is found in Cermany in greater abundance and purity than in most other countries.

If the Germans are inferior to the English in the manufactures of cloth, hardware, and in the articles of luxury, it must be accounted for from the political situation of their country: The great number of princes, the variety of the forms of government, the different interests and mutual jealousies of the petty states, operate as checks on the commerce and prosperity of the whole ; and the difficulty of obtaining their concurrence in measures of general utility, is frequently the cause, why there are so few canals and good roads, to fascilitate travelling and inland trade.

Government.] The German empire, which till the year 843, was con nected with France, now forms a state by itself, or may be connected as a combination of 300 sovereignties, independent of each other, but composing one political body under an elective head, called the Emperor of Germany, or the Roman Emperor. All other sovereigns allow him the first rank among the European monarchs. Eight princes of the empire, called Electors, have the right of electing the Emperor. The elec. tors are divided into ecclesiastical and temporal.

The Archbishop of Mentz,
The Archbishop of Treves
The Archbihop of Cologne.

Ecclesiastical.

The King or Elector of Bohemia,
The Eector of the Palatine of Ba-

varia,
The Elector of Saxony,
The Elector of Brandenburgh,
The Elector of Brunswick, (Hano,

ver) Temporal.

The emperor, upon his election, engages to protect the Roman Catholic religion and the Holy see. He is lord paramount of the Roman empire, of whom the princes are supposed to hold their dominions in fee... He has power to assemble the Diet, over which he he presides in person or by his commissary, and of ratifying their resolutions by his confirmation-He is supreme judge-has power to confer titles of nobility-to establish post offices throughout the empire, to give charters to the uni

versities,

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