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in almost every branch of scientific knowledge and elegant 'literature, There are 20 universities in France. The royal academies of sciences, of the French language, and of inscriptions and antiquities at Paris, are justly celebrated. History..] France was originally the country of the ancient Gauls, and was conquered by the Romans twenty-five years before Christ. The Goths, Vandals, Alans, and Suevi, and afterwards the Burgundi, divided it amongst them from A.1). 4oo to the 476, when the Franks, another set of German emigrants, who had settled between the Rhine and the Maine, completed the foundation of the present kingdom under Clovis. It was conquered, except Paris, by Edward III. of England, between 1341 and 1359. In 1320 an entire conquest was made by Henry V. who was appointed regent, during the life of Charles VI, acknowledged heir to the crown of France, and homage paid to him accordingly. The English crown lost all its possessions in France during the reign of Henry VI. between 1434 and 1450. The present king of this empire, is Lewis XVI. who was born Aug. 23, 1754; married Maria Antonietta of Austria, May 16, 1770; acceded to the throne upon the death of his grand-father Lewis XV. May Io, 1774; and was crowed at Rheims, June 12, 1775.
To the Emperor, }: To France, Corsica Island,
To the republic ) Istria,
of Venice. Dalmatia,
Popes dominions. Isles of Dalmatia.
Islands in the Venetian dominions.
Air, Soil, and Prodnăuons.] Italy is the most celebrated country in Europe, having been formerly the seat of the Roman empire; and is at present of the Pope. The country is so fine and fruitful, that it is commonly
-called the garden of Europe. The air is temperate and wholesome, ex
cepting the territory of the church, where it is very indifferent. The soil
is fertile, and produces wheat, rice, wine, oil, oranges and all sorts of
fruits, flowers, honey, silk; and in the kingdom of Naples are cotton and
sugar. The forests are full of all kinds of game. On the mountains are
fine pastures, which feed great numbers of cattle.
Inhabitants and Characier.] Italy contains between 12 and 13 millions
of inhabitants. The Italians excel in complaisant, obliging behaviour
to each other, and affability to foreigners; observing a medium between
the levity of the French, and the starch'd gravity of the Spaniards, and
are by far the soberest people that are to be found in the christian world.
though they abound in the choicest of wines. Nothing of luxury is to
be seen at the tables of the great. They are generally men of wit, and
have a genius for the arts and sciences; nor do they want application.
Music, poetry, painting, sculpture and archite&ture are their favourite
studies, and there are no people on the face of the earth who have brought
them to greater perfection. But they are amorous, and addićted to cri-
minal indulgences, revengeful, and masters of the art of disfimulation.
The women say they only desire good features; they can make their com-
plexion what they #:
Religion.] The Italians are zealous professors of the doćtrine of the
church of Rome. The Jews are here tolerated in the public exercise of
their religion. The natives, either in reverence to the Pope, or by being
industriously kept in ignorance of the protestant doćtrines, entertain mon-
strous notions of all the dissenters from the church of Rome. The inqui-
sition here is little more than a sound. In Naples there are 20 archbishops,
107 bishops: in Sicily 3 archbishops, and 8 bishops. In the year 1782.
there were in Naples alone, 45,525 priests, 24,694 monks, 20,793 nuns:
In 1783, government resolved to dissolve 466 convents of nuns.
Chief City.] Rome, once the capital of the world, is now the chief city
in Italy. It contained, in the year 1714, 143,000 inhabitants, and is
situated upon the river Tyber. It was founded by Romulus 75o years
before Christ, and was formerly three times as large as at present; and is
now one of the largest and handsomest cities in Europe.
Mountahs.] Mount Vesuvius, in the kingdom of Naples, and Etna, in
Sicily, are remarkable for their fiery eruptions, which frequently bury
whole cities in their ruins.
K k 2 Govean-
of the inhabitants of Switzerland. On the first entrance into this country, travellers