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to the northward of the Straits of Gibraltar, is the great emporiam of Spain, and contains 86,000 inhabitants.
Wealth and commerce.] The advantages of Spain, as to climate, soil, natural productions, rivers, navigation, and foreign poffeffions, which are immensely rich, ought to raise this monarchy high above all other powers of Europe. Yet the reverse is the case: Spain is but thinly peopled-has but little commerce-few manufactures--and hât conımerce it has, is almost entirely in the hands of strangers, notwithstanding the impediments thrown in their way by the government
Spain produces excellent oranges, lemons, almonds, figs, grapes, pome. granates, dates, pistachios, capers, chesnuts,-tobacco, foda, faffron, honey, falt, faltpetre, wines of a rich and delicious flavour ; cotton, rice; corn, oil, wool, silk, hemp, flax, &c. which with proper industry, might be exported to an amazing amount. And
And yet all the exports of Spain, most articles of which no other country can supply, are estimated at only £-3,333,333 sterling. Spain does not produce coin enough for its own confumption, and is under the necessity of importing large quantities.
Government.] Spain is an absolute monarchy. The provinces of Navarre, Biscay, and Arragon, have preserved some of their ancient privileges. The king's ediets must be registered in the court of Castile, before they acquire the force of laws. The crown is hereditary both in the male and female fine. By a law made in 1715, female heirs cannot fucceed till after the whole male line is extinct.
Religion.] The Roman Catholic religion, to the exclusion of all others, is the religion of the Spanish monarchy ; and it is, in these countries, of the most bigotted, superstitious, and tyrannical character. All other denominations of Christianis, as well as Jews, are exposed to all the severities of persecution. The power of the courts of Inquisition, established in Spain in 1578, has been diminished, in some respects, by the interference of the civil power. It is supposed that the clergy of this kingdom amount to 200,000, half of whom are monks and nuns, distributed in 3000 con
The revenue of the archcishop of Tolledo is 300,000 ducats. There are in the kingdom of Spain 8 archbishops, 46 bishops ; in America 6 archbishops and 28 bishops ; in the Philippine ines, one archbishop and 3 bilhops. All these dignities are in the gift of the king.
Fifty-two inferior ecclefiaftical dignities and offices are in the gift of the pope.
History.] The first inhabitants of Spain were the Celtæ, a poeple of Gaul; after them the Phoenicians posseffed themselves of the moft southern parts of the country, and may well be fuppofed to have been the first civilizers of this kindom, and the founders of the most ancient cities. After these followed the Grecians ; then the Carthaginians, on whose departure, fixteen years before Christ, it became subject to the Romans, till the year 400, when the Goths, Vandals, Suevi, Alans, and Siliingi, on Conftantine’s withdrawing his forces from that kingdom to the east, invaded it, and divided it amongit themselves ; but the Goths in a little time were sole masters of it under their king ALARICK I, who founded the Spanish monarchy. After a regular succession of monarchs, we come w the present king CHARLES IVa who afcended the throne in 1788.
F R A N C E.
452 and 51° North Latitude.
Boundaries. B Netherlands ; reality by Germany, Switzerland, and
north, Italy; south, by the Mediterranean and Spain ; west, by the Bay of Biscay. Containing 400 cities, 1500 smaller towns, 43,000 parishes, 100,000 villages.
Climate, Soil, Rivers, Commerce, &c.] France is situated in a very mild climate. Its soil in most parts is very fertile ; it is bounded by high ridges of mountains, the lower branches of which cross the greater part of the kingdom ; it consequently abounds with large rivers, such as the Rhone, the Loire, the Garonne, the Seine, &c. to the amount of 200, which are navigable ; and it is contiguous to two oceans. These united advantages render this kingdom one of the richest countries in Europe, both with respect to natural productions and commerce. Wine is the staple commodity of France. One million fix hundred thousand acres of ground are laid out in vineyards; and the neat profit from each acre is estimated at from 4 to 7 pounds sterling. France annually exports wines to the amount of 24 millions of livers. The fruits and other productions of France do not much differ from those of Spain, but are raised in much greater plenty. France has very important fisheries, both on her own, and on the American coast.
*In 1773, there were in France 1500 filk mills, 21,000 looms for filk Auffs, 12,000 for ribands and lace, 20,000 for filk stockings, and the different lilk manufactures employed 2,000,000 of people.
In point of commerce, France may be ranked next to England and Holland. The French have the greatest share of the Levant trademthey enjoy some valuable commercial privileges in Turkey--but their Weft. Indian poffeffions, which are admirably cultivated and governed, are the richert. Before the late American war, the balance of commerce in favour of France was estimated at 70,000,000 livres, and has not since been diminished.
Government.] This is a point which is not yet settled. When a per. manent government shall be fixed, we shall give an accurate delineation of it in a future edition.
Religion.] The establithed religion of this kingdom is the Roman Catholic; but all others are now tolerated.
In France there are 18 archbishops, 111 bishops, 166,000 clergymen.
Learning. ] The sciences have arisen to a very great height in this kingdom, and this nation can boast of having produced great mafter pieces
in almost every branch of scientific knowledge and elegant 'literature, There are 20 universities in France. The royal academies of sciences, of the French language, and of inseriptions and antiquities at Paris, are justly celebrated.
History. ] France was originally the country of the ancient Gauls, and was conquered by the Romans twenty-five years before Christ. The Goths, Vandals, Alans, and Suevi, and afterwards the Burgundi, divided it amongst them from A. D. 400 to the 476, when the Franks, another fet of German emigrants, who had settled between the Rhine and the Maine, completed the foundation of the present kingdom under Clovis. It was conquered, except Paris, by Edward III. of England, between 1341 and 1359. In 1320 an entire conquest was made by Henry V. who was appoiated regent, during the life of Charles VI. acknowledged heir to the crown of France, and homage paid to him accordingly, The English crown lost all its possessions in France during the reign of Henry VI. between 1434 and 1450.
The present king of this empire, is Lewis XVI. who was born Aug. 23, 1754; marrieá Maria Antonietta of Austria, May 16, 1770; ac. ceded to the throne upon the death of his grand-father Lewis XV. May 10, 1774; and was crowed at Rheims, June 12, 1775.
I T A L Y.
Between $ 38 and 47° North Latitude.
70 and 19° East Longitude. TALY is a large peninsula, shaped like a boot and spur; and is bounded
north, by the Alps, which divide it from France and Switzerland; east, by the gulpb of Venice, or Adriatic sea ; south and west, by the Mediterranean sea.
The whole of the Italian dominions comprehending Corsica and Sardinia, are divided as follows:
Milan, To the Emperor, Mantua,
Illes of Dalmatia.
Air, Soil, and Prodnaliuons.] Italy is the most celebrated country in Europe, having been formerly the seat of the fRoman empire ; and is at present of the Pope. The country is so fine and fruitful, that it is commonly -called the garden of Europe. The air is temperate and wholesome, excepting the territory of the church, where it is very indifferent. The foil is fertile, and produces wheat, rice, wine, oil, oranges and all sorts of fruits, flowers, honey, silk; and in the kingdom of Naples are cotton and sugar. The forests are full of all kinds of game. On the mountains are fine pastures, which feed great numbers of cattle.
Inhabitants and Character. ] Italy contains between 12 and 13 millions of inhabitants. The Italians excel in complaisant, obliging behaviour to each other, and affability to foreigners; observing a medium between the levity of the French, and the starch'd gravity of the Spaniards, and are by far the soberedt people that are to be found in the christian world, though they abound in the choiceft of wines. Nothing of luxury is to be seen at the tables of the great. They are generally men of wit, and have a genius for the arts and sciences; nor do they want application. Music, poetry, painting, sculpture and architecture are their favourite studies, and there are no people on the face of the earth who have brought them to greater perfection. But they are amorous, and addicted to criminal indulgences, revengeful, and masters of the art of diffimulation. The women say they only desire good features ; they can make their com, plexion what they pleafe.
Religion.] The Italians are zealous professors of the doctrine of the church of Rome. The Jews are here tolerated in the public exercise of their religion. The natives, either in reverence to the Pope, or by being industriously kept in ignorance of the protestant doctrines, entertain monftrous notions of all the dissenters from the church of Rome. The inquie lition here is little more than a found. In Naples there are 20 archbishops, 107 bishops : in Sicily 3 archbishops, and 8 bishops. In the year 1982, there were in Naples alone, 45,525 priests, 24,694 monks, 20,793 nuns: In 1783, government resolved to dissolve 466 convents of nuns.
Chief City. ] Rome, once the capital of the world, is now the chief city in Italy. It contained, in the year 1714, 143,000 inhabitants, and is situated upon the river Tyber. It was founded by Romulus 750 years before Chrift, and was formerly three times as large as at present; and is now one of the largest and handsomest cities in Europe.
Alountatus.] Mount Vesuvius, in the kingdom of Naples, and Atna, in Sicily, are (remarkable for their fiery eruptions, which frequeatly bury whole cities in their ruins. K k 2
Government.] The government of Venice is aristocratical, under a chief magistrate called a Doge, who is said to be a king as to robes, a senator in the council-house, a prisoner within the city, and a private man out of it.
There are many different sovereignties in Italy. It is divided into little republics, principalities, and dukedoms, which, in spiritual matters, are subject to the Pope, who, like the ghost of the deceased Roman empire, fits crowned
upon grave. History.] The æra of the foundation of Rome begins April 20, 753 years before the birth of Christ. Authors generally allign the honour to Romulus its first king, who was but eighteen years old. He was a wise, courageous and politic prince.
St. Peter is placed at the head of the popes or bishops of Rome, in the 33d year of the common æra. The present pope is Pius VI. erected February 15, 1775.
SW I T E R L A N D.
Length 360 } Between
69 and 11° Eaft Longitude. 45° and 48° North Latitude.
rife in the Alps.
; , France.
Cities. Bern, on the river Aar, is the most considerable city in Switzerland. Basil, on the banks of the Rhine, contains 220 streets, and by fome is reckoned the capital of all Switzerland.
Rivers. ] The principal rivers are the Rhine and Rhone, both of which
Air, Soil and Productions.] This country is full of mountains ; on the tops of some of them the snow remains the year round; the air of consequence is keen, and the frosts fevere. In the summer the inequality of the soil renders the same province very unequal in its seasons. On one side of the mountains, called the Alps, the inhabitants are often reaping, while they are fowing on the other. The vallies, however, are warm, fruitful, and well cultivated The water of Switzerland is excellent, descending from the mountains in beautiful cataracts, which have a most pleasing and delightful effect. Its productions are, sheep, cattle, wine, flax, wheat, barley, apples, peaches, cherries, chesnuts and plumbs.
Population and Chara&ter) For the number of inhabitants, fee table of Europe.
The Swiss are a brave, hardy, industrious people, remarkable for their fidelity, and their zealous attachment to the liberties of their country. A general fimplicity of manners, an open, unaffected frankness, together with an invincible fpirit of freedom, are the most distinguishing characteristics of the inhabitants of Switzerland. On the first entrance into this country,